Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Star
Name: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
RGD ID: 3770
Description: Predicted to enable cholesterol binding activity. Involved in several processes, including cellular response to cytokine stimulus; cellular response to hormone stimulus; and steroid biosynthetic process. Located in mitochondrial crista and neuronal cell body. Biomarker of hypogonadism; hypothyroidism; nephrosis; polycystic ovary syndrome; and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Orthologous to human STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein); PARTICIPATES IN aldosterone biosynthetic pathway; cortisol biosynthetic pathway; estradiol biosynthetic pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-pilocarpine; (-)-citrinin; (25R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol.
Type: protein-coding
Previously known as: stARD1; START domain-containing protein 1; steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, mitochondrial
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21666,267,094 - 66,274,368 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1666,264,807 - 66,271,672 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1671,545,726 - 71,550,356 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01674,952,036 - 74,956,666 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01670,191,932 - 70,196,560 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01671,036,204 - 71,040,847 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1671,036,204 - 71,040,847 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01670,700,880 - 70,705,523 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41670,642,580 - 70,647,203 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11670,640,558 - 70,647,408 (-)NCBI
Celera1664,176,969 - 64,181,592 (-)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map16622.1RGD
Cytogenetic Map16q12.4NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-dexrazoxane  (ISO)
(+)-pilocarpine  (EXP)
(-)-anisomycin  (ISO)
(-)-citrinin  (EXP)
(25R)-cholest-5-ene-3beta,26-diol  (EXP,ISO)
(6aR,11aS,11bR)-10-acetyl-11-hydroxy-7,7-dimethyl-2,6,6a,7,11a,11b-hexahydro-9H-pyrrolo[1',2':2,3]isoindolo[4,5,6-cd]indol-9-one  (EXP)
(E)-thiamethoxam  (EXP)
(R)-carnitine  (EXP)
(R)-lipoic acid  (EXP)
(R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
1,1,1-Trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane  (EXP)
1,2-dichloroethane  (ISO)
1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol  (EXP)
1,3-dinitrobenzene  (EXP)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionitrile  (ISO)
2,4,6-tribromophenol  (ISO)
2,4,6-trichlorophenol  (ISO)
2,4-dibromophenol  (ISO)
2,6-dibromophenol  (ISO)
2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-\{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl](methyl)amino\}-2-(propan-2-yl)pentanenitrile  (ISO)
2-bromophenol  (ISO)
2-butoxyethanol  (ISO)
2-methoxyethanol  (EXP)
2-tert-butylhydroquinone  (EXP)
22-Hydroxycholesterol  (ISO)
25-hydroxycholesterol  (ISO)
26-hydroxycholesterol  (EXP,ISO)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (ISO)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (EXP)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine  (ISO)
3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluoro-1-decanol  (ISO)
3,4-dichloroaniline  (ISO)
3-\{1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl\}-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione  (EXP,ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (EXP,ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-nonylphenol  (ISO)
4-tert-Octylphenol  (ISO)
4-vinylcyclohexene dioxide  (EXP)
5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid  (EXP)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP,ISO)
8-Br-cAMP  (EXP,ISO)
acetaldehyde  (ISO)
acetamiprid  (EXP,ISO)
acrylamide  (EXP,ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP)
alginic acid  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
allethrin  (EXP)
alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane  (ISO)
aminoglutethimide  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amoxicillin  (ISO)
androgen antagonist  (EXP)
antalarmin  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (EXP,ISO)
antimycin A  (ISO)
apocynin  (EXP)
arachidonic acid  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
Aroclor 1254  (EXP)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
astressin  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (EXP)
atrazine  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
benzofurans  (ISO)
Benzylphosphonic acid  (ISO)
bifenthrin  (EXP,ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether  (ISO)
Bisphenol B  (EXP)
bisphenol F  (EXP,ISO)
bromocriptine  (EXP)
bucladesine  (EXP,ISO)
budesonide  (ISO)
Butylbenzyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
Butylparaben  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
caffeine  (EXP,ISO)
calcium atom  (ISO)
calcium(0)  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbaryl  (ISO)
carbendazim  (EXP)
celecoxib  (EXP)
cetrorelix  (ISO)
chlormequat chloride  (EXP)
chlorogenic acid  (EXP)
chlorohydrocarbon  (ISO)
chloroquine  (EXP)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP,ISO)
cholesterol  (EXP,ISO)
cholesterol sulfate  (ISO)
Chorionic gonadotropin  (EXP)
chromium atom  (EXP)
chromium(6+)  (EXP)
chrysin  (EXP)
