F2 (coagulation factor II, thrombin) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: F2 (coagulation factor II, thrombin) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: F2
Name: coagulation factor II, thrombin (Ensembl:coagulation factor II)
RGD ID: 61996
Description: Predicted to enable several functions, including heparin binding activity; lipopolysaccharide binding activity; and serine-type endopeptidase activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to mechanical stimulus; response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone; and response to thyroxine. Located in collagen-containing extracellular matrix and extracellular space. Used to study several diseases, including atherosclerosis; end stage renal disease; hyperhomocysteinemia; obesity; and thrombophilia (multiple). Biomarker of bacterial pneumonia; brain edema; calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis; and thrombosis. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including X-linked recessive disease (multiple); appendicitis; artery disease (multiple); autoimmune disease (multiple); and thrombophilia (multiple). Orthologous to human F2 (coagulation factor II, thrombin); PARTICIPATES IN coagulation cascade pathway; acenocoumarol pharmacodynamics pathway; alteplase pharmacodynamics pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-schisandrin B; 1,3-dinitrobenzene; 17beta-estradiol.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: coagulation factor 2; coagulation factor II; prothrombin; thrombin
RGD Orthologs
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2377,596,196 - 77,609,486 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl377,596,198 - 77,609,486 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx381,071,217 - 81,084,670 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0389,670,242 - 89,683,695 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0387,521,762 - 87,534,981 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0380,529,468 - 80,542,993 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl380,529,428 - 80,543,031 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,228,703 - 87,242,228 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,005,318 - 76,018,603 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1375,901,694 - 75,914,982 (-)NCBI
Celera376,801,000 - 76,814,280 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q24NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acquired angioedema  (ISO)
Acute Coronary Syndrome  (ISO)
Acute Lung Injury  (IDA)
allergic rhinitis  (ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
appendicitis  (ISO)
asthma  (ISO)
atherosclerosis  (IDA)
atopic dermatitis  (ISO)
autoimmune hepatitis  (ISO)
bacterial pneumonia  (IEP)
blood coagulation disease  (ISO)
brain edema  (IEP)
Brain Injuries  (ISO)
brain ischemia  (ISO)
bullous pemphigoid  (ISO)
calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis  (IEP)
carotid stenosis  (ISO)
celiac disease  (ISO)
Cerebral Hemorrhage  (ISO)
cerebral infarction  (ISO)
cerebral palsy  (ISO)
Chagas disease  (ISO)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  (ISO)
clear cell renal cell carcinoma  (ISO)
congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIc  (ISO)
Congenital Prothrombin Deficiency  (ISO)
Contusions  (IEP)
coronary artery disease  (ISO)
Crohn's disease  (ISO)
dengue disease  (ISO)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (ISO)
disseminated intravascular coagulation  (IDA,ISO)
end stage renal disease  (IDA)
Endotoxemia  (IDA,IEP,ISO)
Experimental Arthritis  (ISO)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (ISO)
eye disease  (ISO)
factor VIII deficiency  (ISO)
Familial Amyloid Polyneuropathies  (ISO)
familial Mediterranean fever  (ISO)
fatty liver disease  (ISO)
Femur Head Necrosis  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
Habitual Abortions  (ISO)
hemolytic-uremic syndrome  (ISO)
hemophilia B  (ISO)
Hemorrhage  (IDA,IMP,ISO)
Hemorrhagic Shock  (IEP)
hepatitis C  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (ISO)
hereditary angioedema  (ISO)
herpes zoster  (ISO)
high grade glioma  (IMP)
Human Viral Hepatitis  (ISO)
Huntington's disease  (ISO)
Hyperalgesia  (ISO)
hyperglycemia  (ISO)
hyperhomocysteinemia  (IDA)
Hypertrophy  (ISO)
intellectual disability  (ISO)
intracranial sinus thrombosis  (ISO)
Kidney Calculi  (ISO)
Knee Osteoarthritis  (ISO)
leptospirosis  (ISO)
liver cirrhosis  (ISO)
Liver Failure  (ISO)
Mesenteric Ischemia  (ISO)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (ISO)
myocardial infarction  (ISO)
Neoplasm Metastasis  (ISO)
nephrosis  (IMP,ISO)
Nerve Degeneration  (ISO)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (ISO)
obesity  (IDA,ISO)
ovarian cancer  (ISO)
Paratuberculosis  (ISO)
Pediatric Crohn's Disease  (ISO)
portal vein thrombosis  (ISO)
pre-eclampsia  (ISO)
prostate cancer  (ISO)
prothrombin deficiency  (ISO)
pulmonary embolism  (ISO)
pulmonary fibrosis  (ISO)
Reperfusion Injury  (IMP)
retinal vein occlusion  (ISO)
rheumatoid arthritis  (ISO)
schizophrenia  (ISO)
sensorineural hearing loss  (ISO)
Sepsis  (IDA,ISO)
Septic Peritonitis  (ISO)
sickle cell anemia  (ISO)
Spinal Cord Injuries  (IEP)
Stroke  (ISO)
systemic lupus erythematosus  (ISO)
systemic scleroderma  (ISO)
Thromboembolism  (ISO)
thrombophilia  (IDA,ISO)
thrombophilia due to thrombin defect  (ISO)
thrombosis  (IDA,IEP,ISO)
toxic shock syndrome  (ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
ulcerative colitis  (ISO)
urinary bladder cancer  (ISO)
Urinary Calculi  (ISO)
urticaria  (ISO)
vascular skin disease  (ISO)
Venous Thromboembolism  (ISO)
Venous Thrombosis  (IMP,ISO)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left  (ISO)
Ventricular Fibrillation  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-pilocarpine  (ISO)
(+)-schisandrin B  (EXP)
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (ISO)
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
(2R,4R)-1-[(2S)-5-(diaminomethylideneamino)-2-[(3-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-8-yl)sulfonylamino]-1-oxopentyl]-4-methyl-2-piperidinecarboxylic acid  (ISO)
(S)-colchicine  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,3-dinitrobenzene  (EXP)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,6-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
3,3-diphenyl-N-(1-phenylethyl)-1-propanamine  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
acenocoumarol  (EXP)
acetamide  (EXP)
acetylsalicylic acid  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
amidotrizoic acid  (ISO)
