Thbd (thrombomodulin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Thbd (thrombomodulin) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Thbd
Name: thrombomodulin
RGD ID: 621299
Description: Predicted to enable calcium ion binding activity and transmembrane signaling receptor activity. Involved in response to X-ray; response to cAMP; and response to lipopolysaccharide. Located in apicolateral plasma membrane; extracellular space; and vacuolar membrane. Used to study acute kidney failure. Biomarker of adult respiratory distress syndrome; hypertension; ischemia; and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including acute kidney failure; atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome; cerebrovascular disease (multiple); rheumatoid arthritis; and thrombophilia (multiple). Orthologous to human THBD (thrombomodulin); PARTICIPATES IN protein C anticoagulant pathway; coagulation cascade pathway; complement system pathway; INTERACTS WITH (S)-colchicine; 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: thrombomdulin
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: Thbdm1Mcwi  
Genetic Models: SS-Thbdm1Mcwi
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr83156,316,526 - 156,320,178 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.23135,863,366 - 135,867,018 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl3135,862,835 - 135,867,193 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx3139,806,359 - 139,810,012 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.03148,390,492 - 148,394,145 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.03146,088,993 - 146,092,645 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.03142,748,673 - 142,752,325 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl3142,748,674 - 142,752,325 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.03149,159,895 - 149,163,547 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.43137,158,955 - 137,162,607 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.13137,064,528 - 137,068,180 (-)NCBI
Celera3134,707,185 - 134,710,838 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q41NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (IDA,ISO)
Acute Liver Failure  (IEP)
Acute Lung Injury  (IEP,ISO)
acute promyelocytic leukemia  (ISO)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (IEP,ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
ankylosing spondylitis  (ISO)
asthma  (ISO)
atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome  (ISO)
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  (ISO)
Brain Injuries  (ISO)
brain small vessel disease  (ISO)
carotid artery thrombosis  (ISO)
cerebral infarction  (ISO)
coronary artery disease  (ISO)
Coronary Disease  (ISO)
Crohn's disease  (ISO)
dermatomyositis  (ISO)
disseminated intravascular coagulation  (ISO)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions  (ISO)
end stage renal disease  (ISO)
Endotoxemia  (IEP,ISO)
Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis  (ISO)
Experimental Arthritis  (ISO)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (IEP,ISO)
familial combined hyperlipidemia  (ISO)
familial mediterranean fever  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
granulomatosis with polyangiitis  (ISO)
Habitual Abortions  (ISO)
Heat Stroke  (ISO)
hemolytic-uremic syndrome  (ISO)
hemorrhagic disease  (ISO)
Hyperalgesia  (ISO)
hypertension  (IEP,ISO)
hypothyroidism  (ISO)
idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  (ISO)
impotence  (ISO)
Inflammation  (ISO)
Insulin Resistance  (ISO)
ischemia  (IEP)
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis  (ISO)
kidney disease  (ISO)
liver disease  (ISO)
lung non-small cell carcinoma  (ISO)
Metabolic Syndrome  (ISO)
Multiple Organ Failure  (ISO)
myocardial infarction  (ISO)
obesity  (ISO)
Painful Neuropathy  (ISO)
pulmonary embolism  (ISO)
pulmonary hypertension  (ISO)
Reperfusion Injury  (ISO)
rheumatoid arthritis  (ISO)
Sepsis  (IEP)
severe acute respiratory syndrome  (ISO)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (ISO)
Stomach Neoplasms  (ISO)
Stroke  (ISO)
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome  (ISO)
systemic lupus erythematosus  (ISO)
thrombocytopenia  (ISO)
Thromboembolism  (ISO)
thrombophilia  (ISO,ISS)
thrombophilia due to thrombomodulin defect  (ISO)
thrombosis  (ISO)
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura  (ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (IEP,ISO)
ulcerative colitis  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(S)-colchicine  (EXP)
1,1,1-Trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (EXP)
1-nitropyrene  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid  (ISO)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (ISO)
acetamide  (EXP)
aconitine  (EXP)
acrylamide  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
Aflatoxin B2 alpha  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP)
amphibole asbestos  (EXP)
antirheumatic drug  (ISO)
aripiprazole  (ISO)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[b]fluoranthene  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