ciglitazone  (ISO)
ciguatoxin CTX1B  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
clobetasol  (ISO)
clofibrate  (EXP)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (EXP,ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
cortisol  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cyhalothrin  (EXP)
cypermethrin  (EXP,ISO)
cyproconazole  (EXP)
D-aspartic acid  (EXP)
daidzein  (EXP)
daidzein 7-O-beta-D-glucoside  (EXP)
dantrolene  (ISO)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP,ISO)
delta-hexachlorocyclohexane  (ISO)
deoxynivalenol  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
Di-n-hexyl phthalate  (EXP)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
diazinon  (EXP)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
dibutylstannane  (EXP)
Dicyclohexyl phthalate  (EXP)
diethyl hydrogen phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
diethyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP,ISO)
difenoconazole  (EXP)
diheptyl phthalate  (EXP)
diisobutyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
Diisodecyl phthalate  (EXP)
diisononyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
diltiazem  (ISO)
dimethoate  (EXP,ISO)
dimethomorph  (EXP)
Dimethyl phthalate  (EXP)
dioxygen  (EXP)
dipentyl phthalate  (EXP)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
ellagic acid  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP,ISO)
enilconazole  (EXP,ISO)
enniatin  (ISO)
entinostat  (ISO)
epoxiconazole  (EXP)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl)tetraacetic acid  (EXP,ISO)
Ethylenethiourea  (ISO)
ethylparaben  (ISO)
etoxazole  (ISO)
fenvalerate  (EXP,ISO)
ferulic acid  (ISO)
flavonoids  (ISO)
fluconazole  (ISO)
flufenoxuron  (ISO)
fluoxetine  (EXP)
flutamide  (EXP,ISO)
fulvestrant  (EXP,ISO)
furan  (EXP)
fursultiamine  (EXP)
gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane  (EXP,ISO)
Geniposidic acid  (EXP)
genistein  (EXP,ISO)
genistein 7-O-beta-D-glucoside  (EXP)
glycidol  (ISO)
glycine  (ISO)
glycitein  (EXP)
glycitin  (EXP)
glyphosate  (ISO)
GW 3965  (ISO)
hexane  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP)
imidacloprid  (EXP,ISO)
indometacin  (ISO)
iodoacetic acid  (ISO)
isoflavones  (EXP)
isoliquiritigenin  (ISO)
Isradipine  (ISO)
ketoconazole  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP)
lamivudine  (ISO)
lamotrigine  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (EXP,ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP,ISO)
levetiracetam  (ISO)
linuron  (EXP)
lipoic acid  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
luteolin  (EXP)
lycopene  (EXP)
malathion  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP,ISO)
mercury dichloride  (EXP)
metformin  (EXP)
methotrexate  (EXP)
methoxychlor  (EXP,ISO)
midazolam  (ISO)
mifepristone  (ISO)
Mitotane  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
monobenzyl phthalate  (ISO)
Monobutylphthalate  (ISO)
monoethyl phthalate  (ISO)
morin  (EXP)
myricetin  (ISO)
N(gamma)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester  (EXP)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP,ISO)
N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP,ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
naringin  (EXP)
nickel sulfate  (EXP)
nicotine  (EXP,ISO)
nicotinic acid  (EXP)
nifedipine  (EXP,ISO)
nigericin  (ISO)
nimodipine  (ISO)
Nonylphenol  (EXP)
octreotide  (EXP,ISO)
ozone  (ISO)
p-tert-Amylphenol  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
pasireotide  (EXP,ISO)
pentachlorophenol  (ISO)
perflubron  (ISO)
perfluorododecanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorononanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluoroundecanoic acid  (EXP)
permethrin  (EXP,ISO)
phenylarsine oxide  (ISO)
phenylmercury acetate  (ISO)
phorbol 13-acetate 12-myristate  (ISO)
pinostrobin  (ISO)
Piperophos  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (EXP,ISO)
potassium dichromate  (EXP)
probucol  (ISO)
prochloraz  (EXP,ISO)
procymidone  (ISO)
profenofos  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propylparaben  (ISO)
prostaglandin E2  (ISO)
pyrethrins  (EXP)
quercetin  (EXP,ISO)
quinalphos  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rivaroxaban  (EXP)
rolipram  (EXP,ISO)
rotenone  (ISO)
rutin  (EXP)
ryanodine  (ISO)
SB 203580  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (EXP,ISO)
sertraline  (EXP)
sildenafil citrate  (EXP)
silver atom  (EXP)
silver(0)  (EXP)
simvastatin  (EXP)
sirolimus  (ISO)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium fluoride  (ISO)
sulfasalazine  (EXP)
sulfur dioxide  (ISO)
sulpiride  (EXP)
T-2 toxin  (EXP,ISO)
tangeretin  (EXP)
taurine  (EXP,ISO)
terbutylazine  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
testosterone enanthate  (EXP,ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP)
thiacloprid  (ISO)
thiamethoxam  (EXP)
thymol  (EXP)
thymol sulfate(1-)  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
torcetrapib  (ISO)
triadimefon  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (EXP,ISO)
trichlorfon  (EXP,ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triclosan  (EXP)
trimethyltin  (EXP)
triphenyl phosphate  (ISO)
triphenylstannane  (EXP,ISO)
Triptolide  (EXP)
tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate  (ISO)
tyrphostin AG 1478  (ISO)
uranium atom  (EXP)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vecuronium bromide  (ISO)