amiodarone  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphetamine  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (ISO)
apigenin  (ISO)
argatroban  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
aspalathin  (ISO)
aspartame  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (ISO)
atropine  (ISO)
barium(0)  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bexarotene  (EXP)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bivalirudin  (ISO)
buta-1,3-diene  (ISO)
butanal  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
calcium atom  (ISO)
calcium dichloride  (ISO)
calcium(0)  (ISO)
calmidazolium  (ISO)
capsaicin  (EXP)
cerivastatin  (ISO)
chlorogenic acid  (ISO)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
clobazam  (ISO)
clopidogrel  (ISO)
clothianidin  (ISO)
cobalt atom  (ISO)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP,ISO)
copper(0)  (EXP,ISO)
copper(II) chloride  (ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
curcumin  (EXP)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (EXP,ISO)
cytarabine  (ISO)
dabigatran  (ISO)
dermatan sulfate  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dichlorine  (EXP)
dichloroacetic acid  (ISO)
dienogest  (ISO)
Difethialone  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
eptifibatide  (ISO)
Ethyl icosapentate  (EXP)
etonogestrel  (EXP)
fenofibrate  (ISO)
fenthion  (ISO)
flutamide  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
furan  (EXP)
genistein  (EXP,ISO)
gestodene  (ISO)
heparin  (ISO)
hydrocortisone succinate  (ISO)
indometacin  (ISO)
inulin  (ISO)
ioxaglic acid  (ISO)
iron atom  (ISO)
iron(0)  (ISO)
iron(2+) sulfate (anhydrous)  (ISO)
iron(III) citrate  (ISO)
lead(0)  (ISO)
lepirudin  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
LY294002  (ISO)
manganese atom  (ISO)
manganese(0)  (ISO)
medroxyprogesterone acetate  (EXP,ISO)
melagatran  (ISO)
methidathion  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
morphine  (EXP)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nicotine  (ISO)
nimesulide  (EXP,ISO)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
nitrofen  (EXP)
NS-398  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (EXP)
olanzapine  (ISO)
ozone  (EXP)
paclitaxel  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraoxon  (ISO)
paraquat  (EXP)
PCB138  (ISO)
pentanal  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (EXP)
phenprocoumon  (EXP)
phenytoin  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate  (ISO)
phylloquinone  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium chloride  (EXP)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
progesterone  (ISO)
propanal  (ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (EXP,ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
quinapril hydrochloride  (ISO)
reactive oxygen species  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
simvastatin  (ISO)
sirolimus  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
splitomicin  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
testosterone enanthate  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
thromboxane A2  (ISO)
thromboxane B2  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP,ISO)
trimellitic anhydride  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
tropan-3alpha-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropanoate  (ISO)
trovafloxacin  (ISO)
U-73122  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
venom  (ISO)
vincristine  (ISO)
vitamin E  (ISO)
vorinostat  (ISO)
warfarin  (EXP,ISO)
ximelagatran  (ISO)
Y-27632  (ISO)
zinc atom  (ISO)
zinc protoporphyrin  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
acute-phase response  (IEA)
antimicrobial humoral immune response mediated by antimicrobial peptide  (IEA,ISO)
blood coagulation  (IEA)
cell surface receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to mechanical stimulus  (IEP)
cytolysis by host of symbiont cells  (IEA)
fibrinolysis  (IEA,ISO)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
ligand-gated ion channel signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of astrocyte differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of cytokine production involved in inflammatory response  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of proteolysis  (IEA,ISO)
neutrophil-mediated killing of gram-negative bacterium  (IEA)
platelet activation  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of blood coagulation  (IBA,IEA,IMP,ISO)
positive regulation of cell growth  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of insulin secretion  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of phospholipase C-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of reactive oxygen species metabolic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol  (IEA,ISO)
proteolysis  (IEA)
regulation of cell shape  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
response to inactivity  (IEP)
response to Thyroglobulin triiodothyronine  (IEP)
response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone  (IEP)
response to thyroxine  (IEP)
response to wounding  (ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Identification and three-dimensional structural analysis of nine novel mutations in patients with prothrombin deficiency. Akhavan S, etal., Thromb Haemost. 2000 Dec;84(6):989-97.
2. Hypercoagulability: interaction between inflammation and coagulation in familial Mediterranean fever. Aksu G, etal., Clin Rheumatol. 2007 Mar;26(3):366-70. doi: 10.1007/s10067-006-0334-y. Epub 2006 May 24.
3. Continuous Active State of Coagulation System in Patients With Nonthrombotic Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Alkim H, etal., Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2011 May 17.
4. The coagulation/fibrinolysis balance in systemic sclerosis: evidence for a haematological stress syndrome. Ames PR, etal., Br J Rheumatol. 1997 Oct;36(10):1045-50.
5. Genetic diminution of circulating prothrombin ameliorates multiorgan pathologies in sickle cell disease mice. Arumugam PI, etal., Blood. 2015 Oct 8;126(15):1844-55. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-01-625707. Epub 2015 Aug 18.
6. Markers of autoreactivity, coagulation and angiogenesis in patients with nonallergic asthma. Asero R, etal., Allergy. 2011 Jun 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2011.02668.x.
7. Prediction of venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer by measuring thrombin generation: results from the Vienna Cancer and Thrombosis Study. Ay C, etal., J Clin Oncol. 2011 May 20;29(15):2099-103. Epub 2011 Apr 4.