butan-1-ol  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
calcitriol  (ISO)
candesartan  (EXP)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carbonyl sulfide  (EXP)
carmustine  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
ciguatoxin CTX1B  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
cobalt atom  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
crotonaldehyde  (ISO)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
dimethylarsinic acid  (ISO)
dimethylarsinous acid  (ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
diquat  (EXP)
diuron  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
elemental selenium  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
ethanol  (EXP)
ethylparaben  (ISO)
fenvalerate  (EXP)
fluoranthene  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
folpet  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
gestodene  (ISO)
glucose  (ISO)
hydralazine  (EXP)
indometacin  (ISO)
isobutanol  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
LY294002  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methyl methacrylate  (ISO)
methylarsonic acid  (ISO)
methylisothiazolinone  (ISO)
mevalonic acid  (ISO)
N-nitrosodimethylamine  (EXP)
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine  (ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (EXP)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
ozone  (EXP,ISO)
paclitaxel  (ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
paricalcitol  (ISO)
pentachlorophenol  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
phosphorus atom  (ISO)
phosphorus(.)  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium chromate  (ISO)
pravastatin  (EXP,ISO)
pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile  (ISO)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propanal  (ISO)
rac-lactic acid  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
selenium atom  (ISO)
serpentine asbestos  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
simvastatin  (ISO)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP)
tamibarotene  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
temozolomide  (ISO)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP)
tremolite asbestos  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
troglitazone  (ISO)
tungsten  (ISO)
Tungsten carbide  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
venlafaxine hydrochloride  (EXP)
vincaleukoblastine  (EXP)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vincristine  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
zaragozic acid A  (EXP,ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc sulfate  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and decreased tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thrombomodulin levels in children with hypothyroidism. Alioglu B, etal., J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2012 Sep;4(3):146-50. doi: 10.4274/Jcrpe.652.
2. Relationship between plasma soluble thrombomodulin levels and insulin resistance syndrome in type 2 diabetes: a comparison with von Willebrand factor. Aso Y, etal., Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2001;109(4):210-6.
3. Inflammation, TNFalpha and endothelial dysfunction link lenalidomide to venous thrombosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Aue G, etal., Am J Hematol. 2011 Oct;86(10):835-40. doi: 10.1002/ajh.22114. Epub 2011 Aug 2.
4. Decrease in circulating endothelial cell adhesion molecule and thrombomodulin levels during oral iloprost treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients: preliminary results. Boehme MW, etal., Rheumatol Int. 2006 Feb;26(4):340-7. Epub 2005 Feb 8.
5. Cholinesterase inhibitors exert a protective effect on endothelial damage in Alzheimer disease patients. Borroni B, etal., J Neurol Sci. 2005 Mar 15;229-230:211-3. Epub 2004 Dec 8.
6. Increased immunohistochemical expression of thrombomodulin at placental perivascular myofibroblast in severe preeclampsia (PE). Bosco C, etal., Histol Histopathol. 2005 Oct;20(4):1045-55.
7. Mechanisms of anticoagulant and cytoprotective actions of the protein C pathway. Bouwens EA, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Jun;11 Suppl 1:242-53. doi: 10.1111/jth.12247.
8. The association of idiopathic recurrent pregnancy loss with polymorphisms in hemostasis-related genes. Cao Y, etal., Gene. 2013 Nov 10;530(2):248-52. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.07.080. Epub 2013 Aug 14.
9. Thrombomodulin Ala455Val Polymorphism and the risk of cerebral infarction in a biracial population: the Stroke Prevention in Young Women Study. Cole JW, etal., BMC Neurol. 2004 Dec 1;4(1):21.
10. Plasma biomarker profiles in acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Collard HR, etal., Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010 Jul;299(1):L3-7. Epub 2010 Apr 23.
11. Alterations in endothelial thrombomodulin expression in zymosan-induced lung injury. Cone JB, etal., J Trauma. 2003 Apr;54(4):731-6; discussion 736.
12. The anticoagulant protein C pathway. Dahlback B and Villoutreix BO, FEBS Lett. 2005 Jun 13;579(15):3310-6. Epub 2005 Mar 13.