verapamil  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
vitamin E  (EXP)
wortmannin  (EXP)
zearalenone  (EXP,ISO)
zidovudine  (ISO)
zinc oxide  (ISO)
ziram  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
bile acid biosynthetic process  (IDA)
biphenyl metabolic process  (IEP)
cellular lipid metabolic process  (ISO)
cellular response to alkaloid  (IEP)
cellular response to antibiotic  (IEP)
cellular response to cadmium ion  (IEP)
cellular response to cAMP  (IEP)
cellular response to dexamethasone stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to epinephrine stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to fibroblast growth factor stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to follicle-stimulating hormone stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to glucose stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to gonadotropin stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to growth hormone stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to insulin stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to interferon-alpha  (IMP)
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide  (IEP)
cellular response to luteinizing hormone stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to metal ion  (IEP)
cellular response to organic cyclic compound  (IEP)
cellular response to transforming growth factor beta stimulus  (IEP)
cellular response to type II interferon  (IEP)
cholesterol metabolic process  (IEA)
circadian rhythm  (IEP)
dibenzo-p-dioxin metabolic process  (IEP)
diterpenoid metabolic process  (IEP)
estrogen biosynthetic process  (IMP)
glucocorticoid metabolic process  (ISO)
insecticide metabolic process  (IEP)
intermembrane lipid transfer  (IEA)
intracellular cholesterol transport  (IBA,IEP)
male gonad development  (IEP)
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (IMP)
organic acid metabolic process  (IEP)
phenol-containing compound metabolic process  (IEP)
phthalate metabolic process  (IEP)
positive regulation of bile acid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (IMP)
positive regulation of neurogenesis  (IMP)
regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity  (IMP)
regulation of steroid biosynthetic process  (IBA,ISO)
response to activity  (IEP)
response to benzoic acid  (IEP)
response to corticosterone  (IEP)
response to estrogen  (IEP)
response to ethanol  (IEP)
response to fungicide  (IEP)
response to gonadotropin  (IEP)
response to herbicide  (IEP)
response to hydrogen peroxide  (IEP)
response to insecticide  (IEP)
response to ionizing radiation  (IEP)
response to lead ion  (IEP)
response to leptin  (IEP)
response to nicotine  (IEP)
response to nutrient  (IEP)
response to nutrient levels  (IEP)
response to organic cyclic compound  (IEP)
response to organic substance  (IEP)
response to peptide hormone  (IEP)
response to retinoic acid  (HEP,IEP)
response to steroid hormone  (IEP)
response to toxic substance  (IEP)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
steroid biosynthetic process  (IBA,TAS)
testosterone biosynthetic process  (IEP)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function


References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. The effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on foetal male rat steroidogenesis. Adamsson A, etal., Int J Androl. 2009 Oct;32(5):575-85. Epub 2008 Jul 9.
2. Parabens inhibit the early phase of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis in the ovaries of neonatal rats. Ahn HJ, etal., Mol Reprod Dev. 2012 Sep;79(9):626-36. doi: 10.1002/mrd.22070. Epub 2012 Jul 26.
3. Leptin attenuates follicular apoptosis and accelerates the onset of puberty in immature rats. Almog B, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001 Oct 25;183(1-2):179-91.
4. Lactational exposure to hexavalent chromium delays puberty by impairing ovarian development, steroidogenesis and pituitary hormone synthesis in developing Wistar rats. Banu SK, etal., Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Oct 15;232(2):180-9. Epub 2008 Jun 17.
5. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in cultured Schwann cells and its regulation by cAMP. Benmessahel Y, etal., Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002 Nov;973:83-7.
6. Chronic ethanol exposure produces tolerance to elevations in neuroactive steroids: mechanisms and reversal by exogenous ACTH. Boyd KN, etal., J Neurochem. 2010 Oct;115(1):142-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06904.x. Epub 2010 Jul 30.
7. Antiandrogen exposure in utero disrupts expression of desert hedgehog and insulin-like factor 3 in the developing fetal rat testis. Brokken LJ, etal., Endocrinology. 2009 Jan;150(1):445-51. Epub 2008 Sep 4.
8. Regular exercise prevents the development of hyperglucocorticoidemia via adaptations in the brain and adrenal glands in male Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Campbell JE, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010 Jul;299(1):R168-76. Epub 2010 Apr 14.
9. Targeted disruption of the mouse gene encoding steroidogenic acute regulatory protein provides insights into congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. Caron KM, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11540-5.
10. Activation of the liver X receptor increases neuroactive steroid levels and protects from diabetes-induced peripheral neuropathy. Cermenati G, etal., J Neurosci. 2010 Sep 8;30(36):11896-901.