8. Thrombin generation in type 2 diabetes with albuminuria and macrovascular disease. Ay L, etal., Eur J Clin Invest. 2012 May;42(5):470-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02602.x. Epub 2011 Sep 28.
9. Partial characterization of vertebrate prothrombin cDNAs: amplification and sequence analysis of the B chain of thrombin from nine different species. Banfield DK and MacGillivray RT, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1992 Apr 1;89(7):2779-83.
10. Thrombin generation in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease. Bernhard H, etal., Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2011 Feb 1. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21631.
11. Thrombin mutant W215A/E217A treatment improves neurological outcome and reduces cerebral infarct size in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Berny-Lang MA, etal., Stroke. 2011 Jun;42(6):1736-41. Epub 2011 Apr 21.
12. Antiinflammatory and antifibrotic effects of the oral direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate in a murine model of interstitial lung disease. Bogatkevich GS, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 2011 May;63(5):1416-25. doi: 10.1002/art.30255.
13. Mechanisms of anticoagulant and cytoprotective actions of the protein C pathway. Bouwens EA, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2013 Jun;11 Suppl 1:242-53. doi: 10.1111/jth.12247.
14. Combined carrier status of prothrombin 20210A and factor XIII-A Leu34 alleles as a strong risk factor for myocardial infarction: evidence of a gene-gene interaction. Butt C, etal., Blood. 2003 Apr 15;101(8):3037-41. Epub 2002 Dec 12.
15. Increased blood coagulation and platelet activation in patients with infective endocarditis and embolic events. Buyukasýk NS, etal., Clin Cardiol. 2004 Mar;27(3):154-8. doi: 10.1002/clc.4960270312.
16. Lack of association between inherited thrombophilic risk factors and idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Italian patients. Cadoni G, etal., Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2006 Mar;115(3):195-200.
17. Genetic and acquired prothrombotic risk factors and sudden hearing loss. Capaccio P, etal., Laryngoscope. 2007 Mar;117(3):547-51.
18. A hypercoagulable and hypofibrinolytic state is detectable by global methods in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Cellai AP, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2012 Sep;224(1):97-101. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.06.053. Epub 2012 Jul 3.
19. Thrombin mediates severe neurovascular injury during ischemia. Chen B, etal., Stroke. 2010 Oct;41(10):2348-52. Epub 2010 Aug 12.
20. Multiplexed quantification of 63 proteins in human urine by multiple reaction monitoring-based mass spectrometry for discovery of potential bladder cancer biomarkers. Chen YT, etal., J Proteomics. 2012 Jun 27;75(12):3529-45. Epub 2012 Jan 3.
21. Activation of the coagulation cascade in patients with leptospirosis. Chierakul W, etal., Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jan 15;46(2):254-60. doi: 10.1086/524664.
22. Upregulation of neurotoxic serine proteases, prothrombin, and protease-activated receptor 1 early after spinal cord injury. Citron BA, etal., J Neurotrauma. 2000 Dec;17(12):1191-203.
23. Prevalence and association of the factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A in healthy subjects and patients with venous thromboembolism. Coen D, etal., Croat Med J. 2001 Aug;42(4):488-92.
24. Nebulized anticoagulants limit coagulopathy but not inflammation in pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced pneumonia in rats. Cornet AD, etal., Shock. 2011 Oct;36(4):417-23.
25. MTHFR C677T mutation, factor II G20210A mutation and factor V Leiden as risks factor for youth retinal vein occlusion. Cruciani F, etal., Clin Ter. 2003 Sep-Oct;154(5):299-303.
26. Activation of the coagulation cascade in C1-inhibitor deficiencies. Cugno M, etal., Blood. 1997 May 1;89(9):3213-8.
27. Acute coagulopathy of trauma in the rat. Darlington DN, etal., Shock. 2013 May;39(5):440-6. doi: 10.1097/SHK.0b013e31829040e3.
28. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation induced by ADP and ameliorates coagulation alterations in experimental sepsis in rats. de Oliveira LM, etal., J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2010 May;29(4):387-94. doi: 10.1007/s11239-009-0387-2. Epub 2009 Aug 25.
29. Functional polymorphisms of the coagulation factor II gene (F2) and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. Demirci FY, etal., J Rheumatol. 2011 Apr;38(4):652-7. Epub 2011 Jan 15.
30. cDNA sequence of rat prothrombin. Dihanich M and Monard D, Nucleic Acids Res 1990 Jul 25;18(14):4251.
31. The 3'end prothrombin gene variants in patients with different thrombotic events. Djordjevic V, etal., Lab Med. 2014 Fall;45(4):309-14. doi: 10.1309/LM8E84ZSLPDMWZCM.
32. Thrombin generation in trauma patients. Dunbar NM and Chandler WL, Transfusion. 2009 Dec;49(12):2652-60. doi: 10.1111/j.1537-2995.2009.02335.x. Epub 2009 Aug 4.
33. Folate deficiency-induced hyperhomocysteinemia attenuates, and folic acid supplementation restores, the functional activities of rat coagulation factors XII, X, and II. Ebbesen LS and Ingerslev J, J Nutr. 2005 Aug;135(8):1836-40.
34. Thrombophilia and avascular necrosis of femoral head in kidney allograft recipients. Ekmekci Y, etal., Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006 Dec;21(12):3555-8. Epub 2006 Sep 12.
35. Assessment of markers of thrombin generation in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by ventricular fibrillation. Elmas E, etal., Clin Cardiol. 2006 Apr;29(4):165-9.
36. Thrombotic gene polymorphisms and postoperative outcome after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Emiroglu O, etal., J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011 Sep 28;6:120.
37. The protein C pathway. Esmon CT, Chest. 2003 Sep;124(3 Suppl):26S-32S.
38. The development of inflammatory joint disease is attenuated in mice expressing the anticoagulant prothrombin mutant W215A/E217A. Flick MJ, etal., Blood. 2011 Jun 9;117(23):6326-37. Epub 2011 Mar 24.