13. Localization of thrombomodulin in pericryptal fibroblasts of the rat duodenum. Daimon T and Okuma Y, Histochem Cell Biol. 2004 Apr;121(4):311-7. Epub 2004 Mar 18.
14. Immunocytochemical localization of thrombomodulin in the aqueous humor passage of the rat eye. Daimon T, etal., Histochem Cell Biol. 1997 Aug;108(2):121-31.
15. Upregulation of Inflammatory Mediators in End-Stage Renal Disease as Measured Using Biochip Array Technology. Davis R, etal., Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2011 Aug 25.
16. Erectile and endothelial dysfunction in Type II diabetes: a possible link. De Angelis L, etal., Diabetologia. 2001 Sep;44(9):1155-60.
17. Thrombomodulin mutations in atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Delvaeye M, etal., N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 23;361(4):345-57. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0810739.
18. Anchoring fusion thrombomodulin to the endothelial lumen protects against injury-induced lung thrombosis and inflammation. Ding BS, etal., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Aug 1;180(3):247-56. Epub 2009 Apr 2.
19. Serum thrombomodulin in systemic lupus erythematosus and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. el-Gamal YM, etal., Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2004 Jun;15(3):270-7.
20. The protein C pathway. Esmon CT, Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3 Suppl):26S-32S.
21. Neuroprotective effects of recombinant thrombomodulin in controlled contusion spinal cord injury implicates thrombin signaling. Festoff BW, etal., J Neurotrauma. 2004 Jul;21(7):907-22.
22. Prothrombotic markers in familial combined hyperlipidemia: evidence of endothelial cell activation and relation to metabolic syndrome. Georgieva AM, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2004 Aug;175(2):345-51.
23. Neuropathologic evidence of endothelial changes in cerebral small vessel disease. Giwa MO, etal., Neurology. 2011 Dec 14.
24. Endothelial expression of transcription factor Kruppel-like factor 2 and its vasoprotective target genes in the normal and cirrhotic rat liver. Gracia-Sancho J, etal., Gut. 2011 Apr;60(4):517-24. Epub 2010 Nov 26.
25. In vivo and in vitro effects of the anticoagulant, thrombomodulin, on the inflammatory response in rodent models. Hagiwara S, etal., Shock. 2010 Mar;33(3):282-8.
26. Recombinant thrombomodulin prevents heatstroke by inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 protein in sera of rats. Hagiwara S, etal., Shock. 2010 Oct;34(4):402-6.
27. Impact of alpha-tocopherol and vitamin C on endothelial markers in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Haidara MA, etal., Med Sci Monit. 2004 Feb;10(2):BR41-6.
28. The effects of recombinant human thrombomodulin on endotoxin-induced multiple-system organ failure in rats. Hasegawa N, etal., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Jun;153(6 Pt 1):1831-7.
29. Markers of endothelial cell activation in elderly men at high risk for coronary heart disease. Hjerkinn EM, etal., Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2005;65(3):201-9.
30. Effect of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin on clinical outcomes of patients with coagulopathy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ikezoe T, etal., Eur J Haematol. 2013 Nov;91(5):442-7. doi: 10.1111/ejh.12188. Epub 2013 Oct 1.
31. Effects of a novel peptide derived from human thrombomodulin on endotoxin-induced uveitis in vitro and in vivo. Jin H, etal., FEBS Lett. 2011 Nov 4;585(21):3457-64. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2011.10.002. Epub 2011 Oct 10.
32. Low soluble thrombomodulin activity and antigen is associated with a family history of heart disease while a high level is associated with a personal history of heart disease in type 2 diabetes. Konstantoulas CJ, etal., Thromb Haemost. 2007 Jan;97(1):161-4.
33. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide decreases thrombomodulin expression in the sinusoidal endothelial cells of rats -- a possible mechanism of intrasinusoidal microthrombus formation and liver dysfunction. Kume M, etal., J Hepatol. 2003 Jan;38(1):9-17.
34. Clinical significance of selected endothelial activation markers in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Kuryliszyn-Moskal A, etal., J Rheumatol. 2008 Jul;35(7):1307-13. Epub 2008 May 15.