11. Effects of high levels of glucose on the steroidogenesis and the expression of adiponectin receptors in rat ovarian cells. Chabrolle C, etal., Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2008 Mar 19;6:11.
12. Nicotine-induced prenatal overexposure to maternal glucocorticoid and intrauterine growth retardation in rat. Chen M, etal., Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2007 Nov;59(3-4):245-51. Epub 2007 Sep 19.
13. Protein kinase Cmu mediates adenosine-stimulated steroidogenesis in primary rat adrenal cells. Chen YC, etal., FEBS Lett. 2010 Nov 5;584(21):4442-8. Epub 2010 Oct 13.
14. Crucial role of estrogen receptor-alpha interaction with transcription coregulators in follicle-stimulating hormone and transforming growth factor beta1 up-regulation of steroidogenesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells. Chen YJ, etal., Endocrinology. 2008 Sep;149(9):4658-68. Epub 2008 May 29.
15. The inhibitory effects of manganese on steroidogenesis in rat primary Leydig cells by disrupting steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression. Cheng J, etal., Toxicology 2003 May 3;187(2-3):139-48.
16. Submitochondrial distribution of three key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cytochrome p450scc and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isomerase enzymes) upon stimulation by intracellular calcium in adrenal glomerulosa cells. Cherradi N, etal., J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 21;272(12):7899-907.
17. Insulin-like growth factor-I is an important antiapoptotic factor for rat leydig cells during postnatal development. Colon E, etal., Endocrinology. 2007 Jan;148(1):128-39. Epub 2006 Oct 5.
18. Effect of restraint stress on 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats. Dhanabalan S, etal., Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010 Jul 7.
19. Fibroblast growth factor-9, a local regulator of ovarian function. Drummond AE, etal., Endocrinology. 2007 Aug;148(8):3711-21. Epub 2007 May 10.
20. Studies on the protective role of lycopene against polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1254)-induced changes in StAR protein and cytochrome P450 scc enzyme expression on Leydig cells of adult rats. Elumalai P, etal., Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Jan;27(1):41-5. Epub 2008 Nov 24.
21. Fenvalerate inhibits the growth of primary cultured rat preantral ovarian follicles. Fei J, etal., Toxicology. 2010 Jan 12;267(1-3):1-6. Epub 2009 Nov 3.
22. Strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate rescues adenine-induced male hypogonadism and upregulates the testicular endothelin-1 system. Feng Y, etal., Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007 Nov;34(11):1131-7.
23. Cholesterol-promoted synaptogenesis requires the conversion of cholesterol to estradiol in the hippocampus. Fester L, etal., Hippocampus. 2009 Aug;19(8):692-705.
24. Proliferation and apoptosis of hippocampal granule cells require local oestrogen synthesis. Fester L, etal., J Neurochem. 2006 May;97(4):1136-44. Epub 2006 Mar 31.
25. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transcripts constitutively expressed in the adult rat central nervous system: colocalization of StAR, cytochrome P-450SCC (CYP XIA1), and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the rat brain. Furukawa A, etal., J Neurochem 1998 Dec;71(6):2231-8.
26. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
27. Diurnal expression of functional and clock-related genes throughout the rat HPA axis: system-wide shifts in response to a restricted feeding schedule. Girotti M, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr;296(4):E888-97. Epub 2009 Feb 3.
28. Contamination with depleted or enriched uranium differently affects steroidogenesis metabolism in rat. Grignard E, etal., Int J Toxicol. 2008 Jul-Aug;27(4):323-8.
29. Hypothyroidism prolongs corpus luteum function in the pregnant rat. Hapon MB, etal., Reproduction. 2007 Jan;133(1):197-205.
30. Systemic administration of alcohol to adult rats inhibits leydig cell activity: Time course of effect and role of nitric oxide. Herman M, etal., Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2006 Sep;30(9):1479-91.
31. Lipopolysaccharide directly stimulates aldosterone production via toll-like receptor 2 and toll-like receptor 4 related PI(3)K/Akt pathway in rat adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Huang HL, etal., J Cell Biochem. 2010 Nov 1;111(4):872-80.
32. Testicular steroidogenesis is decreased by hyperthermia in old rats. Hwang EC, etal., Urol Int. 2010;84(3):347-52. Epub 2010 Apr 13.
33. Nicotine diminishes testicular gametogenesis, steroidogenesis, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in adult albino rats: possible influence on pituitary gonadotropins and alteration of testicular antioxidant status. Jana K, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2010 Aug;116(2):647-59. Epub 2010 May 24.
34. Differences in adrenocortical secretory and gene expression responses to stimulation in vitro by ACTH or prolactin between high- and low-avoidance Hatano rats. Jaroenporn S, etal., Stress. 2009;12(1):22-9.
35. Growth hormone regulates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and steroidogenesis in Leydig cell progenitors. Kanzaki M and Morris PL, Endocrinology. 1999 Apr;140(4):1681-6.
36. Ethanol rapidly induces steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and translocation in rat adrenal gland. Khisti RT, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Jul 25;473(2-3):225-7.
37. Steroid production after in vitro transcription, translation, and mitochondrial processing of protein products of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. King SR, etal., Endocrinology. 1995 Nov;136(11):5165-76.
38. Effects of maternal exposure to low doses of DES on testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis in male rat offspring. Kobayashi T, etal., J Reprod Dev. 2009 Dec;55(6):629-37. Epub 2009 Sep 7.
39. Spearmint induced hypothalamic oxidative stress and testicular anti-androgenicity in male rats - altered levels of gene expression, enzymes and hormones. Kumar V, etal., Food Chem Toxicol. 2008 Dec;46(12):3563-70. Epub 2008 Aug 31.
40. Alteration of testicular steroidogenesis and histopathology of reproductive system in male rats treated with triclosan. Kumar V, etal., Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Apr;27(2):177-85. Epub 2008 Dec 11.
41. Disruption of LH-induced testosterone biosynthesis in testicular Leydig cells by triclosan: probable mechanism of action. Kumar V, etal., Toxicology. 2008 Sep 4;250(2-3):124-31. Epub 2008 Jul 9.
42. High-density rat radiation hybrid maps containing over 24,000 SSLPs, genes, and ESTs provide a direct link to the rat genome sequence. Kwitek AE, etal., Genome Res. 2004 Apr;14(4):750-7
43. Testicular gene expression profiling following prepubertal rat mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure suggests a common initial genetic response at fetal and prepubertal ages. Lahousse SA, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2006 Oct;93(2):369-81. Epub 2006 Jun 29.
44. Interferon-alpha is involved in the luteinizing hormone-induced differentiation of rat preovulatory granulosa cells. Lee da L, etal., J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009 Dec;29(12):801-8.
45. Parabens Accelerate Ovarian Dysfunction in a 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure Model. Lee JH, etal., Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Feb 8;14(2). pii: ijerph14020161. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14020161.
46. Interferon-gamma inhibits the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein messenger ribonucleic acid expression and protein levels in primary cultures of rat Leydig cells. Lin T, etal., Endocrinology. 1998 May;139(5):2217-22.
47. Luteinizing hormone receptor mediates neuronal pregnenolone production via up-regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression. Liu T, etal., J Neurochem. 2007 Mar;100(5):1329-39. Epub 2007 Jan 11.
48. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
49. Androgen synthesis in adrenarche. Miller WL Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2009 Mar;10(1):3-17.
50. Changes in the expression of steroid metabolism-related genes in rat adrenal glands during selective REM sleep deprivation. Morita K, etal., Life Sci. 2003 Mar 14;72(17):1973-82.
51. Repression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory gene by the multifunctional transcription factor Yin Yang 1. Nackley AC, etal., Endocrinology 2002 Mar;143(3):1085-96.
52. A novel antagonistic effect of the bone morphogenetic protein system on prolactin actions in regulating steroidogenesis by granulosa cells. Nakamura E, etal., Endocrinology. 2010 Nov;151(11):5506-18. Epub 2010 Sep 1.
53. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
54. Cardiac steroidogenesis and glucocorticoid in the development of cardiac hypertrophy during the progression to heart failure. Ohtani T, etal., J Hypertens. 2009 May;27(5):1074-83.
55. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
56. Effects of corticosterone deficiency and its replacement on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Parthasarathy C and Balasubramanian K, J Cell Biochem. 2008 Aug 1;104(5):1671-83.
57. Steroidogenic impairment due to reduced ovarian transcription of cytochrome P450 side-chain-cleavage (P450scc) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) during experimental nephrotic syndrome. Pena-Rico M, etal., Life Sci. 2006 Jul 10;79(7):702-8. Epub 2006 Feb 28.
58. StAR expression and the long-term aldosterone response to high-potassium diet in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Peters B, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;292(1):E16-23. Epub 2006 Aug 1.
59. Upregulation of peripubertal rat Leydig cell steroidogenesis following 24 h in vitro and in vivo exposure to atrazine. Pogrmic-Majkic K, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2010 Nov;118(1):52-60. Epub 2010 Jul 28.
60. Estrus cyclicity of spinogenesis: underlying mechanisms. Prange-Kiel J, etal., J Neural Transm. 2009 Nov;116(11):1417-25.
61. Adrenocortical responses to ACTH in neonatal rats: effect of hypoxia from birth on corticosterone, StAR, and PBR. Raff H, etal., Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2003 Jan;284(1):R78-85.
62. Overexpression of cholesterol transporter StAR increases in vivo rates of bile acid synthesis in the rat and mouse. Ren S, etal., Hepatology. 2004 Oct;40(4):910-7.
63. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
64. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
65. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
66. Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus: effects of estrogen from the gonads or hippocampus? Rune GM, etal., Neurochem Res. 2006 Feb;31(2):145-55. Epub 2006 Apr 4.
67. Transcriptional regulation of the rat steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene by steroidogenic factor 1. Sandhoff TW, etal., Endocrinology. 1998 Dec;139(12):4820-31.
68. Establishment and characterization of steroidogenic granulosa cells expressing beta(2)-adrenergic receptor: regulation of adrenodoxin and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein by adrenergic agents. Selvaraj N, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2000 Oct 25;168(1-2):53-63.
69. Interaction of hormone-sensitive lipase with steroidogenic acute regulatory protein: facilitation of cholesterol transfer in adrenal. Shen WJ, etal., J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 31;278(44):43870-6. Epub 2003 Aug 18.
70. Alterations in gene expression and testosterone synthesis in the testes of male rats exposed to perfluorododecanoic acid. Shi Z, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2007 Jul;98(1):206-15. Epub 2007 Mar 30.
71. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in the rat brain: cellular distribution, developmental regulation and overexpression after injury. Sierra A, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Sep;18(6):1458-67.
72. The expression of serum steroid sex hormones and steroidogenic enzymes following intraperitoneal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in male rats. Song L, etal., Steroids. 2010 Mar;75(3):213-8. Epub 2009 Dec 2.
73. All-Trans Retinoic Acid Disrupts Development in Ex Vivo Cultured Fetal Rat Testes. I: Altered Seminiferous Cord Maturation and Testicular Cell Fate. Spade DJ, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2019 Feb 1;167(2):546-558. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy260.
74. All-trans Retinoic Acid Disrupts Development in Ex Vivo Cultured Fetal Rat Testes. II: Modulation of Mono-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Toxicity. Spade DJ, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2019 Mar 1;168(1):149-159. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfy283.
75. The effects of low-level Pb on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the prepubertal rat ovary. Srivastava V, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2004 Jan;77(1):35-40. Epub 2003 Sep 26.
76. Sesquiterpene lactone helenalin suppresses Leydig and adrenocortical cell steroidogenesis by inhibiting expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. Supornsilchai V, etal., Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Nov;22(4):631-5. Epub 2006 Jun 13.
77. Influence of long-term dietary administration of procymidone, a fungicide with anti-androgenic effects, or the phytoestrogen genistein to rats on the pituitary-gonadal axis and Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Svechnikov K, etal., J Endocrinol. 2005 Oct;187(1):117-24.
78. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 promotes accumulation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroidogenesis. Tajima K, etal., FEBS Lett. 2001 Feb 9;490(1-2):59-64.
79. Down-regulation of steroidogenic response to gonadotropins in human and rat preovulatory granulosa cells involves mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and modulation of DAX-1 and steroidogenic factor-1. Tajima K, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003 May;88(5):2288-99.
80. Maternal exposure to dioxin disrupts gonadotropin production in fetal rats and imprints defects in sexual behavior. Takeda T, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Jun;329(3):1091-9. Epub 2009 Mar 10.
81. T-->A transversion 11 bp from a splice acceptor site in the human gene for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein causes congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. Tee MK, etal., Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Dec;4(12):2299-305.
82. Di(n-butyl) phthalate impairs cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis in the fetal rat testis through a rapid and reversible mechanism. Thompson CJ, etal., Endocrinology. 2004 Mar;145(3):1227-37. Epub 2003 Nov 14.
83. Antisteroidogenic actions of hydrogen peroxide on rat Leydig cells. Tsai SC, etal., J Cell Biochem. 2003 Dec 15;90(6):1276-86.
84. Transient inhibitory effect of methoxychlor on testicular steroidogenesis in rat: an in vivo study. Vaithinathan S, etal., Arch Toxicol. 2008 Nov;82(11):833-9. Epub 2008 Apr 10.
85. Differential effects of nonylphenol on testosterone secretion in rat Leydig cells. Wu JJ, etal., Toxicology. 2010 Jan 31;268(1-2):1-7. Epub 2009 Oct 31.
86. Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology Wu XY, etal., Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2008 Apr;14(4):371-6.
87. Inhibition of LH-stimulated androgen production in rat immature Leydig cells: Effects on nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 by FGF2. Xiao YC, etal., Growth Factors. 2010 Feb;28(1):1-9.
88. Glucocorticoid suppresses steroidogenesis in rat progenitor leydig cells. Xiao YC, etal., J Androl. 2010 Jul-Aug;31(4):365-71. Epub 2010 Jan 14.
89. Effects of evodiamine and rutaecarpine on the secretion of corticosterone by zona fasciculata-reticularis cells in male rats. Yu PL, etal., J Cell Biochem. 2009 Oct 1;108(2):469-75.
90. The methoxychlor metabolite, 2,2-bis-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, inhibits steroidogenesis in rat ovarian granulosa cells in vitro. Zachow R and Uzumcu M, Reprod Toxicol. 2006 Nov;22(4):659-65. Epub 2006 Jun 5.
91. Effect and mechanism of cadmium on the progesterone synthesis of ovaries. Zhang W and Jia H, Toxicology. 2007 Oct 8;239(3):204-12. Epub 2007 Jul 13.
92. Gonadotropin stimulation of ovarian fractalkine expression and fractalkine augmentation of progesterone biosynthesis by luteinizing granulosa cells. Zhao P, etal., Endocrinology. 2008 Jun;149(6):2782-9. Epub 2008 Feb 21.
93. Effect of bisphenol A on steroid hormone production in rat ovarian theca-interstitial and granulosa cells. Zhou W, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008 Feb 13;283(1-2):12-8. Epub 2007 Oct 25.
94. Disruption in the expression and immunolocalisation of steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries in rat. Zurvarra FM, etal., Reprod Fertil Dev. 2009;21(7):827-39.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:7626524   PMID:7961770   PMID:9015355   PMID:9328229   PMID:9516465   PMID:12477932   PMID:12530640   PMID:12697693   PMID:12958217   PMID:12959973   PMID:14651853   PMID:14694755  
PMID:15342684   PMID:15358680   PMID:15489334   PMID:15713539   PMID:16039847   PMID:16175571   PMID:16239298   PMID:16682116   PMID:17242178   PMID:17526944   PMID:17702849   PMID:17927664  
PMID:18004794   PMID:18403318   PMID:18425351   PMID:18614015   PMID:18800309   PMID:18990246   PMID:20039971   PMID:20568448   PMID:20609383   PMID:20924043   PMID:21076439   PMID:21153110  
PMID:21153282   PMID:21608230   PMID:22226148   PMID:22425774   PMID:22674924   PMID:22960446   PMID:23332974   PMID:23831818   PMID:24713504   PMID:24728861   PMID:24877623   PMID:27511375  
PMID:29859221   PMID:30884106   PMID:31028793   PMID:33526603   PMID:33670702   PMID:35871495  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21666,267,094 - 66,274,368 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1666,264,807 - 66,271,672 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1671,545,726 - 71,550,356 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01674,952,036 - 74,956,666 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01670,191,932 - 70,196,560 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01671,036,204 - 71,040,847 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1671,036,204 - 71,040,847 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01670,700,880 - 70,705,523 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41670,642,580 - 70,647,203 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11670,640,558 - 70,647,408 (-)NCBI
Celera1664,176,969 - 64,181,592 (-)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map16622.1RGD
Cytogenetic Map16q12.4NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38838,142,700 - 38,150,952 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl838,142,700 - 38,150,992 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37838,000,218 - 38,008,470 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36838,119,375 - 38,127,757 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34838,119,374 - 38,127,757NCBI
Celera836,952,763 - 36,961,143 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8p11.23NCBI
HuRef836,535,200 - 36,543,580 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1838,201,783 - 38,210,163 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0838,419,706 - 38,427,956 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39826,298,502 - 26,306,010 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl826,296,583 - 26,306,010 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38825,808,474 - 25,815,982 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl825,806,555 - 25,815,982 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37826,918,985 - 26,926,454 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36827,274,058 - 27,281,527 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera827,276,742 - 27,284,211 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8A2NCBI
cM Map814.17NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495546313,760,089 - 13,765,244 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495546313,760,089 - 13,765,245 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1832,419,409 - 32,432,623 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0837,446,334 - 37,454,102 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1834,622,577 - 34,629,912 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl834,623,201 - 34,629,544 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11627,326,355 - 27,331,025 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1627,326,355 - 27,331,025 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1627,843,664 - 27,848,334 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.01629,225,542 - 29,230,211 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl1629,225,488 - 29,230,211 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.11627,447,844 - 27,452,510 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01628,025,113 - 28,029,783 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01628,064,539 - 28,069,208 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494349,930,968 - 49,937,924 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049367101,523,355 - 1,529,672 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049367101,523,289 - 1,530,181 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1548,377,521 - 48,385,462 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11548,377,597 - 48,385,398 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21555,502,030 - 55,509,987 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1836,164,891 - 36,174,424 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl836,167,694 - 36,174,583 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660525,817,058 - 5,826,880 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247805,493,786 - 5,502,030 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247805,494,430 - 5,501,063 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Star
7 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:462
Count of miRNA genes:244
Interacting mature miRNAs:300
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1600378Arunc4Aerobic running capacity QTL 40.03exercise endurance trait (VT:0002332)maximum distance run on treadmill (CMO:0001406)1638024580345693Rat
70205Gcr3Gastric cancer resistance QTL 32.3stomach morphology trait (VT:0000470)stomach tumor depth of invasion (CMO:0001888)161769679182635055Rat
70205Gcr3Gastric cancer resistance QTL 32.3stomach morphology trait (VT:0000470)stomach tumor depth of invasion (CMO:0001888)161769679182635055Rat
70205Gcr3Gastric cancer resistance QTL 32.3stomach morphology trait (VT:0000470)stomach tumor diameter (CMO:0001889)161769679182635055Rat
70205Gcr3Gastric cancer resistance QTL 32.3stomach morphology trait (VT:0000470)stomach tumor diameter (CMO:0001889)161769679182635055Rat
70215Niddm29Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus QTL 293.54blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)161900443575226532Rat
2302057Pia29Pristane induced arthritis QTL 293.60.001blood autoantibody amount (VT:0003725)serum immunoglobulin M-type rheumatoid factor level relative to an arbitrary reference serum (CMO:0002111)162173597566735975Rat
8694453Bw172Body weight QTL 1728.330.001retroperitoneal fat pad mass (VT:0010430)retroperitoneal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000635)162432551369325513Rat
6903294Stl30Serum triglyceride level QTL 302.60.0013blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)plasma triglyceride level (CMO:0000548)162515279370152793Rat
1578768Stresp22Stress response QTL 222.8thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus wet weight (CMO:0000855)163528887080288870Rat
2293690Bss45Bone structure and strength QTL 455.130.0001lumbar vertebra morphology trait (VT:0010494)lumbar vertebra cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001690)163775215682752156Rat
2300163Bmd64Bone mineral density QTL 645.30.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)163775215682752156Rat
7205510Activ5Activity QTL 53.780.00028locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)164239634584729064Rat
8694429Bw164Body weight QTL 16450.001body lean mass (VT:0010483)lean tissue morphological measurement (CMO:0002184)165272646484729064Rat
8694364Abfw7Abdominal fat weight QTL 712.220.001visceral adipose mass (VT:0010063)abdominal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000095)165272646484729064Rat
7411648Foco22Food consumption QTL 22150.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)165272646484729064Rat
631525Pia14Pristane induced arthritis QTL 144.4joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)165571108783402471Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21666,269,932 - 66,270,083 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01671,039,043 - 71,039,193NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01670,703,719 - 70,703,869UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41670,645,419 - 70,645,569UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1664,179,808 - 64,179,958UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map16623.6UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map16q12.4UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21666,267,090 - 66,267,281 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01671,036,201 - 71,036,391NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01670,700,877 - 70,701,067UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41670,642,577 - 70,642,767UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1664,176,966 - 64,177,156UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map16624.3UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map16q12.4UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21666,271,657 - 66,271,812 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01671,040,788 - 71,040,942NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01670,705,464 - 70,705,618UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41670,647,144 - 70,647,298UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1664,181,533 - 64,181,687UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map16622.1UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map16q12.4UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21666,265,087 - 66,265,296 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01671,034,198 - 71,034,406NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01670,698,874 - 70,699,082UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41670,640,574 - 70,640,782UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1664,174,963 - 64,175,171UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map16623.6UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map16q12.4UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21666,268,238 - 66,268,885 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01671,037,349 - 71,037,995NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01670,702,025 - 70,702,671UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41670,643,725 - 70,644,371UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1664,178,114 - 64,178,760UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map16q12.4UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 8 2
Medium 7 1 16 1 1 1 28 8 1
Low 3 39 34 32 3 32 7 10 74 35 11 3 7
Below cutoff 4 8 8 8


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000020606   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000020606
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1666,264,807 - 66,271,672 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1671,036,204 - 71,040,847 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_031558   ⟹   NP_113746
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21666,267,094 - 66,271,717 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.01671,036,204 - 71,040,847 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.01670,700,880 - 70,705,523 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41670,642,580 - 70,647,203 (-)RGD
Celera1664,176,969 - 64,181,592 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XR_005494534
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21666,267,332 - 66,274,368 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_113746   ⟸   NM_031558
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P97628 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P97826 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6IW02 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   Q5XUN6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000020606   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000020606
Protein Domains

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P97826-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P97826 1-284 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13700165
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R10689
Type:single initiation site
Description:steroidogenic acute regulatory protein
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01671,040,810 - 71,040,870EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:3770 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-10977 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000015052 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00055007764 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060011537 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065002803 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000020606 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000020606.5 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00055013003 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060019529 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065003848 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH 3.30.530.20 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro StAR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  StAR-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  START-like_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  START_lipid-bd_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:25557 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PANTHER PTHR46489 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Pfam START UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Star PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000015052 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055007764 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060011537 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065002803 RatGTEx
SMART START UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP Bet v1-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  STAR_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary P97628 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Star  Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_process involved in cholesterol transport to inner mitochondrial membrane and steroid biosynthesis 1299054
gene_regulation activation of MAP kinase cascade suppresses expression in preovulatory granulosa cells 1299055
gene_regulation expression in primary Leydig cells is induced by human chorionic gonadotropin and this effect is suppressed by manganese chloride 1299056
gene_regulation transcription is inhibited by transcription factor Yin Yang 1 634518
gene_transcript two different mRNA transcripts expressed in central nervous system and adrenal gland 1299054