39. Cross Talk Pathways Between Coagulation and Inflammation. Foley JH and Conway EM, Circ Res. 2016 Apr 29;118(9):1392-408. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.306853.
40. The in vivo kinetics of tissue factor messenger RNA expression during human endotoxemia: relationship with activation of coagulation. Franco RF, etal., Blood. 2000 Jul 15;96(2):554-9.
41. A specific thrombin inhibitor, argatroban, alleviates herpes zoster-associated pain. Fujii K, etal., J Dermatol. 2001 Apr;28(4):200-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2001.tb00118.x.
42. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
43. Metabolic, inflammatory, endothelial and haemostatic markers in a group of Italian obese children and adolescents. Giordano P, etal., Eur J Pediatr. 2011 Jul;170(7):845-50. Epub 2011 Jan 6.
44. Renal prothrombin mRNA is significantly decreased in a hyperoxaluric rat model of nephrolithiasis. Grover PK, etal., J Pathol. 2006 Nov;210(3):273-81.
45. Factor V Leiden mutation and PAI-1 gene 4G/5G genotype in thrombotic patients with Behcet's disease. Gurgey A, etal., Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2003 Feb;14(2):121-4.
46. Recombinant human prothrombin (MEDI8111) prevents bleeding in haemophilia A and B mice. Hansson KM, etal., Haemophilia. 2016 May;22(3):453-61. doi: 10.1111/hae.12861. Epub 2015 Dec 3.
47. The Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma is Due to Impaired Initial Thrombin Generation but Not Clot Formation or Clot Strength. Harr JN, etal., J Surg Res. 2011 Apr 17.
48. Thrombin-cleaved osteopontin levels in synovial fluid correlate with disease severity of knee osteoarthritis. Hasegawa M, etal., J Rheumatol. 2011 Jan;38(1):129-34. Epub 2010 Nov 1.
49. Antithrombotic activity of kininogen is mediated by inhibitory effects of domain 3 during arterial injury in vivo. Hassan S, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jun;292(6):H2959-65. Epub 2007 Feb 9.
50. Inflammatory and Prothrombotic Activation With Conserved Endothelial Function in Patients With Chronic, Asymptomatic Chagas Disease. Herrera RN, etal., Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2010 Aug 10.
51. The role of thrombin in gliomas. Hua Y, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Sep;3(9):1917-23. Epub 2005 Jun 24.
52. Increased prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV, and haptoglobin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huntington's disease. Huang YC, etal., PLoS One. 2011 Jan 31;6(1):e15809.
53. Detection of a single base substitution of the gene for prothrombin Tokushima. The application of PCR-SSCP for the genetic and molecular analysis of dysprothrombinemia. Iwahana H, etal., Int J Hematol. 1992 Feb;55(1):93-100.
54. Shortened blood coagulation times in genetically obese rats and diet-induced obese mice. Kaji N, etal., J Vet Med Sci. 2013 Oct 1;75(9):1245-8. Epub 2013 Apr 26.
55. Comparison of matrix proteins in different types of urinary stone by proteomic analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Kaneko K, etal., Int J Urol. 2012 Aug;19(8):765-72. doi: 10.1111/j.1442-2042.2012.03005.x. Epub 2012 Apr 11.
56. A prothrombin gene mutation is significantly associated with venous thrombosis. Kapur RK, etal., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Nov;17(11):2875-9.
57. Localization and expression of prothrombin in rodent osteoclasts and long bones. Karlstrom E, etal., Calcif Tissue Int. 2011 Mar;88(3):179-88. doi: 10.1007/s00223-010-9443-3. Epub 2010 Dec 30.
58. [Evaluation of thrombin in urine as a real-time indicator of clotting activation in glomerulonephritis]. Kitamoto Y, etal., Rinsho Byori. 2004 Apr;52(4):350-4.
59. Differential effects of TAK-442, a novel orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor, and ximelagatran, a thrombin inhibitor, on factor V-mediated feedback on coagulation cascade and bleeding. Konishi N, etal., Thromb Haemost. 2010 Sep;104(3):504-13. doi: 10.1160/TH09-12-0817. Epub 2010 Jul 20.
60. Modification in the von Hippel-Lindau protein is involved in the progression of experimentally induced rat glomerulonephritis. Kudo Y, etal., Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2007;106(3):e97-106. Epub 2007 May 22.
61. Serum omentin and vaspin levels in cirrhotic patients with and without portal vein thrombosis. Kukla M, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Apr 14;23(14):2613-2624. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i14.2613.
62. In vivo anticoagulant effect of ethyl pyruvate in endotoxemic rats. Kung CW, etal., Thromb Res. 2011 Jun;127(6):582-8. Epub 2011 Mar 10.
63. A common mutation, Arg457-->Gln, links prothrombin deficiencies in the Puerto Rican population. Lefkowitz JB, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2003 Nov;1(11):2381-8.
64. The thrombophilic network of autoantibodies in celiac disease. Lerner A, etal., BMC Med. 2013 Apr 4;11:89. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-89.
65. Alterations of the preoperative coagulation profile in patients with acute appendicitis. Li J, etal., Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011 Aug;49(8):1333-9. Epub 2011 Jun 13.
66. Antithrombotic activity of HY023016, a novel Dabigatran prodrug evaluated in animal thrombosis models. Li YZ, etal., Thromb Res. 2013 May;131(5):425-35. doi: 10.1016/j.thromres.2013.03.004. Epub 2013 Mar 25.
67. Dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 binds to prothrombin/thrombin and inhibits prothrombin activation. Lin SW, etal., J Infect. 2012 Mar;64(3):325-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2011.11.023. Epub 2011 Nov 25.
68. In vitro efficacy of pro- and anticoagulant strategies in compensated and acutely ill patients with cirrhosis. Lisman T, etal., Liver Int. 2018 Nov;38(11):1988-1996. doi: 10.1111/liv.13882. Epub 2018 May 30.
