Gulo (gulonolactone (L-) oxidase) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Gulo (gulonolactone (L-) oxidase) Rattus norvegicus
No known orthologs.
Symbol: Gulo
Name: gulonolactone (L-) oxidase
RGD ID: 620701
Description: Enables L-gulonolactone oxidase activity. Predicted to be involved in L-ascorbic acid biosynthetic process. Predicted to be located in endoplasmic reticulum membrane; PARTICIPATES IN ascorbate and aldarate metabolic pathway; .
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: GLO; L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase; L-gulonolactone oxidase; LGO
RGD Orthologs
Alliance Genes
More Info homologs ...
Allele / Splice: Gulood  
Is Marker For: Strains:   SHR.ODS-Gulood/Shi  
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21540,205,677 - 40,227,766 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1540,205,665 - 40,227,874 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1542,070,707 - 42,092,904 (-)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01543,220,905 - 43,243,102 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01541,665,982 - 41,688,069 (-)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.01542,671,206 - 42,693,711 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1542,671,203 - 42,693,694 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01548,898,664 - 48,921,163 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41545,410,685 - 45,434,014 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11545,426,464 - 45,449,794 (-)NCBI
Celera1539,877,272 - 39,899,657 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map15p12NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
2. A missense mutation of L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase causes the inability of scurvy-prone osteogenic disorder rats to synthesize L-ascorbic acid. Kawai T, etal., J Biol Chem. 1992 Oct 25;267(30):21973-6.
3. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
4. Isolation and sequence analysis of a complementary DNA encoding rat liver L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis. Koshizaka T, etal., J Biol Chem 1988 Feb 5;263(4):1619-21.
5. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
6. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
7. Guinea pigs possess a highly mutated gene for L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, the key enzyme for L-ascorbic acid biosynthesis missing in this species. Nishikimi M, etal., J Biol Chem 1992 Oct 25;267(30):21967-72.
8. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
9. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
10. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
11. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1962571   PMID:3214183   PMID:8459881   PMID:12477932   PMID:15489334  



Variants in Gulo
47 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:89
Count of miRNA genes:75
Interacting mature miRNAs:81
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
731170Pur3Proteinuria QTL 32.30.0005urine protein amount (VT:0005160)urine protein excretion rate (CMO:0000759)15141686771Rat
1641887Alcrsp14Alcohol response QTL 14response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)brain neurotensin receptor 1 density (CMO:0002068)15142356671Rat
2298549Neuinf12Neuroinflammation QTL 123.5nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)spinal cord beta-2 microglobulin mRNA level (CMO:0002125)15155302115Rat
10401805Kidm51Kidney mass QTL 51kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)1530632945306329Rat
738017Hcas7Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 72.91liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver nonremodeling tumorous lesion volume to total liver volume ratio (CMO:0001464)15226636846921453Rat
1582251Gluco24Glucose level QTL 243.20.0008blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)15553075650530756Rat
631273Lecl2Lens clarity QTL 20.001lens clarity trait (VT:0001304)age of onset/diagnosis of cataract (CMO:0001584)151059608955596089Rat
2300167Bmd63Bone mineral density QTL 635.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)151111114256111142Rat
2300173Bmd62Bone mineral density QTL 6212.80.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)151111114256111142Rat
2293688Bss29Bone structure and strength QTL 295.310.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur midshaft cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001663)151111114256111142Rat
2317750Glom26Glomerulus QTL 264.3urine protein amount (VT:0005160)urine protein level (CMO:0000591)151249614165205939Rat
61424Scl1Serum cholesterol level QTL 17.70.001blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)151672552880672115Rat
1331729Rf42Renal function QTL 423.071kidney blood vessel physiology trait (VT:0100012)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)151736289773690657Rat
2324620Coatc3Coat color QTL 3coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented coat/hair area to total coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001810)151985656646187442Rat
10054130Srcrt8Stress Responsive Cort QTL 82.180.0085blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)152211793367117933Rat
1578646Bmd18Bone mineral density QTL 185.2femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001729)152280624098288169Rat
1578647Bmd17Bone mineral density QTL 174femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)152280624098288169Rat
1578660Bss19Bone structure and strength QTL 194.3femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)bone trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0002311)152280624098288169Rat
1582214Stl21Serum triglyceride level QTL 213.10.022blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)152803066582262678Rat
1582227Gluco30Glucose level QTL 303.60.0003blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)absolute change in blood glucose level area under curve (CMO:0002034)152803066582262678Rat
1582228Epfw3Epididymal fat weight QTL 34.10.0002epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)152803066582262678Rat
1582242Gluco28Glucose level QTL 283.30.0008blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)152803066582262678Rat
1582244Bw79Body weight QTL 7940.0002epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)152803066582262678Rat
2293691Bmd37Bone mineral density QTL 376.60.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur total energy absorbed before break (CMO:0001677)153361105871477291Rat
2293686Bmd36Bone mineral density QTL 367.40.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck ultimate force (CMO:0001703)153361105871477291Rat
1598828Glom14Glomerulus QTL 142.5kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)153405413979054139Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21540,205,709 - 40,205,911 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01542,671,252 - 42,671,453NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01548,920,916 - 48,921,117UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41545,410,718 - 45,410,919UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1539,877,305 - 39,877,506UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map15p12UniSTS

Related Rat Strains
The following Strains have been annotated to Gulo


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 41 41 41 6
Low 2 2 6 3 3 3 32 28 34 4 3
Below cutoff 1 22 10 16 5 8 33 7 1 5 5


Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000022702   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000022703
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1540,205,665 - 40,227,874 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1542,671,203 - 42,693,694 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_022220   ⟹   NP_071556
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21540,205,677 - 40,227,766 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.01542,671,219 - 42,693,570 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01548,898,664 - 48,921,163 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41545,410,685 - 45,434,014 (-)RGD
Celera1539,877,272 - 39,899,657 (-)RGD
Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_071556   ⟸   NM_022220
- UniProtKB: P10867 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A0A140TAC7 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000022703   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000022702
Protein Domains
FAD-binding PCMH-type

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P10867-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P10867 1-440 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13699753
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R10276
Type:initiation region
Description:gulonolactone (L-) oxidase
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01542,693,681 - 42,693,741EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:620701 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-13338 BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway PWY3DJ-35471 [L-ascorbate biosynthesis IV (animals, D-glucuronate pathway)] BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000016648 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000022703 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOP00000022703.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000022702 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000022702.7 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  3.30.465.10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro ALO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH-like_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH_sub1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD-bd_PCMH_sub2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD_lactone_oxidase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Oxid_FAD_bind_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Oxy_OxRdtase_FAD_BS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Sugar_lactone_oxidase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Vanillyl_alc_oxidase_C-sub2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:60671 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PANTHER PTHR43762 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam ALO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FAD_binding_4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Gulo PhenoGen
PIRSF LGO_GLO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  OX2_COVAL_FAD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF56176 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGRFAMs FAD_lactone_ox UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt Secondary Q5EBC1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q64597 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q9QWR6 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2008-02-22 Gulo  gulonolactone (L-) oxidase  Gulo  L-gulonolactone oxidase  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2005-01-20 Gulo  L-gulonolactone oxidase    L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase  Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-08-07 Gulo  L-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_cellular_localization localized in the microsomes of the liver and kidney 728524
gene_protein 440 amino acids; 50.6 kDa 728524