35. Zhongguo wei zhong bing ji jiu yi xue = Chinese critical care medicine = Zhongguo weizhongbing jijiuyixue Li YP, etal., Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2007 Jun;19(6):365-8.
36. Decreased expression of thrombomodulin is correlated with tumor cell invasiveness and poor prognosis in nonsmall cell lung cancer. Liu PL, etal., Mol Carcinog. 2010 Oct;49(10):874-81.
37. Elevated plasma tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and soluble thrombomodulin in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as a possible index for prognosis and treatment strategy. Liu ZH, etal., Biomed Environ Sci. 2005 Aug;18(4):260-4.
38. [Expression of thrombomodulin, endothelial protein C receptor in lung tissue of acute paraquat poisoned rats and intervention of sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate]. Lu ZQ, etal., Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2009 Aug;27(8):453-6.
39. Impaired flow-mediated vasodilation, carotid artery intima-media thickening, and elevated endothelial plasma markers in obese children: the impact of cardiovascular risk factors. Meyer AA, etal., Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):1560-7.
40. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
41. Hepatic expression and serum levels of thrombomodulin reflect the extent of liver injury in rats with fulminant hepatic failure and extensive hepatectomy. Miyamoto S, etal., Hepatol Res. 2002 Mar;22(3):206-213.
42. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin decreases the plasma high-mobility group box-1 protein levels, whereas improving the acute liver injury and survival rates in experimental endotoxemia. Nagato M, etal., Crit Care Med. 2009 Jul;37(7):2181-6.
43. Recombinant thrombomodulin protects mice against histone-induced lethal thromboembolism. Nakahara M, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Sep 30;8(9):e75961. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075961. eCollection 2013.
44. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
45. Relative role of genetic complement abnormalities in sporadic and familial aHUS and their impact on clinical phenotype. Noris M, etal., Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Oct;5(10):1844-59. doi: 10.2215/CJN.02210310. Epub 2010 Jul 1.
46. Enhanced production of endothelial microparticles with increased binding to leukocytes in patients with severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Ogura H, etal., J Trauma. 2004 Apr;56(4):823-30; discussion 830-1.
47. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
48. Intrarenal administration of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin ameliorates ischaemic acute renal failure. Ozaki T, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Jan;23(1):110-9. Epub 2007 Sep 5.
49. Circulating thrombomodulin levels in familial Mediterranean fever. Ozbalkan Z, etal., Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2006 Sep-Oct;24(5 Suppl 42):S95-8.
50. Thrombomodulin and antibeta2-glycoprotein I in stroke in children. Pilarska E, etal., Med Sci Monit. 2010 Jul;16(7):CR348-51.
51. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
52. Human thrombomodulin knock-in mice reveal differential effects of human thrombomodulin on thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Raife TJ, etal., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Nov;31(11):2509-17.
53. Soluble Thrombomodulin Reduces Inflammation and Prevents Microalbuminuria Induced by Chronic Endothelial Activation in Transgenic Mice. Rajashekhar G, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011 Nov 30.
54. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
55. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
56. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
57. Comprehensive gene review and curation RGD comprehensive gene curation
58. Markers for endothelial dysfunction, but not markers for oxidative stress correlate with classical risk factors and the severity of coronary artery disease. (A subgroup analysis from the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health Study). Ruef J, etal., Scand Cardiovasc J. 2006 Oct;40(5):274-9.
59. Hypertension associated with reduced plasma thrombomodulin levels and a hypercoagulable state in rats. Sawada K, etal., Clin Exp Hypertens. 2003 Feb;25(2):73-84.
60. Crucial role of the protein C pathway in governing microvascular inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. Scaldaferri F, etal., J Clin Invest. 2007 Jul;117(7):1951-60.
61. Soluble thrombomodulin protects ischemic kidneys. Sharfuddin AA, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 Mar;20(3):524-34. Epub 2009 Jan 28.
62. Reduction expression of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase in dermatomyositis. Shen GL, etal., Neuropathology. 2007 Aug;27(4):309-13.
63. Age-dependent vulnerability to endotoxemia is associated with reduction of anticoagulant factors activated protein C and thrombomodulin. Starr ME, etal., Blood. 2010 Jun 10;115(23):4886-93. Epub 2010 Mar 26.
64. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
65. The thrombomodulin analog Solulin promotes reperfusion and reduces infarct volume in a thrombotic stroke model. Su EJ, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2011 Jun;9(6):1174-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04269.x.
66. Elevation of intracellular cAMP up-regulated thrombomodulin mRNA in cultured vascular endothelial cells derived from spontaneous type-II diabetes mellitus model rat. Sunagawa M, etal., Endothelium. 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):325-33.
67. Non-viral in vivo thrombomodulin gene transfer prevents early loss of thromboresistance of grafted veins. Tabuchi N, etal., Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004 Nov;26(5):995-1001.
68. Inhibition of allergic bronchial asthma by thrombomodulin is mediated by dendritic cells. Takagi T, etal., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan 1;183(1):31-42. Epub 2010 Aug 13.
69. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin prevents peripheral HMGB1-dependent hyperalgesia in rats. Tanaka J, etal., Br J Pharmacol. 2013 Nov;170(6):1233-41. doi: 10.1111/bph.12396.
70. Evaluation of various endothelial biomarkers in ankylosing spondylitis. Taylan A, etal., Clin Rheumatol. 2012 Jan;31(1):23-8. Epub 2011 May 10.
71. Soluble thrombomodulin as a predictor of type 2 diabetes: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg case-cohort study, 1984-1998. Thorand B, etal., Diabetologia. 2007 Mar;50(3):545-8. Epub 2006 Dec 29.
72. Separation and characterization of the molecular species of thrombomodulin in the plasma of diabetic patients. Uehara S, etal., Thromb Res. 2001 Dec 1;104(5):325-32.
73. Expression of the endothelial thrombomodulin (TM) on the ischemic rat flap model: preliminary study. Uygur F, etal., Ann Plast Surg. 2009 Jun;62(6):693-8.
74. The lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin interferes with complement activation and protects against arthritis. Van de Wouwer M, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2006 Aug;4(8):1813-24.
75. Clinical and immunoserological characteristics of mixed connective tissue disease associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Vegh J, etal., Scand J Immunol. 2006 Jul;64(1):69-76.
76. Deficiency of microvascular thrombomodulin and up-regulation of protease-activated receptor-1 in irradiated rat intestine: possible link between endothelial dysfunction and chronic radiation fibrosis. Wang J, etal., Am J Pathol 2002 Jun;160(6):2063-72.
77. cDNA cloning and sequencing, gene expression, and immunolocalization of thrombomodulin in the Sprague-Dawley rat. Wang J, etal., DNA Res 1999 Feb 26;6(1):57-62.
78. [Is soluble thrombomodulin a molecular marker of endothelial cell injury in children and adolescents with arterial hypertension?] Wojtkielewicz K, etal., Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 2):893-902.
79. Treatment effects of recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin in patients with severe sepsis: a historical control study. Yamakawa K, etal., Crit Care. 2011;15(3):R123. Epub 2011 May 11.
80. Synergistic association of metabolic syndrome and overt nephropathy with elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine in serum and impaired cutaneous microvasodilation in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yamamoto R and Aso Y, Diabetes Care. 2006 Apr;29(4):928-30.
81. Thrombomodulin and tissue factor pathway inhibitor in endocardium of rapidly paced rat atria. Yamashita T, etal., Circulation 2003 Nov 18;108(20):2450-2. Epub 2003 Nov 10.
82. Cerebral endothelial injury in elderly patients with severe head injury measured by serum thrombomodulin and von Willebrand factor. Yokota H, etal., Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 2007 Sep;47(9):383-8; discussion 388.
83. Lack of the lectin-like domain of thrombomodulin worsens Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome in mice. Zoja C, etal., J Immunol. 2012 Oct 1;189(7):3661-8. Epub 2012 Aug 31.
84. Clinical implications of serum thrombomodulin in PR3-ANCA-associated vasculitis. Zycinska K, etal., Eur J Med Res. 2009 Dec 7;14 Suppl 4:268-70.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:7846065   PMID:10565546   PMID:17379830   PMID:19299737   PMID:19680809   PMID:20472895   PMID:25109347   PMID:26923576  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr83156,316,526 - 156,320,178 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.23135,863,366 - 135,867,018 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl3135,862,835 - 135,867,193 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx3139,806,359 - 139,810,012 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.03148,390,492 - 148,394,145 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.03146,088,993 - 146,092,645 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.03142,748,673 - 142,752,325 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl3142,748,674 - 142,752,325 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.03149,159,895 - 149,163,547 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.43137,158,955 - 137,162,607 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.13137,064,528 - 137,068,180 (-)NCBI
Celera3134,707,185 - 134,710,838 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q41NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh382023,045,633 - 23,049,672 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl2023,045,633 - 23,049,672 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh372023,026,270 - 23,030,309 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 362022,974,270 - 22,978,301 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 342022,974,270 - 22,978,301NCBI
Celera2023,099,650 - 23,103,681 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map20p11.21NCBI
HuRef2022,987,792 - 22,991,823 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_12023,026,970 - 23,031,001 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.02023,105,114 - 23,109,153 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm392148,246,391 - 148,250,108 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl2148,246,386 - 148,250,108 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm382148,404,471 - 148,408,188 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl2148,404,466 - 148,408,188 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv372148,230,207 - 148,233,924 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv362148,095,912 - 148,099,544 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera2149,679,568 - 149,683,285 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2G3NCBI
cM Map273.45NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0NW_00495541530,222,830 - 30,226,406 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v22123,923,797 - 23,935,661 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan12023,920,631 - 23,932,503 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v02022,992,341 - 22,996,415 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.12023,343,758 - 23,347,966 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl2023,345,917 - 23,347,812 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.124599,773 - 601,649 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl24599,773 - 601,649 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha24624,590 - 626,466 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.024996,254 - 998,130 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl24996,254 - 998,130 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.124595,131 - 597,007 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.024697,184 - 699,060 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.024978,557 - 980,433 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024408640149,143,805 - 149,147,659 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0NW_0049366202,563,900 - 2,568,117 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1730,217,303 - 30,224,099 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11730,219,870 - 30,223,499 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21734,274,132 - 34,277,761 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1252,041,950 - 52,045,946 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl252,043,746 - 52,045,626 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660786,853,490 - 6,857,509 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla 1.0NW_00462474122,880,481 - 22,883,962 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Thbd
4 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:108
Count of miRNA genes:85
Interacting mature miRNAs:93
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
70216Cm14Cardiac mass QTL 142.1heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)331172320163586636Rat
2301970Bw81Body weight QTL 815.19body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)341874578155617519Rat
2301971Cm71Cardiac mass QTL 714.63heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight (CMO:0000776)341874578155617519Rat
1559282Emca5Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 53.9mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)percentage of study population developing mammary tumors during a period of time (CMO:0000948)343827364169034231Rat
2292591Esta4Estrogen-induced thymic atrophy QTL 4thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus wet weight (CMO:0000855)347233211147415807Rat
1581568Rf53Renal function QTL 53urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine protein excretion rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001099)356395968161299569Rat
8662816Vetf4Vascular elastic tissue fragility QTL 44renal artery integrity trait (VT:0010642)number of ruptures of the internal elastic lamina of the renal arteries (CMO:0002563)359242096157323038Rat
1581546Pur13Proteinuria QTL 132.930.0335urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine protein excretion rate (CMO:0000759)378196190146592722Rat
8694437Bw167Body weight QTL 16722.460.001retroperitoneal fat pad mass (VT:0010430)retroperitoneal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000635)391797474136797474Rat
631841Niddm39Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 393.36blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)394856903159898684Rat
724532Cm17Cardiac mass QTL 172heart mass (VT:0007028)calculated heart weight (CMO:0000073)395735366140735366Rat
1354611Despr2Despair related QTL 23.030.0028locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of time spent in voluntary immobility (CMO:0001043)397084464142084464Rat
2293087Iddm27Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 272.68blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)397551417147415807Rat
2312659Slep7Serum leptin concentration QTL 70.001blood leptin amount (VT:0005667)serum leptin level (CMO:0000780)398535255168026850Rat
2312670Bw94Body weight QTL 940.01inguinal fat pad mass (VT:0010424)inguinal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0001253)398535255168026850Rat
2312673Scl63Serum cholesterol level QTL 630.001blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)398535255168026850Rat
2302373Gluco39Glucose level QTL 395.01blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)398535386161695835Rat
619618Rf3Renal disease susceptibility QTL 36.50.001urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001270)3107693393152693393Rat
1578754Stresp16Stress response QTL 1640.001blood renin amount (VT:0003349)plasma renin activity level (CMO:0000116)3112681431157681431Rat
1576306Schws3Schwannoma susceptibility QTL 30.001nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)percentage of study population developing trigeminal nerve neurilemmomas during a period of time (CMO:0002017)3118839124163839124Rat
1598877Bp285Blood pressure QTL 2851.50.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)3120538241165538241Rat
1300173Rf11Renal function QTL 113.38renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)3121056165145956249Rat
1300159Kidm4Kidney mass QTL 43.83kidney mass (VT:0002707)right kidney wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0001953)3121056165157309487Rat
10755461Coatc16Coat color QTL 16coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented ventral coat/hair area to total ventral coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001812)3122438700167438700Rat
631541Bp81Blood pressure QTL 814arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)3124122556169034231Rat
2303620Vencon4Ventilatory control QTL 43.9respiration trait (VT:0001943)tidal volume (CMO:0000222)3127162703168026850Rat
631673Iddm13Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 131.30.663blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)3130193298161695983Rat
1578656Vnigr2Vascular neointimal growth QTL 24.2artery morphology trait (VT:0002191)lesioned artery residual lumen area (CMO:0001417)3130656562169034231Rat
1578653Vnigr3Vascular neointimal growth QTL 33.1artery morphology trait (VT:0002191)artery neointimal hyperplastic lesion area (CMO:0001414)3130656562169034231Rat
9589106Insul23Insulin level QTL 2313.860.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)3131635904169034231Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.23135,864,510 - 135,864,704 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.03142,749,818 - 142,750,011NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.03149,161,040 - 149,161,233UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.43137,160,100 - 137,160,293UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera3134,708,330 - 134,708,523UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map31094.6UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q41UniSTS

Genetic Models
This gene Thbd is modified in the following models/strains:


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 33 5 13 7 7 3 22 28 11 7
Low 3 10 52 41 6 41 1 4 71 13 13 1
Below cutoff


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000006200   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000006200
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl3135,862,835 - 135,867,193 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl3142,748,674 - 142,752,325 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_031771   ⟹   NP_113959
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr83156,316,526 - 156,320,178 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.23135,863,366 - 135,867,018 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.03142,748,673 - 142,752,325 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.03149,159,895 - 149,163,547 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.43137,158,955 - 137,162,607 (-)RGD
Celera3134,707,185 - 134,710,838 (-)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_113959 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAB80760 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB80923 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAH70903 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL95102 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000006200
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_113959   ⟸   NM_031771
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: O35370 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6K7B7 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   F7EK87 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000006200   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000006200
Protein Domains
C-type lectin   EGF-like

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-O35370-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold O35370 1-577 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13692495
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R3020
Type:single initiation site
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.03142,752,344 - 142,752,404EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:621299 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-47509 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000004687 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000006200 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000006200.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Laminin UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro C-type_lectin UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C-type_lectin-like UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C-type_lectin_fold UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EG-like_dom UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EGF-like_Ca-bd UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EGF-type_Asp/Asn_hydroxyl_site UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EGF_Ca-bd_CS UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Growth_fac_rcpt_N_dom UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Tme5_EGF-like UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:83580 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam cEGF UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Lectin_C UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Tme5_EGF_like UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Thbd PhenoGen
  EGF_2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EGF_3 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000004687 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP C-type_lectin_fold UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  EGF/Laminin UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF57184 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt Secondary A6K7B7 UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2004-09-10 Thbd  thrombomodulin      Symbol and Name status set to approved 1299863 APPROVED
2002-08-07 Thbd  thrombomodulin      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_process may be involved in embryonic development, several inflammatory conditions and in tumor biology 634506
gene_regulation activity deficiency results from intestinal irradiation 634507