69. [Experimental anticoagulant therapy of acute lung injury induced by paraquat]. Liu F, etal., Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2012 Mar;30(3):190-3.
70. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) and markers of endothelial cell injury in dialyzed patients with diabetic nephropathy. Malyszko J, etal., Thromb Haemost. 2004 Mar;91(3):480-6.
72. Thrombophilic risk factors in patients with severe carotid atherosclerosis. Marcucci R, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Mar;3(3):502-7.
73. Activation of coagulation in bullous pemphigoid and other eosinophil-related inflammatory skin diseases. Marzano AV, etal., Clin Exp Immunol. 2011 Jul;165(1):44-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2011.04391.x. Epub 2011 Apr 13.
74. Inverse correlation between activated protein C generation and carotid atherosclerosis in Type 2 diabetic patients. Matsumoto K, etal., Diabet Med. 2007 Dec;24(12):1322-8. Epub 2007 Oct 29.
75. Thrombophilia is significantly associated with severe preeclampsia: results of a large-scale, case-controlled study. Mello G, etal., Hypertension. 2005 Dec;46(6):1270-4. Epub 2005 Oct 24.
76. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
77. Genetic elimination of prothrombin in adult mice is not compatible with survival and results in spontaneous hemorrhagic events in both heart and brain. Mullins ES, etal., Blood. 2009 Jan 15;113(3):696-704. doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-07-169003. Epub 2008 Oct 16.
78. Thrombin-inhibiting perfluorocarbon nanoparticles provide a novel strategy for the treatment and magnetic resonance imaging of acute thrombosis. Myerson J, etal., J Thromb Haemost. 2011 Jul;9(7):1292-300. doi: 10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04339.x.
79. Ellagic acid-induced hypercoagulable state in animals: a potentially useful animal hypercoagulable model for evaluation of anticoagulants. Na L, etal., Chin Med Sci J. 2010 Dec;25(4):237-42.
80. Identification of thrombin-like activity in ovarian cancer associated ascites and modulation of multiple cytokine networks. Naldini A, etal., Thromb Haemost. 2011 Aug 11;106(4).
81. Protease-activated receptor-1 and platelet-derived growth factor in spinal cord neurons are implicated in neuropathic pain after nerve injury. Narita M, etal., J Neurosci. 2005 Oct 26;25(43):10000-9.
82. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
83. Effects of the hormones of the thyroid axis on the vitamin K-dependent plasma factors of blood coagulation (II, VII, IX, and X). Negrev NN, etal., Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2008 Jan-Mar;21(1):221-6.
84. Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis in childhood diarrhoea-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Nevard CH, etal., Thromb Haemost. 1997 Dec;78(6):1450-5.
85. Effect of dienogest on bleeding time, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet aggregation in female rats. Nobukata H, etal., Toxicol Lett. 1999 Jan 11;104(1-2):93-101.
86. Blood coagulation. Norris LA, Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003 Jun;17(3):369-83.
87. Genetic analysis and functional characterization of prothrombins Corpus Christi (Arg382-Cys), Dhahran (Arg271-His), and hypoprothrombinemia. O'Marcaigh AS, etal., Blood. 1996 Oct 1;88(7):2611-8.
88. Myocardial damage, coagulation activity and the response to thrombin inhibition in unstable coronary artery disease. Oldgren J, etal., Thromb Haemost. 2004 Feb;91(2):381-7.
89. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
90. 5/6 nephrectomy as a validated rat model mimicking human warfarin-related nephropathy. Ozcan A, etal., Am J Nephrol. 2012;35(4):356-64. doi: 10.1159/000337918. Epub 2012 Apr 2.
91. Heparin blunts endotoxin-induced coagulation activation. Pernerstorfer T, etal., Circulation. 1999 Dec 21-28;100(25):2485-90. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.100.25.2485.
92. Enhanced thrombin generation in children with sickle cell disease. Peters M, etal., Thromb Haemost. 1994 Feb;71(2):169-72.
93. Intrauterine expression of prothrombin in the sprague-dawley rat. Phillippe M, etal., J Soc Gynecol Investig 2002 Sep-Oct;9(5):276-81.
94. Hypercoagulability biomarkers in Trypanosoma cruzi -infected patients. Pinazo MJ, etal., Thromb Haemost. 2011 Oct;106(4):617-23. doi: 10.1160/TH11-04-0251. Epub 2011 Aug 25.
95. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
96. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
97. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
98. Effect of acute exacerbations on circulating endothelial, clotting and fibrinolytic markers in COPD patients. Polosa R, etal., Intern Emerg Med. 2011 Jun 10.
99. Risk factors of sensorineural hearing loss in patients with ischemic stroke. Przewozny T, etal., Otol Neurotol. 2008 Sep;29(6):745-50. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e318181336c.
100. Plasma markers of hypercoagulability in patients with serious infections and risk of septic shock. Psuja P, etal., Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2002 Jul;8(3):225-30.
101. Bacillus anthracis cell wall peptidoglycan but not lethal or edema toxins produces changes consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation in a rat model. Qiu P, etal., J Infect Dis. 2013 Sep;208(6):978-89. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit247. Epub 2013 Jun 3.
102. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
103. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
104. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
105. Increase of prothrombin-mRNA after global cerebral ischemia in rats, with constant expression of protease nexin-1 and protease-activated receptors. Riek-Burchardt M, etal., Neurosci Lett 2002 Aug 30;329(2):181-4.
106. Hemodialysis vascular access thrombosis: The role of factor V Leiden, prothrombin gene mutation and ABO blood groups. Rios DR, etal., Clin Chim Acta. 2011 Feb 20;412(5-6):425-9. Epub 2010 Nov 8.
107. Prothrombin haplotype associated with kidney stone disease in Northeastern Thai patients. Rungroj N, etal., Urology. 2011 Jan;77(1):249.e17-23. Epub 2010 Nov 10.
108. Coagulation system activated in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients with cardiac dysfunction. Saito T, etal., Brain Dev. 2005 Sep;27(6):415-8. Epub 2004 Dec 15.
109. Enhanced expression of monocyte tissue factor in patients with liver cirrhosis. Saliola M, etal., Gut. 1998 Sep;43(3):428-32. doi: 10.1136/gut.43.3.428.
110. Hematological and morphological investigation of thrombogenic mechanisms in the lungs of phenylhydrazine-treated rats. Sato H, etal., Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013 May;65(4):457-62. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2012.01.004. Epub 2012 Mar 7.
111. Initial predictive factors of outcome in severe non-accidental head trauma in children. Scavarda D, etal., Childs Nerv Syst. 2010 Nov;26(11):1555-61. Epub 2010 May 12.
112. The disturbance of hemostasis in septic shock: role of neutrophil elastase and thrombin, effects of antithrombin III and plasma substitution. Seitz R, etal., Eur J Haematol. 1989 Jul;43(1):22-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.1989.tb01246.x.
113. Serum connective tissue markers as predictors of advanced fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and D. Seven G, etal., Turk J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jun;22(3):305-14.
114. A recombinant murine meizothrombin precursor, prothrombin R157A/R268A, inhibits thrombosis in a model of acute carotid artery injury. Shim K, etal., Blood. 2004 Jul 15;104(2):415-9. Epub 2004 Mar 23.
115. Role of thrombin in chronic rhinosinusitis-associated tissue remodeling. Shimizu S, etal., Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011 Jan-Feb;25(1):7-11.
116. [Association of hemostatic disorders in diabetic patients with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T) and coagulation factors II (G20210A) and V (G1691A) gene polymorphism]. Sibireva OF, Klin Lab Diagn. 2011 Mar;(3):36-9.
117. Prevalence of Hereditary Thrombophilia in Patients Older Than 75 Years With Venous Thromboembolism Referred for Thrombophilia Screening. Siguret V, etal., J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015 Aug;70(8):977-81. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glu240. Epub 2015 Feb 9.
118. Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G20210A mutations in Italian patients with Behcet's disease and deep vein thrombosis. Silingardi M, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Apr 15;51(2):177-83.
119. Is fibrin formation and thrombin generation increased during and after an acute coronary syndrome? Skeppholm M, etal., Thromb Res. 2011 Apr 13.
120. How it all starts: Initiation of the clotting cascade. Smith SA, etal., Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;50(4):326-36. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2015.1050550. Epub 2015 May 28.
121. Renal tissue factor expression is increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Sommeijer DW, etal., Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2005;101(3):e86-94. Epub 2005 Jun 30.
122. Prothrombin deficiency results in embryonic and neonatal lethality in mice. Sun WY, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998 Jun 23;95(13):7597-602.
123. Validating the incidence of coagulopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients with traumatic brain injury--analysis of 242 cases. Sun Y, etal., Br J Neurosurg. 2011 Jun;25(3):363-8. Epub 2011 Feb 28.
124. Comparison of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 with thrombin-antithrombin III complex in plasma of patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation. Takahashi H, etal., Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1992 Dec;3(6):813-8.
125. Coagulation and fibrinolysis abnormalities in familial amyloid polyneuropathy. Takahashi R, etal., Amyloid. 2012 Sep;19(3):129-32. doi: 10.3109/13506129.2012.691918. Epub 2012 May 25.
126. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
127. Coagulation factor Xa activates thrombin in ischemic neural tissue. Thevenet J, etal., J Neurochem. 2009 Aug 31.
128. Evidence of normal thrombin generation in cirrhosis despite abnormal conventional coagulation tests. Tripodi A, etal., Hepatology. 2005 Mar;41(3):553-8. doi: 10.1002/hep.20569.
129. Evaluation of coagulation during treatment with directly acting antivirals in patients with hepatitis C virus related cirrhosis. Tripodi A, etal., Liver Int. 2017 Sep;37(9):1295-1303. doi: 10.1111/liv.13374. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
130. Prothrombin gene expression in articular cartilage with a putative role in cartilage degeneration secondary to joint immobility. Trudel G, etal., J Rheumatol. 2005 Aug;32(8):1547-55.
131. Application of thrombelastography in liver injury induced by endotoxin in rat. Tsai HJ, etal., Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2012 Mar;23(2):118-26. doi: 10.1097/MBC.0b013e32834ee170.
132. Effects of gabexate mesilate on coagulopathy and organ dysfunction in rats with endotoxemia: a potential use of thrombelastography in endotoxin-induced sepsis. Tsai HJ, etal., Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2015 Mar;26(2):175-84. doi: 10.1097/MBC.0000000000000214.
133. Beneficial effects of magnolol in a rodent model of endotoxin shock. Tsai YC, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Sep 1;641(1):67-73. Epub 2010 May 25.
134. Hyperglycemia is associated with enhanced thrombin formation, platelet activation, and fibrin clot resistance to lysis in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Undas A, etal., Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug;31(8):1590-5. Epub 2008 May 16.
135. Association between low-grade disseminated intravascular coagulation and endotoxemia in patients with liver cirrhosis. Violi F, etal., Gastroenterology. 1995 Aug;109(2):531-9. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(95)90342-9.
136. Coagulation disorders in patients with severe leptospirosis are associated with severe bleeding and mortality. Wagenaar JF, etal., Trop Med Int Health. 2010 Feb;15(2):152-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02434.x. Epub 2009 Dec 9.
137. Expression of coagulation factors and their receptors in tumor tissue and coagulation factor upregulation in peripheral blood of patients with cerebral carcinoma metastases. Walter J, etal., J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012 Jan;138(1):141-51. Epub 2011 Nov 8.
