Apln (apelin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Apln (apelin) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Apln
Name: apelin
RGD ID: 620672
Description: Enables apelin receptor binding activity and identical protein binding activity. Involved in several processes, including apelin receptor signaling pathway; positive regulation of peptide hormone secretion; and regulation of blood circulation. Located in extracellular space and perinuclear region of cytoplasm. Used to study congestive heart failure. Biomarker of colitis; congestive heart failure; hypertension; and obesity. Orthologous to human APLN (apelin); PARTICIPATES IN apelin signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH (S)-colchicine; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine.
Type: protein-coding (Ensembl: lncRNA)
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Apel; apelin, AGTRL1 ligand; APJ endogenous ligand
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8X132,058,739 - 132,091,518 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2X127,180,801 - 127,213,567 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 EnsemblX127,203,823 - 127,213,391 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_UtxX129,330,091 - 129,339,567 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0X132,900,432 - 132,909,910 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0X130,427,238 - 130,436,715 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0X134,856,719 - 134,866,210 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 EnsemblX134,856,726 - 134,866,210 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0X134,929,116 - 134,938,607 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4X134,387,285 - 134,396,762 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1X134,460,719 - 134,470,195 (-)NCBI
CeleraX126,154,452 - 126,163,943 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXq36NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-catechin  (ISO)
(R)-lipoic acid  (ISO)
(S)-colchicine  (EXP)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,9-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,8(3H)-trione  (ISO)
acadesine  (ISO)
acrylamide  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
atrazine  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[b]fluoranthene  (ISO)
Benzo[ghi]perylene  (ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
BQ 123  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
chloroprene  (ISO)
clobetasol  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
cypermethrin  (ISO)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
entinostat  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
fluoranthene  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
fructose  (EXP)
isoprenaline  (EXP)
lipoic acid  (ISO)
LY294002  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
Muraglitazar  (EXP)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine  (ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (EXP)
nitrofen  (EXP)
oxaliplatin  (EXP)
ozone  (EXP,ISO)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
pentane-2,3-dione  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
quercetin  (EXP)
raspberry ketone  (ISO)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rotenone  (EXP,ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
silver atom  (ISO)
silver(0)  (ISO)
sotorasib  (ISO)
tacrolimus (anhydrous)  (ISO)
Tesaglitazar  (EXP)
testosterone  (EXP)
Tetrachlorobisphenol A  (ISO)
thalidomide  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
topotecan  (EXP)
trametinib  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate  (ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vincaleukoblastine  (EXP)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vincristine  (EXP)
zearalenone  (EXP)
ziram  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Ischemic heart failure enhances endogenous myocardial apelin and APJ receptor expression. Atluri P, etal., Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2007;12(1):127-38. Epub 2006 Nov 19.
2. Venous dilator effect of apelin, an endogenous peptide ligand for the orphan APJ receptor, in conscious rats. Cheng X, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jun 6;470(3):171-5.
3. Apelin increases contractility in failing cardiac muscle. Dai T, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Dec 28;553(1-3):222-8. Epub 2006 Sep 23.
4. Apelin, a potent diuretic neuropeptide counteracting vasopressin actions through inhibition of vasopressin neuron activity and vasopressin release. De Mota N, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004 Jul 13;101(28):10464-9. Epub 2004 Jul 01.
5. Reduced apelin levels in lone atrial fibrillation. Ellinor PT, etal., Eur Heart J. 2006 Jan;27(2):222-6. Epub 2005 Nov 8.
6. Low plasma apelin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Erdem G, etal., Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2008 May;116(5):289-92.
7. Adiposity dependent apelin gene expression: relationships with oxidative and inflammation markers. Garcia-Diaz D, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Jun 27;.
8. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
9. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
10. Apelin: a new plasma marker of cardiopulmonary disease. Goetze JP, etal., Regul Pept. 2006 Jan 15;133(1-3):134-8. Epub 2005 Nov 2.
11. Interactions between apelin and angiotensin II on rat portal vein. Gurzu B, etal., J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2006 Dec;7(4):212-6.
12. Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum. Habata Y, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta 1999 Oct 13;1452(1):25-35.
13. Increased colonic apelin production in rodents with experimental colitis and in humans with IBD. Han S, etal., Regul Pept. 2007 Aug 16;142(3):131-7. Epub 2007 Feb 22.
14. Apelin stimulates myosin light chain phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Hashimoto T, etal., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Jun;26(6):1267-72. Epub 2006 Mar 23.
15. Apelin, orexin-A and leptin plasma levels in morbid obesity and effect of gastric banding. Heinonen MV, etal., Regul Pept. 2005 Aug 15;130(1-2):7-13.
16. Behavioral, neuroendocrine and thermoregulatory actions of apelin-13. Jaszberenyi M, etal., Neuroscience. 2004;129(3):811-6.
17. Molecular properties of apelin: tissue distribution and receptor binding. Kawamata Y, etal., Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Apr 23;1538(2-3):162-71.
18. Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action. Lee DK, etal., Endocrinology. 2005 Jan;146(1):231-6. Epub 2004 Oct 14.
19. Agonist-independent nuclear localization of the Apelin, angiotensin AT1, and bradykinin B2 receptors. Lee DK, etal., J Biol Chem 2004 Feb 27;279(9):7901-8. Epub 2003 Nov 26.
20. Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor. Lee DK, etal., J Neurochem 2000 Jan;74(1):34-41.
21. Reduced apelin levels in stable angina. Li Z, etal., Intern Med. 2008;47(22):1951-5. Epub 2008 Nov 17.
22. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
23. Effects of central and peripheral injections of apelin on fluid intake and cardiovascular parameters in rats. Mitra A, etal., Physiol Behav. 2006 Sep 30;89(2):221-5. Epub 2006 Jul 12.
24. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
25. Regulation of rat APJ receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in magnocellular neurones of the paraventricular and supraopric nuclei by osmotic stimuli. O'Carroll AM and Lolait SJ, J Neuroendocrinol 2003 Jul;15(7):661-6.
26. Characterization of apela, a novel endogenous ligand of apelin receptor, in the adult heart. Perjes A, etal., Basic Res Cardiol. 2016 Jan;111(1):2. doi: 10.1007/s00395-015-0521-6. Epub 2015 Nov 26.
27. Physiological role of a novel neuropeptide, apelin, and its receptor in the rat brain. Reaux A, etal., J Neurochem. 2001 May;77(4):1085-96.
28. Cellular localization of apelin and its receptor in the anterior pituitary: evidence for a direct stimulatory action of apelin on ACTH release. Reaux-Le Goazigo A, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;292(1):E7-15. Epub 2006 Aug 8.
29. Dehydration-induced cross-regulation of apelin and vasopressin immunoreactivity levels in magnocellular hypothalamic neurons. Reaux-Le Goazigo A, etal., Endocrinology. 2004 Sep;145(9):4392-400. Epub 2004 May 27.
30. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
31. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
32. Apelin Levels Are Increased in Morbidly Obese Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Soriguer F, etal., Obes Surg. 2009 Sep 15.
33. FK506 activates BMPR2, rescues endothelial dysfunction, and reverses pulmonary hypertension. Spiekerkoetter E, etal., J Clin Invest. 2013 Aug;123(8):3600-13. doi: 10.1172/JCI65592. Epub 2013 Jul 15.
34. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
35. Intracerebroventricular injection of apelin-13 reduces food intake in the rat. Sunter D, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2003 Dec 15;353(1):1-4.
36. Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. Tatemoto K, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998 Oct 20;251(2):471-6.
37. Apelin, a new enteric peptide: localization in the gastrointestinal tract, ontogeny, and stimulation of gastric cell proliferation and of cholecystokinin secretion. Wang G, etal., Endocrinology 2004 Mar;145(3):1342-8. Epub 2003 Dec 11.
38. Exercise training promotes expression of apelin and APJ of cardiovascular tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Zhang J, etal., Life Sci. 2006 Aug 15;79(12):1153-9. Epub 2006 Apr 15.
39. Effects of all-trans retinoic acid on orphan receptor APJ signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Zhong JC, etal., Cardiovasc Res. 2005 Feb 15;65(3):743-50.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:15489334   PMID:15582714   PMID:16278022   PMID:16919293   PMID:17060400   PMID:17341685   PMID:17466269   PMID:17767704   PMID:18367654   PMID:18509323   PMID:18816630   PMID:18818315  
PMID:19070926   PMID:19346461   PMID:19443838   PMID:19660504   PMID:20055692   PMID:20079140   PMID:20580085   PMID:21733827   PMID:21864607   PMID:22081427   PMID:22209991   PMID:22240274  
PMID:22446510   PMID:22493882   PMID:23263626   PMID:23387534   PMID:23629509   PMID:23668014   PMID:23771946   PMID:23874984   PMID:23973488   PMID:24304571   PMID:24363088   PMID:24386141  
PMID:24770651   PMID:24995933   PMID:25012663   PMID:25311903   PMID:25708823   PMID:25931124   PMID:25995451   PMID:26494002   PMID:26546817   PMID:26607438   PMID:26631739   PMID:26680735  
PMID:27109054   PMID:27378063   PMID:27512001   PMID:27632349   PMID:27663841   PMID:27773659   PMID:27994053   PMID:28137936   PMID:28164323   PMID:28627589   PMID:28890073   PMID:28935153  
PMID:28987634   PMID:29091306   PMID:29329678   PMID:30142367   PMID:30170158   PMID:30334404   PMID:30345769   PMID:30582943   PMID:31385138   PMID:31829402   PMID:31932110   PMID:32223946  
PMID:34464591   PMID:36084017   PMID:36093083   PMID:37184417   PMID:37245722   PMID:37771168   PMID:37907514  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8X132,058,739 - 132,091,518 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2X127,180,801 - 127,213,567 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 EnsemblX127,203,823 - 127,213,391 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_UtxX129,330,091 - 129,339,567 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0X132,900,432 - 132,909,910 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0X130,427,238 - 130,436,715 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0X134,856,719 - 134,866,210 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 EnsemblX134,856,726 - 134,866,210 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0X134,929,116 - 134,938,607 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4X134,387,285 - 134,396,762 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1X134,460,719 - 134,470,195 (-)NCBI
CeleraX126,154,452 - 126,163,943 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXq36NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38X129,645,259 - 129,654,956 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 EnsemblX129,645,259 - 129,654,956 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37X128,779,236 - 128,788,933 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36X128,607,006 - 128,616,595 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34X128,504,860 - 128,514,449NCBI
CeleraX129,165,798 - 129,175,495 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXq26.1NCBI
HuRefX118,183,705 - 118,187,243 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1X128,690,603 - 128,700,300 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0X127,964,047 - 127,973,744 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39X47,114,023 - 47,123,730 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 EnsemblX47,114,023 - 47,123,730 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38X48,025,146 - 48,034,853 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 EnsemblX48,025,146 - 48,034,853 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37X45,378,323 - 45,388,029 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36X44,269,773 - 44,279,461 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
CeleraX35,527,952 - 35,537,661 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic MapXA4NCBI
cM MapX25.48NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554735,346,747 - 5,356,359 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554735,346,822 - 5,356,359 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2X129,068,533 - 129,078,279 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan1X129,072,147 - 129,081,892 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0X118,775,509 - 118,785,224 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1X129,073,135 - 129,082,484 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1X100,863,360 - 100,873,105 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_TashaX87,037,314 - 87,047,056 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0X102,715,584 - 102,725,338 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 EnsemblX102,716,128 - 102,725,606 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1X100,133,401 - 100,143,158 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0X101,979,328 - 101,989,085 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0X101,757,148 - 101,766,893 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2X99,087,672 - 99,097,573 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049364791,890,229 - 1,899,730 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049364791,889,930 - 1,899,811 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 EnsemblX106,236,749 - 106,246,377 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1X106,236,746 - 106,246,563 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2X122,005,684 - 122,015,536 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1X104,885,639 - 104,896,371 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 EnsemblX104,888,996 - 104,895,014 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366606542,370,529 - 42,380,294 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247978,857,070 - 8,866,329 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247978,857,490 - 8,866,157 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Apln
89 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:232
Count of miRNA genes:153
Interacting mature miRNAs:177
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1598837Memor13Memory QTL 133.2exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)difference between time of physical contact/close proximity of test subject and social stimulus during sample phase and test phase (CMO:0002678)X41052407146860749Rat
1598872Memor14Memory QTL 144.5exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)difference between time of physical contact/close proximity of test subject and social stimulus during sample phase and test phase (CMO:0002678)X93956491138956491Rat
738025Stresp3Stress response QTL 34.610.0066stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)defensive burying - approachX100567703150256146Rat
1598809Memor15Memory QTL 154.4exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)difference between time of physical contact/close proximity of test subject and social stimulus during sample phase and test phase (CMO:0002678)X103312877148312877Rat
1598856Memor1Memory QTL 11.9exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)total horizontal distance resulting from voluntary locomotion in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0001443)X103312877148312877Rat
738029Stresp2Stress response QTL 23.40.0004stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)defensive burying - approachX112934952138400867Rat
10059603Bw174Body weight QTL 1743.40.025body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)X113937816152453651Rat
634346Insul4Insulin level QTL 40blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)serum insulin level (CMO:0000358)X126975089152453651Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2X127,204,002 - 127,204,188 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0X134,856,901 - 134,857,086NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0X134,929,298 - 134,929,483UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4X134,387,467 - 134,387,652UniSTSRGSC3.4
CeleraX126,154,634 - 126,154,819UniSTS
RH 3.4 MapX910.9UniSTS
Cytogenetic MapXq35UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 11 2 2 24 11 10 11 2
Low 2 26 38 22 11 22 6 9 50 24 31 6
Below cutoff 1 6 19 19 8 19


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000005331   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000005331
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 EnsemblX127,203,823 - 127,213,391 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 EnsemblX134,856,726 - 134,866,210 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_031612   ⟹   NP_113800
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8X132,081,755 - 132,091,246 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2X127,203,821 - 127,213,312 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0X134,856,719 - 134,866,210 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0X134,929,116 - 134,938,607 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4X134,387,285 - 134,396,762 (-)RGD
CeleraX126,154,452 - 126,163,943 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039100000   ⟹   XP_038955928
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8X132,058,739 - 132,091,518 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2X127,180,801 - 127,213,567 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_113800   ⟸   NM_031612
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: Q9R0R3 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000005331   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000005331
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038955928   ⟸   XM_039100000
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: Q9R0R3 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-Q9R0R3-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold Q9R0R3 1-77 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13702008
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R12532
Type:single initiation site
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0X134,866,220 - 134,866,280EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:620672 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-1141 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000003984 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOG00055015327 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060020648 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065011299 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000005331 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00055026179 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060035765 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065018330 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
InterPro Apelin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
KEGG Report rno:58812 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  PTHR15953 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam Apelin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
PhenoGen Apln PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000003984 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055015327 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060020648 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065011299 RatGTEx

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2008-05-27 Apln  apelin  Apln  apelin, AGTRL1 ligand  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2004-09-10 Apln  apelin, AGTRL1 ligand  Apel  apelin  Symbol and Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-08-07 Apel        Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL