Calr (calreticulin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Calr (calreticulin) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Calr
Name: calreticulin
RGD ID: 620288
Description: Enables several functions, including hormone binding activity; metal ion binding activity; and peptide binding activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to electrical stimulus; cellular response to lithium ion; and response to testosterone. Located in several cellular components, including acrosomal vesicle; endoplasmic reticulum; and perinuclear region of cytoplasm. Part of protein-containing complex. Biomarker of vitamin B12 deficiency. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including endocrine gland cancer (multiple); gastrointestinal system cancer (multiple); hematologic cancer (multiple); lung cancer (multiple); and thrombocytosis. Orthologous to human CALR (calreticulin); PARTICIPATES IN calcium/calcium-mediated signaling pathway; antigen processing and presentation pathway; Chagas disease pathway; INTERACTS WITH 1,3-dinitrobenzene; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol; 2,2,2-tetramine.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: CABP3; CALBP; calcium-binding protein 3; calregulin; CRP55; endoplasmic reticulum resident protein 60; ERp60; HACBP
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21923,308,525 - 23,313,420 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1923,308,351 - 23,313,414 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1930,131,431 - 30,136,323 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01930,785,793 - 30,790,685 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01933,008,476 - 33,013,368 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01925,956,771 - 25,961,666 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1925,956,771 - 25,961,666 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01936,932,394 - 36,937,289 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41924,964,775 - 24,969,670 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11924,969,631 - 24,974,494 (+)NCBI
Celera1922,865,445 - 22,870,340 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19q11NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
(Z)-3-butylidenephthalide  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1,3-dinitrobenzene  (EXP)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,2,2-tetramine  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3-dimethoxynaphthalene-1,4-dione  (ISO)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2,4-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (EXP)
3-methylcholanthrene  (EXP)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
4-methylumbelliferyl acetate  (ISO)
5-chloro-7-iodoquinolin-8-ol  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (ISO)
7,8-diacetoxy-4-methylcoumarin  (ISO)
8-Br-cAMP  (ISO)
acrolein  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
Aflatoxin B2 alpha  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
alpha-naphthoflavone  (EXP)
alpha-pinene  (ISO)
amiodarone  (ISO)
amitrole  (EXP)
ammonium acetate  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
ampicillin  (ISO)
antimonite  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
avobenzone  (ISO)
azoxystrobin  (ISO)
Benoxacor  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
bexarotene  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol B  (ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
bleomycin A2  (EXP)
boric acid  (ISO)
bortezomib  (ISO)
Brodifacoum  (EXP)
bucladesine  (ISO)
buspirone  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calcium atom  (ISO)
calcium(0)  (ISO)
calyculin a  (ISO)
captan  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
cefaloridine  (EXP)
chloropicrin  (ISO)
chloroquine  (ISO)
chlorpromazine  (EXP)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
choline  (ISO)
chromium atom  (ISO)
chromones  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
clobetasol  (ISO)
clofibrate  (EXP)
clofibric acid  (EXP)
clotrimazole  (EXP)
clozapine  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (EXP,ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (EXP,ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
deguelin  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diallyl trisulfide  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
diazinon  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
diclofenac  (EXP)
dinophysistoxin 1  (ISO)
dipotassium bis[mu-tartrato(4-)]diantimonate(2-) trihydrate  (ISO)
diuron  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
dutasteride  (ISO)
elemental selenium  (ISO)
ellagic acid  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
enzyme inhibitor  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
fenbuconazole  (ISO)
fenthion  (ISO)
flutamide  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane  (EXP)
gentamycin  (EXP,ISO)
glafenine  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
halothane  (EXP)
homocysteine  (ISO)
hyaluronic acid  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP,ISO)
imidazopyrazole  (ISO)
ionomycin  (ISO)
iron atom  (ISO)
iron(0)  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
kojic acid  (EXP)
L-methionine  (ISO)
L-serine  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
lithium atom  (EXP)
lithium chloride  (ISO)
lithium hydride  (EXP)
lithocholic acid  (EXP)
lovastatin  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
methidathion  (ISO)
methimazole  (EXP)
methotrexate  (ISO)
mitoxantrone  (ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nicotine  (ISO)
Nonidet P-40  (ISO)
okadaic acid  (ISO)
oxidopamine  (EXP)
ozone  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
phenobarbital  (EXP,ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (EXP,ISO)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
procymidone  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
Propiverine  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
S-butyl-DL-homocysteine (S,R)-sulfoximine  (EXP)
salubrinal  (ISO)
selenium atom  (ISO)
sinapic acid  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium fluoride  (EXP)
streptozocin  (EXP)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
sunitinib  (ISO)
tacrolimus hydrate  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
tauroursodeoxycholic acid  (EXP)
Tautomycin  (ISO)
tert-butyl hydroperoxide  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
tetrachloroethene  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (ISO)
thapsigargin  (EXP,ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
triphenylstannane  (ISO)
tunicamycin  (EXP,ISO)
urethane  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vitamin E  (ISO)
vorinostat  (ISO)
warfarin  (ISO)
zearalenone  (ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
cardiac muscle cell differentiation  (IEP)
cellular response to electrical stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to lithium ion  (IEP)
cellular response to organic substance  (IEP)
cellular response to virus  (IEP)
cellular senescence  (ISO)
cortical actin cytoskeleton organization  (ISO)
negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (ISO)
negative regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
negative regulation of neuron differentiation  (ISO)
negative regulation of retinoic acid receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (ISO)
negative regulation of translation  (ISO)
negative regulation of trophoblast cell migration  (ISO)
obsolete selective autophagy  (ISO)
peptide antigen assembly with MHC class I protein complex  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell cycle  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of dendritic cell chemotaxis  (ISO)
positive regulation of endothelial cell migration  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
positive regulation of non-canonical NF-kappaB signal transduction  (ISO)
positive regulation of phagocytosis  (ISO)
positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading  (ISO)
protein export from nucleus  (ISO)
protein folding  (IBA,IEA,TAS)
protein localization to nucleus  (ISO)
protein stabilization  (ISO,ISS)
regulation of meiotic nuclear division  (ISO)
response to estradiol  (IEP)
response to glycoside  (IEP)
response to organic substance  (IEP)
response to testosterone  (IEP)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
spermatogenesis  (IEP)
ubiquitin-dependent ERAD pathway  (IBA)


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Maternal micronutrient deficiency leads to alteration in the kidney proteome in rat pups. Ahmad S, etal., J Proteomics. 2015 Sep 8;127(Pt A):178-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2015.04.035. Epub 2015 May 14.
2. Distribution patterns of calcium-binding proteins in pancreatic tissue of non-diabetic as well as type 2 diabetic rats and in rat insulinoma beta-cells (INS-1). Bazwinsky-Wutschke I, etal., Histochem Cell Biol. 2010 Aug;134(2):115-27. doi: 10.1007/s00418-010-0721-y. Epub 2010 Jul 7.
3. Estrogen regulation of the rat anterior pituitary gland proteome. Blake CA, etal., Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005 Dec;230(11):800-7.
4. Suppression of lung tumor growth and metastasis in mice by adeno-associated virus-mediated expression of vasostatin. Cai KX, etal., Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 1;14(3):939-49. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-1930.
5. Chronic valproate treatment increases expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins in the rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Chen B, etal., Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Oct 1;48(7):658-64.
6. Identification of calreticulin as a prognosis marker and angiogenic regulator in human gastric cancer. Chen CN, etal., Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Feb;16(2):524-33. doi: 10.1245/s10434-008-0243-1. Epub 2008 Dec 3.
7. Proteomic screening identifies calreticulin as a miR-27a direct target repressing MHC class I cell surface exposure in colorectal cancer. Colangelo T, etal., Cell Death Dis. 2016 Feb 25;7:e2120. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2016.28.
8. Rat duodenal iron-binding protein mobilferrin is a homologue of calreticulin. Conrad ME, etal., Gastroenterology. 1993 Jun;104(6):1700-4.
9. Calreticulin expression in spinal motoneurons of the rat. Copray JC, etal., J Chem Neuroanat. 1996 Jul;11(1):57-65.
10. Calreticulin binding and other biological activities of survival peptide Y-P30 including effects of systemic treatment of rats. Cunningham TJ, etal., Exp Neurol. 2000 Jun;163(2):457-68.
11. Post-translational arginylation of calreticulin: a new isospecies of calreticulin component of stress granules. Decca MB, etal., J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 16;282(11):8237-45. Epub 2006 Dec 29.
12. Folding of thyroglobulin in the calnexin/calreticulin pathway and its alteration by loss of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum. Di Jeso B, etal., Biochem J. 2003 Mar 1;370(Pt 2):449-58.
13. [Construction and activity of recombinant adeno-associated virus expressing vasostatin]. Diao Y, etal., Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2008 Nov;24(11):1949-54.
14. Calreticulin promotes cell motility and enhances resistance to anoikis through STAT3-CTTN-Akt pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Du XL, etal., Oncogene. 2009 Oct 22;28(42):3714-22. doi: 10.1038/onc.2009.237. Epub 2009 Aug 17.
15. NMR structures of 36 and 73-residue fragments of the calreticulin P-domain. Ellgaard L, etal., J Mol Biol 2002 Sep 27;322(4):773-84.
16. [Relationship between the expression of immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein and calreticulin and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma]. Fu Z, etal., Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2016 Mar 15;96(10):767-71. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2016.10.004.
17. Calreticulin Expression in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers Correlates with Increased Accumulation of Antitumor Immune Cells and Favorable Prognosis. Fucikova J, etal., Cancer Res. 2016 Apr 1;76(7):1746-56. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1142. Epub 2016 Feb 3.
18. Resistance to anticancer vaccination effect is controlled by a cancer cell-autonomous phenotype that disrupts immunogenic phagocytic removal. Garg AD, etal., Oncotarget. 2015 Sep 29;6(29):26841-60. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.4754.
19. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
20. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
21. High expression of calreticulin indicates poor prognosis and modulates cell migration and invasion via activating Stat3 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Han Y, etal., J Cancer. 2019 Aug 29;10(22):5460-5468. doi: 10.7150/jca.35362. eCollection 2019.
22. Calreticulin is a novel independent prognostic factor for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Harada K, etal., Oncol Lett. 2017 Jun;13(6):4857-4862. doi: 10.3892/ol.2017.6062. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
23. An autoantibody-mediated immune response to calreticulin isoforms in pancreatic cancer. Hong SH, etal., Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 1;64(15):5504-10.
24. Competition of CUGBP1 and calreticulin for the regulation of p21 translation determines cell fate. Iakova P, etal., EMBO J. 2004 Jan 28;23(2):406-17. Epub 2004 Jan 15.
25. Alterations of expression and distribution of the Ca(2+)-storing proteins in endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum during differentiation of rat cardiomyocytes. Imanaka-Yoshida K, etal., J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1996 Mar;28(3):553-62.
26. An interaction map of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones and foldases. Jansen G, etal., Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012 Sep;11(9):710-23. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M111.016550. Epub 2012 Jun 4.
27. Overexpression of calreticulin modulates protein kinase B/Akt signaling to promote apoptosis during cardiac differentiation of cardiomyoblast H9c2 cells. Kageyama K, etal., J Biol Chem 2002 May 31;277(22):19255-64.
28. Modification of CEA with both CRT and TAT PTD induces potent anti-tumor immune responses in RNA-pulsed DC vaccination. Kim SG, etal., Vaccine. 2008 Nov 25;26(50):6433-40. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.08.072. Epub 2008 Sep 21.
29. Altered expression of calreticulin during the development of fibrosis. Kypreou KP, etal., Proteomics. 2008 Jun;8(12):2407-19.
30. A distinct repertoire of autoantibodies in hepatocellular carcinoma identified by proteomic analysis. Le Naour F, etal., Mol Cell Proteomics. 2002 Mar;1(3):197-203. doi: 10.1074/mcp.m100029-mcp200.
31. Membrane associated Ca2+ buffers in the heart. Lee D and Michalak M, BMB Rep. 2010 Mar;43(3):151-7.
32. Calreticulin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-A mRNA stability in gastric cancer cells. Lee PC, etal., PLoS One. 2019 Nov 14;14(11):e0225107. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225107. eCollection 2019.
33. Calreticulin mutations in Chinese with primary myelofibrosis. Li B, etal., Haematologica. 2014 Nov;99(11):1697-700. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2014.109249. Epub 2014 Jul 4.
34. Gene transfer of vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment, into neuroendocrine tumor cells results in enhanced malignant behavior. Liu M, etal., Neuroendocrinology. 2005;82(1):1-10. doi: 10.1159/000089749. Epub 2005 Nov 15.
35. Calreticulin as a potential diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer. Liu R, etal., Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2012 Jun;61(6):855-64. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011-1146-8. Epub 2011 Nov 15.
36. Honokiol confers immunogenicity by dictating calreticulin exposure, activating ER stress and inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Liu SH, etal., Mol Oncol. 2015 Apr;9(4):834-49. doi: 10.1016/j.molonc.2014.12.009. Epub 2015 Jan 6.
37. Calreticulin-melatonin. An unexpected relationship. Macias M, etal., Eur J Biochem. 2003 Mar;270(5):832-40.
38. Calreticulin mutants in mice induce an MPL-dependent thrombocytosis with frequent progression to myelofibrosis. Marty C, etal., Blood. 2016 Mar 10;127(10):1317-24. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-11-679571. Epub 2015 Nov 25.
39. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
40. An endoplasmic reticulum protein, calreticulin, is transported into the acrosome of rat sperm. Nakamura M, etal., Exp Cell Res. 1993 Mar;205(1):101-10.
41. Somatic CALR mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms with nonmutated JAK2. Nangalia J, etal., N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 19;369(25):2391-405. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1312542. Epub 2013 Dec 10.
42. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
43. Nano-Pulse Stimulation is a physical modality that can trigger immunogenic tumor cell death. Nuccitelli R, etal., J Immunother Cancer. 2017 Apr 18;5:32. doi: 10.1186/s40425-017-0234-5. eCollection 2017.
44. Nanoelectroablation of Murine Tumors Triggers a CD8-Dependent Inhibition of Secondary Tumor Growth. Nuccitelli R, etal., PLoS One. 2015 Jul 31;10(7):e0134364. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134364. eCollection 2015.
45. Calreticulin exposure dictates the immunogenicity of cancer cell death. Obeid M, etal., Nat Med. 2007 Jan;13(1):54-61. doi: 10.1038/nm1523. Epub 2006 Dec 24.
46. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
47. Calreticulin mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics in acute myeloid leukemia. Park S, etal., Cancer Genet. 2015 Dec;208(12):630-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2015.11.001. Epub 2015 Nov 10.
48. Expression of calreticulin is associated with infiltration of T-cells in stage IIIB colon cancer. Peng RQ, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2010 May 21;16(19):2428-34. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i19.2428.
49. Plasmid-encoding vasostatin inhibited the growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Peng XC, etal., Mol Cell Biochem. 2014 Oct;395(1-2):265-72. doi: 10.1007/s11010-014-2135-y. Epub 2014 Jul 6.
50. Vasostatin, a calreticulin fragment, inhibits angiogenesis and suppresses tumor growth. Pike SE, etal., J Exp Med. 1998 Dec 21;188(12):2349-56. doi: 10.1084/jem.188.12.2349.
51. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
52. Dual specificity phosphatases 18 and 21 target to opposing sides of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Rardin MJ, etal., J Biol Chem. 2008 May 30;283(22):15440-50. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M709547200. Epub 2008 Apr 2.
53. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
54. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
55. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
56. Mood stabilizing drug lithium increases expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins in primary cultured rat cerebral cortical cells. Shao L, etal., Life Sci. 2006 Feb 16;78(12):1317-23. Epub 2005 Oct 19.
57. Calreticulin promotes EGF-induced EMT in pancreatic cancer cells via Integrin/EGFR-ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Sheng W, etal., Cell Death Dis. 2017 Oct 26;8(10):e3147. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2017.547.
58. Calreticulin promotes EMT in pancreatic cancer via mediating Ca2+ dependent acute and chronic endoplasmic reticulum stress. Sheng W, etal., J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2020 Oct 7;39(1):209. doi: 10.1186/s13046-020-01702-y.
59. Cellular location of proteins related to iron absorption and transport. Simovich MJ, etal., Am J Hematol 2002 Mar;69(3):164-70.
60. Calreticulin--an endoplasmic reticulum protein with calcium-binding activity is also found in the extracellular matrix. Somogyi E, etal., Matrix Biol. 2003 Apr;22(2):179-91.
61. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
62. CALR and ASXL1 mutations-based molecular prognostication in primary myelofibrosis: an international study of 570 patients. Tefferi A, etal., Leukemia. 2014 Jul;28(7):1494-500. doi: 10.1038/leu.2014.57. Epub 2014 Feb 5.
63. Immunogenic death of colon cancer cells treated with oxaliplatin. Tesniere A, etal., Oncogene. 2010 Jan 28;29(4):482-91. doi: 10.1038/onc.2009.356. Epub 2009 Nov 2.
64. Regulation of calcium binding proteins calreticulin and calsequestrin during differentiation in the myogenic cell line L6. Tharin S, etal., J Cell Physiol. 1996 Mar;166(3):547-60.
65. Homozygous calreticulin mutations in patients with myelofibrosis lead to acquired myeloperoxidase deficiency. Theocharides AP, etal., Blood. 2016 Jun 23;127(25):3253-9. doi: 10.1182/blood-2016-02-696310. Epub 2016 Mar 24.
66. Development of a new fusion-enhanced oncolytic immunotherapy platform based on herpes simplex virus type 1. Thomas S, etal., J Immunother Cancer. 2019 Aug 10;7(1):214. doi: 10.1186/s40425-019-0682-1.
67. Combination of CALR and PDIA3 is a potential prognostic biomarker for non-small cell lung cancer. Wang K, etal., Oncotarget. 2017 Jun 16;8(57):96945-96957. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.18547. eCollection 2017 Nov 14.
68. Treatment of colon cancer with liver X receptor agonists induces immunogenic cell death. Wang Q, etal., Mol Carcinog. 2018 Jul;57(7):903-910. doi: 10.1002/mc.22811. Epub 2018 Apr 6.
69. PTP1B contributes to calreticulin-induced metastatic phenotypes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Wang XM, etal., Mol Cancer Res. 2013 Sep;11(9):986-94. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-12-0704. Epub 2013 Jun 27.
70. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of calreticulin in human serum. Wu W, etal., Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2013 Oct;32(5):366-70. doi: 10.1089/mab.2013.0021.
71. A gene therapy for cancer based on the angiogenesis inhibitor, vasostatin. Xiao F, etal., Gene Ther. 2002 Sep;9(18):1207-13. doi: 10.1038/
72. Effective targeting of tumor vasculature by the angiogenesis inhibitors vasostatin and interleukin-12. Yao L, etal., Blood. 2000 Sep 1;96(5):1900-5.
73. A rapid, highly accurate method for quantifying CALR mutant allele burden in persons with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Yao QM, etal., Hematology. 2015 Oct;20(9):517-22. doi: 10.1179/1607845415Y.0000000009. Epub 2015 Apr 10.
74. LMP1 Up-regulates Calreticulin to Induce Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition via TGF-β/Smad3/NRP1 Pathway in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells. Ye D, etal., J Cancer. 2020 Jan 1;11(5):1257-1269. doi: 10.7150/jca.37415. eCollection 2020.
75. Calreticulin: a potential diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker in gallbladder cancer. Ye J, etal., Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Feb 11;13(4):5607-5620. doi: 10.18632/aging.202488. Epub 2021 Feb 11.
76. [Suppression of stress proteins, GRP78, GRP94, calreticulin and calnexin in liver endoplasmic reticulum of rat treated with a highly toxic coplanar PCB] Yoshioka Y, etal., Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2001 May;92(5):201-16.
77. Low-Dose Gemcitabine Treatment Enhances Immunogenicity and Natural Killer Cell-Driven Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer. Zhang X, etal., Front Immunol. 2020 Feb 25;11:331. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.00331. eCollection 2020.
78. Calreticulin: an intracellular Ca++-binding protein abundantly expressed and regulated by androgen in prostatic epithelial cells. Zhu N, etal., Endocrinology. 1998 Oct;139(10):4337-44.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1497655   PMID:1911778   PMID:2241926   PMID:2395661   PMID:3513762   PMID:7876339   PMID:8107809   PMID:8251535   PMID:8666824   PMID:10862152   PMID:11149926   PMID:11408579  
PMID:11825569   PMID:11842220   PMID:11859136   PMID:12648529   PMID:12676993   PMID:14517290   PMID:15131110   PMID:15136153   PMID:15489334   PMID:15977177   PMID:15998798   PMID:16140380  
PMID:16198296   PMID:16260597   PMID:16502470   PMID:16854843   PMID:17916189   PMID:17923681   PMID:18303859   PMID:18413143   PMID:19199708   PMID:19346238   PMID:19851281   PMID:19946888  
PMID:20308067   PMID:20551380   PMID:20880849   PMID:21187406   PMID:21263072   PMID:21423176   PMID:21532570   PMID:21590275   PMID:21630459   PMID:21652723   PMID:21892174   PMID:22147490  
PMID:22377355   PMID:22572157   PMID:22658674   PMID:23011799   PMID:23376485   PMID:23395171   PMID:23530063   PMID:23564462   PMID:23575574   PMID:23818963   PMID:23972286   PMID:24252779  
PMID:24589181   PMID:24813996   PMID:24930861   PMID:24998604   PMID:27425249   PMID:27435297   PMID:29453988   PMID:29925877   PMID:30188326   PMID:31505169   PMID:31669485   PMID:33450132  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21923,308,525 - 23,313,420 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1923,308,351 - 23,313,414 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1930,131,431 - 30,136,323 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01930,785,793 - 30,790,685 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01933,008,476 - 33,013,368 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01925,956,771 - 25,961,666 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1925,956,771 - 25,961,666 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01936,932,394 - 36,937,289 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41924,964,775 - 24,969,670 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11924,969,631 - 24,974,494 (+)NCBI
Celera1922,865,445 - 22,870,340 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19q11NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381912,938,609 - 12,944,489 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1912,938,578 - 12,944,489 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371913,049,423 - 13,055,303 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361912,910,423 - 12,916,303 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341912,910,422 - 12,916,303NCBI
Celera1912,939,147 - 12,945,035 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19p13.13NCBI
HuRef1912,621,315 - 12,627,203 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11913,049,914 - 13,055,824 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01913,063,097 - 13,068,974 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39885,568,717 - 85,573,560 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl885,568,479 - 85,573,563 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38884,842,088 - 84,846,931 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl884,841,850 - 84,846,934 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37887,365,987 - 87,370,830 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36887,731,955 - 87,736,972 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera889,141,243 - 89,146,089 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8C3NCBI
cM Map841.21NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495541531,985,147 - 31,989,372 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495541531,985,147 - 31,989,372 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan11916,868,542 - 16,874,580 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01912,501,013 - 12,506,909 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11913,242,900 - 13,249,416 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1913,242,900 - 13,249,416 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.12049,251,390 - 49,255,291 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2049,251,777 - 49,255,245 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2049,123,639 - 49,127,542 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02049,768,253 - 49,772,156 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2049,768,253 - 49,772,135 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12048,979,448 - 48,983,351 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02049,405,934 - 49,409,839 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02049,648,459 - 49,652,362 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024405118208,355,637 - 208,360,018 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049366591,994,648 - 1,999,430 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049366591,994,695 - 1,999,070 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl266,098,229 - 66,102,132 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1266,098,263 - 66,102,074 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2266,283,767 - 66,287,604 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1611,618,691 - 11,624,299 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl611,618,396 - 11,623,792 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660748,162,943 - 8,168,575 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_004624901511,052 - 516,757 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_004624901511,295 - 515,208 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Calr
12 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:445
Count of miRNA genes:252
Interacting mature miRNAs:292
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
7411590Foco7Food consumption QTL 76.80.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)19124688055Rat
10054132Srcrt9Stress Responsive Cort QTL 92.870.0017blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)19127355345Rat
631678Cm9Cardiac mass QTL 94.270.0001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight (CMO:0000076)19128982497Rat
631681Cm12Cardiac mass QTL 123.330.00053heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)19128982497Rat
1549847Bss8Bone structure and strength QTL 84lumbar vertebra strength trait (VT:0010574)vertebra ultimate force (CMO:0001678)19131963836Rat
9590298Uminl5Urine mineral level QTL 53.590.001urine mineral amount (VT:0015086)urine electrolyte level (CMO:0000593)19136824771Rat
8552935Pigfal10Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 105.7blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)19136824771Rat
9590250Scort11Serum corticosterone level QTL 1123.450.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)19136824771Rat
9590090Insglur8Insulin/glucose ratio QTL 810.810.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)calculated plasma insulin level (CMO:0002170)19136824771Rat
9589102Slep13Serum leptin concentration QTL 134.630.001blood leptin amount (VT:0005667)plasma leptin level (CMO:0000781)1956937445569374Rat
8694186Bw152Body weight QTL 1523.340.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)1956937445569374Rat
7247442Uae39Urinary albumin excretion QTL 39urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)19218792746708701Rat
724566Uae12Urinary albumin excretion QTL 125urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)19218792756457239Rat
61447Tcas1Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 16.08tongue integrity trait (VT:0010553)squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue maximum tumor diameter (CMO:0001875)19231612147316121Rat
2317848Alcrsp21Alcohol response QTL 211.8999999761581420.05response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)19320477748204777Rat
1331737Uae29Urinary albumin excretion QTL 295.5urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)19409615555283277Rat
724518Uae19Urinary albumin excretion QTL 195.5urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)19745724942983518Rat
724565Tcas5Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 510.04tongue integrity trait (VT:0010553)number of squamous cell tumors of the tongue with diameter greater than 3 mm (CMO:0001950)19997775339654489Rat
61423Cia14Collagen induced arthritis QTL 143joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)191082797043544039Rat
61407Scl12Serum cholesterol level QTL 120.001blood HDL cholesterol amount (VT:0000184)serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol level (CMO:0000361)191392640130303727Rat
1558656Prcs1Prostate cancer susceptibility QTL 15prostate integrity trait (VT:0010571)percentage of study population developing ventral prostate tumorous lesions during a period of time (CMO:0000943)191511459834521833Rat
7411549Bw130Body weight QTL 13050.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)191545586057337602Rat
1331788Rf45Renal function QTL 452.818kidney blood vessel physiology trait (VT:0100012)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)191560502346559041Rat
1578764Stresp19Stress response QTL 193.60.001blood renin amount (VT:0003349)plasma renin activity level (CMO:0000116)191563020157337602Rat
2298478Eau8Experimental allergic uveoretinitis QTL 80.0163uvea integrity trait (VT:0010551)experimental autoimmune uveitis score (CMO:0001504)191715443357337602Rat
61350Bp32Blood pressure QTL 320.012arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)192048357557337602Rat


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 15 15 15 16 24
Medium 3 43 42 26 19 26 8 11 74 19 17 11 8
Below cutoff


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000004091   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000004091
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1923,308,517 - 23,313,362 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1925,956,771 - 25,961,666 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000103073   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000076884
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1923,308,351 - 23,313,414 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000113427   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000080548
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1923,308,517 - 23,313,414 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_022399   ⟹   NP_071794
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21923,308,525 - 23,313,420 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.01925,956,771 - 25,961,666 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01936,932,394 - 36,937,289 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41924,964,775 - 24,969,670 (+)RGD
Celera1922,865,445 - 22,870,340 (+)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_071794   ⟸   NM_022399
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P10452 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P18418 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IY70 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2Q1G7 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000004091   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000004091
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000076884   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000103073
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000080548   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000113427

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P18418-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P18418 1-416 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13701025
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R11549
Type:multiple initiation site
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01925,961,674 - 25,961,734EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:620288 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-6123 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000003029 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000004091.7 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000103073.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000113427 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Helix hairpin bin UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Calret/calnex UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Calret/calnex_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Calreticulin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Calreticulin/calnexin_P_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ConA-like_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:64202 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  PTHR11073 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Calreticulin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Calr PhenoGen
PIRSF Calreticulin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CALRETICULIN_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ER_TARGET UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000003029 RatGTEx
Superfamily-SCOP SSF49899 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF63887 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CALR_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary P10452 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2004-09-10 Calr  calreticulin      Symbol and Name status set to approved 1299863 APPROVED
2002-08-07 Calr  calreticulin      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_physical_interaction associates with co-chaperone thiol-disulvide oxidoreductase ERp57 727436
gene_process involved in cardiac and neural development 704416
gene_process promotes differentiation-dependent apoptosis via suppression of Akt signalling 704416