138. Clinical features and treatment of COVID-19 patients in northeast Chongqing. Wan S, etal., J Med Virol. 2020 Jul;92(7):797-806. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25783. Epub 2020 Apr 1.
139. [Effect of inhalation of aerosolized unfractioned heparin on peri alveolar coagulability and inflammatory response in endotoxin induced acute lung injury rat model]. Wang ZY, etal., Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2011 Apr;23(4):239-42.
140. Activated contact system and abnormal glycosaminoglycans in lupus and other auto- and non-autoimmune diseases. Weiser P, etal., Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2010;93:443-72.
141. Analysis of thrombin-antithrombin complex contents in plasma and hematoma fluid of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage patients after clot removal. Wu CH, etal., Eur J Neurol. 2011 Aug;18(8):1060-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03336.x. Epub 2011 Jan 18.
142. Time course of upregulation of inflammatory mediators in the hemorrhagic brain in rats: correlation with brain edema. Wu H, etal., Neurochem Int. 2010 Oct;57(3):248-53. Epub 2010 Jun 10.
143. cDNA microarray analysis of spinal cord injury and regeneration related genes in rat. Xiao L, etal., Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2005 Dec 25;57(6):705-13.
144. Levels of vitamin K, immunoreactive prothrombin, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin and gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue. Yamagata H, etal., J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1995 Jan-Feb;10(1):8-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.1995.tb01040.x.
145. Protective effects of antithrombin on puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats. Yamashita J, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2008 Jul 28;589(1-3):239-44. Epub 2008 May 14.
146. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with severe covid-19 with diabetes. Yan Y, etal., BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020 Apr;8(1). pii: 8/1/e001343. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001343.
147. [Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on hemorheology and coagulation in atherosclerotic rats]. Yang YB, etal., Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010 Jul 27;90(28):2004-7.
148. Clinicopathological features of severe and fulminant forms of autoimmune hepatitis. Yasui S, etal., J Gastroenterol. 2011 Mar;46(3):378-90. Epub 2010 Sep 7.
149. Risk factors associated with relapse of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis in Japan. Yokokawa J, etal., Hepatol Res. 2011 Jul;41(7):641-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1872-034X.2011.00812.x.
150. Exogenous normal lymph alleviating kidney injury by improving coagulation function in disseminated intravascular coagulation rats. Zhao ZG, etal., Ren Fail. 2012;34(2):221-6. Epub 2012 Jan 9.
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Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1672265   PMID:1691280   PMID:1695900   PMID:2435757   PMID:7559487   PMID:8626514   PMID:9038223   PMID:9639571   PMID:11309392   PMID:12479881   PMID:12855810   PMID:14753426  
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PMID:23043906   PMID:23103417   PMID:23338707   PMID:23376485   PMID:23533145   PMID:24916589   PMID:28059686   PMID:28489922  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2377,596,196 - 77,609,486 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl377,596,198 - 77,609,486 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx381,071,217 - 81,084,670 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0389,670,242 - 89,683,695 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0387,521,762 - 87,534,981 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0380,529,468 - 80,542,993 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl380,529,428 - 80,543,031 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,228,703 - 87,242,228 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,005,318 - 76,018,603 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1375,901,694 - 75,914,982 (-)NCBI
Celera376,801,000 - 76,814,280 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3q24NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh381146,719,213 - 46,739,506 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1146,719,196 - 46,739,506 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371146,740,763 - 46,761,056 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361146,697,331 - 46,717,631 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341146,697,330 - 46,717,631NCBI
Celera1146,888,702 - 46,909,014 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map11p11.2NCBI
HuRef1146,446,660 - 46,466,973 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11146,739,149 - 46,759,462 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01146,875,235 - 46,896,332 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39291,442,742 - 91,466,799 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl291,455,665 - 91,466,759 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38291,612,397 - 91,636,457 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl291,625,320 - 91,636,414 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37291,465,477 - 91,476,571 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36291,426,159 - 91,437,253 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera293,014,831 - 93,025,920 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2E1NCBI
cM Map250.63NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554221,356,769 - 1,367,517 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554221,356,675 - 1,367,788 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan11148,943,307 - 48,965,006 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01146,669,925 - 46,690,391 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11147,227,891 - 47,249,157 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1147,227,891 - 47,249,157 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11842,782,744 - 42,799,531 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1842,782,751 - 42,799,459 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1841,511,662 - 41,528,485 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01843,438,760 - 43,455,850 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1843,438,759 - 43,455,806 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11842,924,063 - 42,940,888 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01842,479,219 - 42,496,510 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01843,208,980 - 43,225,802 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494720,260,330 - 20,277,033 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365622,372,044 - 2,388,650 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365622,371,725 - 2,388,617 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl215,791,455 - 15,819,137 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1215,793,257 - 15,819,151 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2217,145,002 - 17,170,975 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247671,877,024 - 1,887,958 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247671,876,974 - 1,887,720 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in F2
48 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:159
Count of miRNA genes:134
Interacting mature miRNAs:144
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2290452Scl56Serum cholesterol level QTL 562.26blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)3191609953Rat
1358905Hrtrt17Heart rate QTL 175.90.000014heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)31086191289878372Rat
1358885Bp251Blood pressure QTL 2513.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
1358888Bp264Blood pressure QTL 2644.43arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
737818Hcar12Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 122.6liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)volume of individual liver tumorous lesion (CMO:0001078)329463235118376539Rat
61419Cia11Collagen induced arthritis QTL 115.6joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)33035677398535386Rat
70216Cm14Cardiac mass QTL 142.1heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)331172320163586636Rat
1354589Bw31Body weight QTL 313.3body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33370334778196190Rat
1354604Bw36Body weight QTL 362.9body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)333703347104104347Rat
1358362Srcrt2Stress Responsive Cort QTL 22.78blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)338192233133483320Rat
738019Anxrr10Anxiety related response QTL 103.9exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)33851780383517803Rat
1331777Bw24Body weight QTL 243.503body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33945463789115240Rat
1331795Rf30Renal function QTL 303.708urine potassium amount (VT:0010539)urine potassium level (CMO:0000128)33945463789115240Rat
1354597Kidm13Kidney mass QTL 132.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)right kidney wet weight (CMO:0000082)341874578104104347Rat
2301970Bw81Body weight QTL 815.19body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)341874578155617519Rat
2301971Cm71Cardiac mass QTL 714.63heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight (CMO:0000776)341874578155617519Rat
1300178Hrtrt4Heart rate QTL 43.74heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)34382736490905114Rat
1581503Cm58Cardiac mass QTL 582.70.05heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)343827364121056321Rat
1559282Emca5Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 53.9mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)percentage of study population developing mammary tumors during a period of time (CMO:0000948)343827364169034231Rat
2292591Esta4Estrogen-induced thymic atrophy QTL 4thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus wet weight (CMO:0000855)347233211147415807Rat
1358186Ept2Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 28.3pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)347233430110362260Rat
2292613Ept16Estrogen-induced pituitary tumorigenesis QTL 168.3pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)347233430110362260Rat
631665Bw8Body weight QTL 85.5body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)350437042119183768Rat
724523Tsu1Thymus enlargement suppressive QTL 13.84thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)350437504115638231Rat
1582218Bw74Body weight QTL 743.90.0021body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)353184593115665732Rat
1582238Bw68Body weight QTL 683.20.0064body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)353184593115665732Rat
1582239Epfw1Epididymal fat weight QTL 14.50.0006epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)353184593115665732Rat
61377Edpm3Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 37.050.038pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)35318469289878207Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)35378111291609953Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)35378111291609953Rat
731180Bp152Blood pressure QTL 1520.03arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)35378111291609953Rat
1581568Rf53Renal function QTL 53urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine protein excretion rate to body weight ratio (CMO:0001099)356395968161299569Rat
8662816Vetf4Vascular elastic tissue fragility QTL 44renal artery integrity trait (VT:0010642)number of ruptures of the internal elastic lamina of the renal arteries (CMO:0002563)359242096157323038Rat
1300111Rf12Renal function QTL 123.78renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)361017749121056321Rat
631200Cm25Cardiac mass QTL 254.80.0001heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle wet weight (CMO:0000071)36113434889115068Rat
1582210Bw71Body weight QTL 713.30.0012body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)364655305115665732Rat
1582221Kidm30Kidney mass QTL 303.50.0008kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)364655305115665732Rat
12879848Bw181Body weght QTL 1810.015body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)370348525121056321Rat
2301414Kidm37Kidney mass QTL 370.001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)370653097121056321Rat
1600376Arunc5Aerobic running capacity QTL 50.21exercise endurance trait (VT:0002332)maximum distance run on treadmill (CMO:0001406)373376539118376539Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2377,604,312 - 77,604,554 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0380,537,822 - 80,538,061NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,237,057 - 87,237,296UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,013,431 - 76,013,671RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.4376,013,432 - 76,013,671UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera376,809,107 - 76,809,348UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2377,596,263 - 77,596,426 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0380,529,536 - 80,529,698NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0387,228,771 - 87,228,933UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4376,005,386 - 76,005,548UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera376,801,068 - 76,801,230UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q24UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 25 25 25
Medium 25 16 7 16 9 2 1
Low 3 5 7 10 8 10 25 26 33 10 8
Below cutoff 13 2 1 26 5


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000022233   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000022233
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl377,596,198 - 77,609,486 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl380,529,428 - 80,543,031 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000095299   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000086700
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl377,596,310 - 77,609,486 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_022924   ⟹   NP_075213
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2377,596,196 - 77,609,486 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0380,529,468 - 80,542,993 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0387,228,703 - 87,242,228 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4376,005,318 - 76,018,603 (-)RGD
Celera376,801,000 - 76,814,280 (-)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_075213 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAA42240 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  CAA37017 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL79531 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL79532 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000022233
GenBank Protein P18292 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_075213   ⟸   NM_022924
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P18292 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   G3V843 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6HND0 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000022233   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000022233
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000086700   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000095299
Protein Domains
Gla   Kringle   Peptidase S1

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P18292-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P18292 1-617 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13692216
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R2740
Type:multiple initiation site
Description:coagulation factor II
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0380,542,983 - 80,543,043EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:61996 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-48724 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000016325 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000022233 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000022233.6 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000095299.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  4.10.740.10 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Coagulation_fac-like_Gla_dom UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GLA-like_dom_SF UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GLA_domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Kringle UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Kringle-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Kringle_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Kringle_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Peptidase_S1_PA UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Peptidase_S1_PA_chymotrypsin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Peptidase_S1A UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Prothrombin/thrombin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Thrombin_light_chain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Thrombin_light_chain_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Trypsin_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TRYPSIN_HIS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TRYPSIN_SER UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:29251 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR24254:SF10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Gla UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Kringle UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Thrombin_light UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Trypsin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen F2 PhenoGen
PIRSF Thrombin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GLABLOOD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  KRINGLE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PROTHROMBIN UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PROSITE GLA_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GLA_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  KRINGLE_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  KRINGLE_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TRYPSIN_DOM UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TRYPSIN_HIS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TRYPSIN_SER UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000016325 RatGTEx
SMART GLA UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SM00130 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Tryp_SPc UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF50494 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF57440 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF57630 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC220290
  P18292 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2023-06-19 F2  coagulation factor II, thrombin  F2  coagulation factor II  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-09-09 F2  coagulation factor II (thrombin)  F2  coagulation factor II  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2006-03-28   coagulation factor II  F2  coagulation factor 2  Name updated to reflect Human and Mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2004-12-14 F2  coagulation factor 2      Symbol and Name status set to approved 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 F2  coagulation factor 2      Name updated 70585 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference