Twist1 (twist family bHLH transcription factor 1) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Twist1 (twist family bHLH transcription factor 1) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Twist1
Name: twist family bHLH transcription factor 1
RGD ID: 621455
Description: Predicted to enable several functions, including E-box binding activity; histone deacetylase binding activity; and protein homodimerization activity. Involved in several processes, including bone development; positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation; and roof of mouth development. Predicted to be located in nucleus. Biomarker of pulmonary hypertension and rheumatic heart disease. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in Sweeney-Cox syndrome; breast cancer (multiple); and synostosis (multiple). Orthologous to human TWIST1 (twist family bHLH transcription factor 1); PARTICIPATES IN hypoxia inducible factor pathway; INTERACTS WITH 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 6-propyl-2-thiouracil; ammonium chloride.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Twist; twist basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1; twist gene homolog 1; twist gene homolog 1 (Drosophila); twist gene homolog, (Drosophila); twist homolog 1; twist homolog 1 (Drosophila); twist-related protein 1
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2650,674,910 - 50,676,904 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl650,674,678 - 50,677,653 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx650,955,709 - 50,957,706 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0651,270,651 - 51,272,648 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0650,726,837 - 50,728,832 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0653,401,241 - 53,403,235 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl653,401,109 - 53,403,214 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0663,023,523 - 63,025,517 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4652,605,869 - 52,607,863 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1652,609,172 - 52,609,784 (+)NCBI
Celera649,841,416 - 49,843,227 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6q16NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2-ethylhexan-1-ol  (ISO)
3-Nitrobenzanthrone  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-(N-nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)butan-1-one  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (ISO)
afimoxifene  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
belinostat  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calcitriol  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cordycepin  (ISO)
coumestrol  (ISO)
crizotinib  (ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
diallyl trisulfide  (ISO)
dieckol  (ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
endosulfan  (ISO)
Enterolactone  (ISO)
erlotinib hydrochloride  (ISO)
finasteride  (EXP)
flurbiprofen  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
fonofos  (ISO)
gefitinib  (ISO)
glucose  (ISO)
Honokiol  (ISO)
isobutanol  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lapatinib  (ISO)
losartan  (ISO)
LY294002  (ISO)
malathion  (ISO)
melatonin  (ISO)
mercury dibromide  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea  (EXP)
niclosamide  (ISO)
nicotine  (ISO)
nisin  (ISO)
osimertinib  (ISO)
ouabain  (ISO)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
ozone  (ISO)
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid  (ISO)
Pachymic acid  (ISO)
panobinostat  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
parathion  (ISO)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
poly(I:C)  (EXP)
progesterone  (ISO)
quartz  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
reparixin  (ISO)
SB 203580  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
serpentine asbestos  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sorafenib  (ISO)
stattic  (ISO)
sunitinib  (ISO)
Swertiamarin  (EXP)
terbufos  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP)
tetraethylenepentamine  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
thymoquinone  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triticonazole  (EXP)
undecane  (EXP)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vorinostat  (ISO)
zearalenone  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
aortic valve morphogenesis  (ISO)
bone development  (IEP)
cardiac neural crest cell development involved in outflow tract morphogenesis  (ISO)
cardiac neural crest cell migration involved in outflow tract morphogenesis  (ISO)
cell proliferation involved in heart valve development  (ISO)
cellular response to growth factor stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to hypoxia  (ISO)
cranial suture morphogenesis  (ISO)
developmental process  (IBA)
embryonic camera-type eye formation  (ISO)
embryonic cranial skeleton morphogenesis  (ISO)
embryonic digit morphogenesis  (ISO)
embryonic forelimb morphogenesis  (ISO)
embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis  (ISO)
embryonic limb morphogenesis  (ISO)
embryonic skeletal system morphogenesis  (ISO)
endocardial cushion morphogenesis  (ISO)
energy homeostasis  (ISO)
eyelid development in camera-type eye  (ISO)
hindlimb morphogenesis  (ISO)
in utero embryonic development  (ISO)
mitral valve morphogenesis  (ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IDA,IMP,ISO)
negative regulation of cell differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of cellular senescence  (ISO)
negative regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator  (ISO)
negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (ISO)
negative regulation of double-strand break repair  (ISO)
negative regulation of macrophage cytokine production  (ISO)
negative regulation of miRNA transcription  (ISO)
negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
negative regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction  (ISO)
negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development  (ISO)
negative regulation of striated muscle tissue development  (ISO)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (ISO)
neural tube closure  (ISO)
neuron migration  (ISO)
ossification  (ISO)
osteoblast differentiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell migration  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell motility  (ISO)
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription initiation  (ISO)
positive regulation of endocardial cushion to mesenchymal transition involved in heart valve formation  (ISO)
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation  (IMP)
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition  (ISO)
positive regulation of fatty acid beta-oxidation  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
positive regulation of interleukin-6 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production  (ISO)
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (ISO)
regulation of bone mineralization  (ISO)
regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IBA)
roof of mouth development  (IEP)
stem cell differentiation  (ISO)

Cellular Component
nucleus  (ISO)

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Endochondral and intramembranous fetal bone development: osteoblastic cell proliferation, and expression of alkaline phosphatase, m-twist, and histone H4. Alborzi A, etal., J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1996 Apr-Jun;16(2):94-106.
2. R-twist gene expression during rat palatogenesis. Bloch-Zupan A, etal., Int J Dev Biol. 2001 Apr;45(2):397-404.
3. Gene expression profiling of pulmonary fibrosis identifies Twist1 as an antiapoptotic molecular "rectifier" of growth factor signaling. Bridges RS, etal., Am J Pathol. 2009 Dec;175(6):2351-61. Epub 2009 Nov 5.
4. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
5. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
6. TWIST-1 is overexpressed in neoplastic choroid plexus epithelial cells and promotes proliferation and invasion. Hasselblatt M, etal., Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15;69(6):2219-23. Epub 2009 Mar 10.
7. FOXA1 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma progression by suppressing PIK3R1 expression in male patients. He S, etal., J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Dec 6;36(1):175. doi: 10.1186/s13046-017-0646-6.
8. Mutations in TWIST, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, in Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Howard TD, etal., Nat Genet. 1997 Jan;15(1):36-41.
9. Twist is a potential oncogene that inhibits apoptosis. Maestro R, etal., Genes Dev 1999 Sep 1;13(17):2207-17.
10. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
11. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
12. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
13. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
14. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary hypertension. Ranchoux B, etal., Circulation. 2015 Mar 17;131(11):1006-18. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.008750. Epub 2015 Jan 15.
15. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
16. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
17. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
18. Comprehensive gene review and curation RGD comprehensive gene curation
19. Information Derived from GenBank Report RGD, Sept. 2003
20. Activation of activin/Smad2 and 3 signaling pathway and the potential involvement of endothelial‑mesenchymal transition in the valvular damage due to rheumatic heart disease. Xian S, etal., Mol Med Rep. 2021 Jan;23(1):10. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2020.11648. Epub 2020 Nov 12.
21. Twist1 promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis by silencing Foxa1 expression. Xu Y, etal., Oncogene. 2017 Feb 23;36(8):1157-1166. doi: 10.1038/onc.2016.286. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:7664846   PMID:7729687   PMID:7958419   PMID:8889548   PMID:8988167   PMID:9520323   PMID:10567574   PMID:10700192   PMID:10749989   PMID:11350121   PMID:12142027   PMID:12175489  
PMID:12221714   PMID:12270142   PMID:12477932   PMID:14645221   PMID:15030764   PMID:15162501   PMID:15545268   PMID:16100003   PMID:16502419   PMID:16831897   PMID:16888803   PMID:17003487  
PMID:17070479   PMID:17332324   PMID:17332325   PMID:17690110   PMID:17893140   PMID:18297062   PMID:18539270   PMID:19345188   PMID:19597909   PMID:20007935   PMID:20804746   PMID:24011070  
PMID:25981568   PMID:30938209   PMID:31539631   PMID:32309849   PMID:34461141   PMID:34616033  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2650,674,910 - 50,676,904 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl650,674,678 - 50,677,653 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx650,955,709 - 50,957,706 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0651,270,651 - 51,272,648 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0650,726,837 - 50,728,832 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0653,401,241 - 53,403,235 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl653,401,109 - 53,403,214 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0663,023,523 - 63,025,517 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4652,605,869 - 52,607,863 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1652,609,172 - 52,609,784 (+)NCBI
Celera649,841,416 - 49,843,227 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6q16NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38719,113,047 - 19,117,636 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl719,020,991 - 19,117,636 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37719,152,670 - 19,157,259 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36719,121,616 - 19,123,820 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34718,928,330 - 18,930,265NCBI
Celera719,134,693 - 19,136,894 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7p21.1NCBI
HuRef719,039,766 - 19,041,695 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1719,155,871 - 19,158,073 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0719,242,984 - 19,247,572 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
CRA_TCAGchr7v2719,206,542 - 19,208,746 (-)NCBI
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391234,007,670 - 34,009,830 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1234,007,670 - 34,009,828 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381233,957,671 - 33,959,831 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1233,957,671 - 33,959,829 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371234,642,536 - 34,644,696 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361234,542,918 - 34,545,078 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1235,391,139 - 35,393,299 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12A3NCBI
cM Map1214.81NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0NW_00495541022,003,981 - 22,005,483 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1772,265,343 - 72,268,909 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0719,761,041 - 19,765,665 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1719,086,842 - 19,088,398 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1432,910,643 - 32,912,659 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01433,303,139 - 33,305,160 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1433,304,421 - 33,305,047 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11433,412,240 - 33,414,258 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01433,113,407 - 33,115,426 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01433,429,893 - 33,431,914 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440511877,655,541 - 77,657,763 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365465,331,863 - 5,332,555 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365465,331,220 - 5,332,669 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl988,289,407 - 88,290,015 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1988,286,911 - 88,290,131 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2997,326,044 - 97,329,330 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.12139,040,178 - 39,042,384 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl2139,040,547 - 39,041,146 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366604265,498,692 - 65,500,893 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462473911,352,141 - 11,352,809 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462473911,352,040 - 11,354,019 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Twist1
3 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:409
Count of miRNA genes:207
Interacting mature miRNAs:248
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2301972Bp325Blood pressure QTL 3254.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)6172227641Rat
1300164Rf15Renal function QTL 153.12renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)6507449754641141Rat
4145119Mcs25Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 250.0001mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)ratio of deaths to total study population during a period of time (CMO:0001023)610894415110548006Rat
1578665Bss16Bone structure and strength QTL 164.4femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)bone trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0002311)61173566972593685Rat
1578668Bmd14Bone mineral density QTL 143.8femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)61173566972593685Rat
10401812Kidm54Kidney mass QTL 54kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)61436878859368788Rat
10401800Kidm49Kidney mass QTL 49kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)61436878859368788Rat
1576309Emca7Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 74mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)615107216107351382Rat
2292589Emca10Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 100.048mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)post-insult time to mammary tumor formation (CMO:0000345)61653614061536140Rat
1354664Slep2Serum leptin concentration QTL 24.49blood leptin amount (VT:0005667)serum leptin level (CMO:0000780)61653614071636405Rat
1641898Colcr4Colorectal carcinoma resistance QTL43.710.0007intestine integrity trait (VT:0010554)well differentiated malignant colorectal tumor surface area measurement (CMO:0002077)62033877762613667Rat
2293839Kiddil2Kidney dilation QTL 24.8kidney pelvis morphology trait (VT:0004194)hydronephrosis severity score (CMO:0001208)62086642281133036Rat
2293841Kiddil4Kidney dilation QTL 44.4kidney pelvis morphology trait (VT:0004194)hydronephrosis severity score (CMO:0001208)62086642281133036Rat
1331779Rf38Renal function QTL 382.876kidney blood vessel physiology trait (VT:0100012)absolute change in renal vascular resistance (CMO:0001900)63207442872227641Rat
634318Bw118Body weight QTL 1183.55abdominal fat pad mass (VT:1000711)abdominal fat pad weight (CMO:0000088)63330954957730294Rat
6893340Cm77Cardiac mass QTL 770.260.57heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)63330954981132889Rat
1300143Rf14Renal function QTL 142.92renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)63443413777102317Rat
1354632Scl29Serum cholesterol level QTL 293.74blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)63509870971636405Rat
634307Bp141Blood pressure QTL 1414arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)63523041780230417Rat
70199Coreg1Compensatory renal growth QTL 111.8kidney mass (VT:0002707)compensatory renal growth score (CMO:0001894)63569161857730540Rat
9590290Uminl2Urine mineral level QTL 23.960.001urine mineral amount (VT:0015086)urine electrolyte level (CMO:0000593)63878398983783989Rat
9590306Scort18Serum corticosterone level QTL 182.880.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)63878398983783989Rat
9590140Scort4Serum corticosterone level QTL 414.490.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)63878398983783989Rat
634330Pia16Pristane induced arthritis QTL 163.9joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)arthritic paw count (CMO:0001460)645790088104200226Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2650,676,275 - 50,676,463 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0653,402,607 - 53,402,794NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0663,024,889 - 63,025,076UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4652,607,235 - 52,607,422UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera649,842,599 - 49,842,786UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map6q16UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2650,675,415 - 50,675,755 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0653,401,747 - 53,402,086NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0663,024,029 - 63,024,368UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4652,606,375 - 52,606,714UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera649,841,739 - 49,842,078UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map6q16UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 12 6 6 6 8 10 32
Low 3 31 17 2 16 2 7 10 65 25 8 9 7
Below cutoff 33 32 3 32 1 1 1 1 2 1


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000014763   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000014763
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl650,674,678 - 50,677,653 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl653,401,109 - 53,403,214 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_053530   ⟹   NP_445982
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2650,674,910 - 50,676,904 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.0653,401,241 - 53,403,235 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.0663,023,523 - 63,025,517 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4652,605,869 - 52,607,863 (+)RGD
Celera649,841,416 - 49,843,227 (+)NCBI
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_445982 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAF73469 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAI66412 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  CAC20861 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_445982   ⟸   NM_053530
- UniProtKB: Q9EPJ1 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000014763   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000014763
Protein Domains

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-Q9EPJ1-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold Q9EPJ1 1-203 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:621455 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-37822 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000011101 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000014763 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOP00000014763.3 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000014763 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000014763.7 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro HLH_DNA-bd_sf UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:85489 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR23349:SF64 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Twist1 PhenoGen
Superfamily-SCOP HLH_basic UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2013-11-11 Twist1  twist family bHLH transcription factor 1  Twist1  twist basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2013-01-02 Twist1  twist basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1  Twist1  twist homolog 1 (Drosophila)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-11-11 Twist1  twist homolog 1 (Drosophila)  Twist1  twist gene homolog 1 (Drosophila)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2005-01-20 Twist1  twist gene homolog 1 (Drosophila)  Twist  twist gene homolog, (Drosophila)  Symbol and Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-08-07 Twist  twist gene homolog, (Drosophila)      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL