Smo (smoothened, frizzled class receptor) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Smo (smoothened, frizzled class receptor) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Smo
Name: smoothened, frizzled class receptor
RGD ID: 3726
Description: Predicted to enable patched binding activity. Involved in several processes, including negative regulation of hepatocyte proliferation; neuron projection development; and positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation. Located in axonal growth cone; dendritic growth cone; and neuronal cell body. Used to study Barrett's esophagus; esophagus adenocarcinoma; liver cirrhosis; and middle cerebral artery infarction. Biomarker of ocular hypertension; pancreatitis; pre-malignant neoplasm; and visual epilepsy. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in basal cell carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; malignant pleural mesothelioma; pancreatic cancer; and pancreatic ductal carcinoma. Orthologous to human SMO (smoothened, frizzled class receptor); PARTICIPATES IN altered Hedgehog signaling pathway; Hedgehog signaling pathway; basal cell carcinoma pathway; INTERACTS WITH 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 2-acetamidofluorene; 2-butan-2-yl-4-[4-[4-[4-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy]phenyl]-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]-1,2,4-triazol-3-one.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Smoh; Smoothened; smoothened homolog; smoothened homolog (Drosophila); smoothened, frizzled family receptor
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Is Marker For: Strains:   BB/OK  
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2458,344,101 - 58,372,828 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl458,343,529 - 58,373,829 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx463,327,690 - 63,351,689 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0459,243,861 - 59,267,857 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0457,645,743 - 57,669,741 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.0457,019,941 - 57,041,779 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl457,019,941 - 57,042,770 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0456,787,102 - 56,809,935 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4456,623,494 - 56,645,571 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1456,898,313 - 56,920,866 (+)NCBI
Celera453,450,322 - 53,474,674 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q22NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (ISO)
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2-acetamidofluorene  (EXP)
2-butan-2-yl-4-[4-[4-[4-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy]phenyl]-1-piperazinyl]phenyl]-1,2,4-triazol-3-one  (EXP)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
5-fluorouracil  (ISO)
Ac-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro-OH  (EXP,ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
arsenous acid  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calciol  (ISO)
cannabidiol  (ISO)
captopril  (EXP,ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
carboplatin  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (EXP)
copper(II) sulfate  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
curcumin  (EXP)
Cyclopamine  (EXP,ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP,ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
disodium selenite  (ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
gemcitabine  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
goralatide  (EXP,ISO)
hydralazine  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (EXP)
itraconazole  (EXP)
L-methionine  (ISO)
leflunomide  (ISO)
menadione  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine  (EXP)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
piperonyl butoxide  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium chromate  (ISO)
potassium dichromate  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside  (EXP)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
Salinomycin  (ISO)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (EXP)
sodium fluoride  (EXP)
sonidegib  (ISO)
sunitinib  (ISO)
temozolomide  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
tetramethylpyrazine  (ISO)
theaflavin  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vismodegib  (ISO)
zinc atom  (ISO)
zinc oxide  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
alpha-tubulin acetylation  (IEA,ISO)
anterior/posterior pattern specification  (IEA,ISO)
apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO)
astrocyte activation  (IEA,ISO)
atrial septum morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
axon extension involved in axon guidance  (IMP)
cell development  (ISO)
cell fate specification  (IEA,ISO)
cell population proliferation  (ISO)
cellular response to cholesterol  (IEA,ISO)
central nervous system development  (IBA,ISO)
central nervous system neuron differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
cerebellar cortex morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
cerebral cortex development  (IEA,ISO)
commissural neuron axon guidance  (IBA,IMP)
contact inhibition  (IEA,ISO)
dentate gyrus development  (IEA,ISO)
determination of left/right asymmetry in lateral mesoderm  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
determination of left/right symmetry  (ISO)
developmental growth  (ISO)
digestive tract development  (ISO)
dopaminergic neuron differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning  (IEA,ISO)
dorsal/ventral pattern formation  (ISO)
embryonic organ development  (ISO)
epithelial cell differentiation  (ISO)
epithelial cell proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling  (IEA,ISO)
facial nerve development  (IEP)
forebrain morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IEA)
gene expression  (IEA,ISO)
hair follicle development  (ISO)
hair follicle morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
heart looping  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
heart morphogenesis  (ISO)
homeostasis of number of cells within a tissue  (IEA,ISO)
in utero embryonic development  (IEA,ISO)
left/right axis specification  (IEA,ISO)
mammary gland epithelial cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
mesenchymal to epithelial transition  (IMP)
mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in metanephric renal vesicle formation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
midgut development  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
multicellular organism growth  (IEA,ISO)
myoblast migration  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of apoptotic process  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of cellular process  (IMP)
negative regulation of DNA binding  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (ISO)
negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of gene expression  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
negative regulation of hair follicle development  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of hepatocyte proliferation  (IMP)
negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process  (IMP)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IEA,ISO)
neural crest cell migration  (IEA,ISO)
neuroblast proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
neuron projection regeneration  (IEP)
odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth  (IEA,ISO)
ossification  (ISO)
osteoblast differentiation  (IEA,IEP,ISO)
pancreas morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
pattern specification process  (IBA,ISO)
positive regulation of autophagy  (IDA)
positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of cell migration  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (ISO)
positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of hepatic stellate cell activation  (IMP)
positive regulation of hh target transcription factor activity  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of multicellular organism growth  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation  (IMP)
positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of organ growth  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of smoothened signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell migration  (IMP)
protein import into nucleus  (IEA,ISO)
protein localization to nucleus  (ISO)
protein stabilization  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
regulation of heart morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of somatic stem cell population maintenance  (IEA,ISO)
response to organic substance  (IEP)
skeletal muscle fiber development  (IEA,ISO)
smooth muscle tissue development  (IEA,ISO)
smoothened signaling pathway  (IBA,ISO,ISS)
smoothened signaling pathway involved in regulation of cerebellar granule cell precursor cell proliferation  (IEA,ISO)
smoothened signaling pathway involved in ventral spinal cord patterning  (IEA,ISO)
somite development  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
spermatogenesis  (IEP)
thalamus development  (IEA,ISO)
type B pancreatic cell development  (IEA,ISO)
vasculogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
ventral midline determination  (IEA,ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. The upregulated expression of sonic hedgehog in motor neurons after rat facial nerve axotomy. Akazawa C, etal., J Neurosci. 2004 Sep 8;24(36):7923-30.
2. Reduced level of smoothened suppresses intestinal tumorigenesis by down-regulation of Wnt signaling. Arimura S, etal., Gastroenterology. 2009 Aug;137(2):629-38. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.04.059. Epub 2009 May 7.
3. Recruitment of the Sonic hedgehog signalling cascade in electroconvulsive seizure-mediated regulation of adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis. Banerjee SB, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Oct;22(7):1570-80.
4. Smoothened agonist augments proliferation and survival of neural cells. Bragina O, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2010 Sep 27;482(2):81-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2010.06.068. Epub 2010 Jul 1.
5. Dynamic changes of Sonic Hedgehog signaling pathway in gastric mucosa of rats with MNNG-induced gastric precancerous lesions. Cai D, etal., J Cell Physiol. 2019 Jul;234(7):10827-10834. doi: 10.1002/jcp.27908. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
6. Hedgehog signaling update. Cohen MM, Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Aug;152A(8):1875-914. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32909.
7. Sonic hedgehog protects cortical neurons against oxidative stress. Dai RL, etal., Neurochem Res. 2011 Jan;36(1):67-75. doi: 10.1007/s11064-010-0264-6. Epub 2010 Sep 17.
8. Expression of smoothened protein in colon cancer and its prognostic value for postoperative liver metastasis. Ding YL, etal., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(8):4001-5. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.8.4001.
9. Antisense Smo under the control of the PTCH1 promoter delivered by an adenoviral vector inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer. Gao J, etal., Gene Ther. 2006 Nov;13(22):1587-94. Epub 2006 Jul 6.
10. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
11. Prevention of Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma by smoothened inhibitor in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gibson MK, etal., Ann Surg. 2013 Jul;258(1):82-8. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e318270500d.
12. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
13. Shanghai kou qiang yi xue = Shanghai journal of stomatology Han L, etal., Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue. 2009 Jun;18(3):287-90.
14. Blockade of the sonic hedgehog signalling pathway inhibits choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced rat model. He H, etal., J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2010 Oct;30(5):659-65. doi: 10.1007/s11596-010-0560-z. Epub 2010 Nov 10.
15. Neuroprotective Effects of a Smoothened Receptor Agonist against Early Brain Injury after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats. Hu Q, etal., Front Cell Neurosci. 2017 Jan 18;10:306. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2016.00306. eCollection 2016.
16. Anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic, and pro-angiogenic effects mediate functional improvement by sonic hedgehog against focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Huang SS, etal., Exp Neurol. 2013 Sep;247:680-8. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2013.03.004. Epub 2013 Mar 13.
17. Inhibition of the hedgehog pathway targets the tumor-associated stroma in pancreatic cancer. Hwang RF, etal., Mol Cancer Res. 2012 Sep;10(9):1147-57. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-12-0022. Epub 2012 Aug 2.
18. Neuroprotective effects of a Smoothened receptor agonist against postoperative cognitive dysfunction by promoting autophagy in the dentate gyrus of aged rats. Li PJ, etal., Neurol Res. 2019 Oct;41(10):867-874. doi: 10.1080/01616412.2019.1628411. Epub 2019 Jun 20.
19. Expression of hedgehog signal pathway in articular cartilage is associated with the severity of cartilage damage in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Li R, etal., J Inflamm (Lond). 2015 Mar 28;12:24. doi: 10.1186/s12950-015-0072-5. eCollection 2015.
20. Prognostic value of hedgehog signal component expressions in hepatoblastoma patients. Li YC, etal., Eur J Med Res. 2010 Nov 25;15(11):468-74. doi: 10.1186/2047-783x-15-11-468.
21. Targeting Smoothened Sensitizes Gastric Cancer to Chemotherapy in Experimental Models. Ma H, etal., Med Sci Monit. 2017 Mar 28;23:1493-1500. doi: 10.12659/msm.903012.
22. Intrinsic facilitation of adult peripheral nerve regeneration by the Sonic hedgehog morphogen. Martinez JA, etal., Exp Neurol. 2015 Sep;271:493-505. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015.07.018. Epub 2015 Jul 22.
23. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
24. Frequent deregulations in the hedgehog signaling network and cross-talks with the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway involved in cancer progression and targeted therapies. Mimeault M and Batra SK, Pharmacol Rev. 2010 Sep;62(3):497-524.
25. Expression of Patched-1 and Smoothened in testicular meiotic and post-meiotic cells. Morales CR, etal., Microsc Res Tech. 2009 Nov;72(11):809-15.
26. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
27. Nuclear localization and Overexpression of Smoothened in Pancreatic and Colorectal Cancers. Niyaz M, etal., J Cell Biochem. 2019 Feb 19. doi: 10.1002/jcb.28477.
28. PTC gene mutations and expression of SHH, PTC, SMO, and GLI-1 in odontogenic keratocysts. Ohki K, etal., Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2004 Sep;33(6):584-92.
29. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling enhances delivery of chemotherapy in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Olive KP, etal., Science. 2009 Jun 12;324(5933):1457-61. Epub 2009 May 21.
30. Sonic hedgehog induces response of commissural axons to Semaphorin repulsion during midline crossing. Parra LM and Zou Y, Nat Neurosci. 2010 Jan;13(1):29-35. doi: 10.1038/nn.2457. Epub 2009 Nov 29.
31. Subcellular localization of patched and smoothened, the receptors for sonic hedgehog signaling, in the hippocampal neuron. Petralia RS, etal., J Comp Neurol. 2011 Dec 15;519(18):3684-99. doi: 10.1002/cne.22681.
32. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
33. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
34. Attenuation of early liver fibrosis by pharmacological inhibition of smoothened receptor signaling. Pratap A, etal., J Drug Target. 2012 Nov;20(9):770-82. doi: 10.3109/1061186X.2012.719900. Epub 2012 Sep 20.
35. Monoaminergic regulation of Sonic hedgehog signaling cascade expression in the adult rat hippocampus. Rajendran R, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2009 Apr 10;453(3):190-4. Epub 2009 Feb 21.
36. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
37. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
38. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
39. Comprehensive gene review and curation RGD comprehensive gene curation
40. Effective targeting of Hedgehog signaling in a medulloblastoma model with PF-5274857, a potent and selective Smoothened antagonist that penetrates the blood-brain barrier. Rohner A, etal., Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Jan;11(1):57-65. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0691. Epub 2011 Nov 14.
41. [Expression of Smo protein and the downstream transcription factor Gli1 protein in Sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway in gastric carcinoma]. Rong ZX, etal., Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006 Dec;26(12):1728-31.
42. Dysregulation of the Hedgehog pathway in human hepatocarcinogenesis. Sicklick JK, etal., Carcinogenesis. 2006 Apr;27(4):748-57. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgi292. Epub 2005 Dec 8.
43. SMO mutations confer poor prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma. Signorelli D, etal., Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2020 Oct;9(5):1940-1951. doi: 10.21037/tlcr-19-425.
44. The tumour-suppressor gene patched encodes a candidate receptor for Sonic hedgehog. Stone DM, etal., Nature 1996 Nov 14;384(6605):129-34.
45. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
46. Expression of sonic hedgehog signal transducers, patched and smoothened, in human basal cell carcinoma. Tojo M, etal., Pathol Int. 1999 Aug;49(8):687-94.
47. Independent amplification of two gene clusters on chromosome 4 in rat endometrial cancer: identification and molecular characterization. Walentinsson A, etal., Cancer Res 2001 Nov 15;61(22):8263-73.
48. A dual-color FISH gene map of the proximal region of rat Chromosome 4 and comparative analysis in human and mouse. Walentinsson A, etal., Mamm Genome 2001 Dec;12(12):900-8.
49. Expression and clinical significance of hedgehog signaling pathway related components in colorectal cancer. Wang H, etal., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(5):2319-24. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2012.13.5.2319.
50. Sonic hedgehog expression in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis. Wang LW, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Apr 28;20(16):4712-7. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i16.4712.
51. Association between donor and recipient smoothened gene polymorphisms and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence following orthotopic liver transplantation in a Han Chinese population. Wang P, etal., Tumour Biol. 2015 Sep;36(10):7807-15. doi: 10.1007/s13277-015-3370-x. Epub 2015 May 6.
52. Expression of sonic hedgehog signaling pathways in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis. Wei-Guo H, etal., Saudi Med J. 2010 Jan;31(1):14-7.
53. Erythropoietin and sonic hedgehog mediate the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against mitochondrial inhibition. Wu CL, etal., Neurobiol Dis. 2010 Oct;40(1):146-54. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2010.05.019. Epub 2010 May 23.
54. Neuroprotective effect of up-regulated Sonic hedgehog in retinal ganglion cells following chronic ocular hypertension. Wu J, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Jan 13.
55. Activating Smoothened mutations in sporadic basal-cell carcinoma. Xie J, etal., Nature 1998 Jan 1;391(6662):90-2.
56. Sonic hedgehog guides axons through a noncanonical, Src-family-kinase-dependent signaling pathway. Yam PT, etal., Neuron. 2009 May 14;62(3):349-62.
57. Expression and regulation of hedgehog signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer. Yang Y, etal., Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2009 Apr 25.
58. Sonic hedgehog mediates a novel pathway of PDGF-BB-dependent vessel maturation. Yao Q, etal., Blood. 2014 Apr 10;123(15):2429-37. doi: 10.1182/blood-2013-06-508689. Epub 2014 Jan 28.
59. Expressions of sonic hedgehog, patched, smoothened and Gli-1 in human intestinal stromal tumors and their correlation with prognosis. Yoshizaki A, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep 21;12(35):5687-91. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i35.5687.
60. Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway mediates cerebrolysin-improved neurological function after stroke. Zhang L, etal., Stroke. 2013 Jul;44(7):1965-72. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.000831. Epub 2013 May 21.
61. SMO expression level correlates with overall survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Zhang Y, etal., J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Feb 5;32:7. doi: 10.1186/1756-9966-32-7.
62. Protein and mRNA expression of Shh, Smo and Gli1 and inhibition by cyclopamine in hepatocytes of rats with chronic fluorosis. Zhao L, etal., Toxicol Lett. 2014 Mar 3;225(2):318-24. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2013.12.022. Epub 2014 Jan 2.
63. FGFR3 Deficiency Causes Multiple Chondroma-like Lesions by Upregulating Hedgehog Signaling. Zhou S, etal., PLoS Genet. 2015 Jun 19;11(6):e1005214. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005214. eCollection 2015 Jun.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:9636176   PMID:9811851   PMID:11278759   PMID:11517919   PMID:11748145   PMID:12403705   PMID:12421714   PMID:12435628   PMID:14973297   PMID:15107405   PMID:15294868   PMID:15755804  
PMID:15906375   PMID:16136078   PMID:16229832   PMID:16396903   PMID:16459297   PMID:16543460   PMID:16571625   PMID:16571630   PMID:16687132   PMID:17043310   PMID:17199044   PMID:17850284  
PMID:17881493   PMID:18297065   PMID:18488998   PMID:18590716   PMID:19056867   PMID:19124651   PMID:19286674   PMID:19304771   PMID:19304890   PMID:19357274   PMID:19619492   PMID:19654211  
PMID:19684112   PMID:19952108   PMID:20185815   PMID:21177415   PMID:21209331   PMID:21659505   PMID:21671467   PMID:21931618   PMID:22179047   PMID:22477363   PMID:22689656   PMID:22898775  
PMID:22987639   PMID:23533145   PMID:23680462   PMID:24302887   PMID:24548465   PMID:24816261   PMID:25644602   PMID:26996322   PMID:28154160   PMID:29487109   PMID:34755677   PMID:36946310  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2458,344,101 - 58,372,828 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl458,343,529 - 58,373,829 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx463,327,690 - 63,351,689 (+)NCBIRnor_SHR
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0459,243,861 - 59,267,857 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSP
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0457,645,743 - 57,669,741 (+)NCBIRnor_WKY
Rnor_6.0457,019,941 - 57,041,779 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl457,019,941 - 57,042,770 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0456,787,102 - 56,809,935 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4456,623,494 - 56,645,571 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1456,898,313 - 56,920,866 (+)NCBI
Celera453,450,322 - 53,474,674 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map4q22NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh387129,188,633 - 129,213,545 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl7129,188,633 - 129,213,545 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh377128,828,474 - 128,853,386 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 367128,615,949 - 128,640,622 (+)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 347128,422,663 - 128,447,334NCBI
Celera7123,625,432 - 123,650,109 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7q32.1NCBI
HuRef7123,189,938 - 123,214,626 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_17128,762,307 - 128,786,971 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.07130,501,540 - 130,526,468 (+)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
CRA_TCAGchr7v27128,212,668 - 128,237,345 (+)NCBI
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39629,735,480 - 29,761,359 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl629,735,502 - 29,761,364 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38629,735,497 - 29,761,366 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl629,735,503 - 29,761,365 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37629,685,497 - 29,711,366 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36629,685,513 - 29,711,369 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera629,744,569 - 29,772,611 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map6A3.3NCBI
cM Map612.36NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554799,964,170 - 9,993,165 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554799,963,377 - 9,991,670 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1718,009,925 - 18,034,351 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v07121,143,968 - 121,168,873 (+)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.17133,668,523 - 133,693,048 (+)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl7133,668,304 - 133,693,048 (+)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1147,518,871 - 7,527,703 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl147,518,856 - 7,528,033 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha147,206,323 - 7,229,356 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0147,284,734 - 7,307,875 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl147,284,738 - 7,307,899 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1147,489,837 - 7,512,985 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0147,231,685 - 7,254,904 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0147,376,821 - 7,399,952 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440511825,760,467 - 25,784,726 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365795,892,542 - 5,917,281 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365795,893,064 - 5,917,021 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1819,450,743 - 19,478,898 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11819,450,730 - 19,478,796 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21820,520,306 - 20,548,303 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.12197,788,955 - 97,814,549 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl2197,788,624 - 97,814,709 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660425,588,304 - 5,614,118 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247837,011,899 - 7,039,921 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247837,012,385 - 7,039,302 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Smo
97 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:131
Count of miRNA genes:105
Interacting mature miRNAs:115
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
619616Bp79Blood pressure QTL 790.0292arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)4521460278882945Rat
2303168Bp330Blood pressure QTL 3304.250.017arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)45214602146446691Rat
1358203Stl19Serum triglyceride level QTL 192.80.002blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)4521829465958103Rat
631261Tcas3Tongue tumor susceptibility QTL 36.88tongue integrity trait (VT:0010553)number of squamous cell tumors of the tongue with diameter greater than 3 mm (CMO:0001950)41081417091360527Rat
2316958Gluco58Glucose level QTL 5810blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)411320076180699135Rat
2303585Bw86Body weight QTL 864body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)41467806559678065Rat
2313401Anxrr27Anxiety related response QTL 27aggression-related behavior trait (VT:0015014)tameness/aggressiveness composite score (CMO:0002136)41793350862933508Rat
61412Pia2Pristane induced arthritis QTL 23.9joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)post-insult time to onset of experimental arthritis (CMO:0001450)42133334362278020Rat
6909122Insul22Insulin level QTL 224.63blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)plasma insulin level (CMO:0000342)42690728575585128Rat
6909128Pancm4Pancreatic morphology QTL 411.35pancreas mass (VT:0010144)pancreas wet weight (CMO:0000626)42690728575585128Rat
8655906Rf60Renal function QTL 603.8blood creatinine amount (VT:0005328)creatinine clearance (CMO:0000765)42949419581006281Rat
12798520Anxrr55Anxiety related response QTL 554.450.01locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)number of rearing movements with lid-pushing in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0002715)432583980114627242Rat
8552782Vie1Viral induced encephalitis QTL 126.4brain integrity trait (VT:0010579)encephalitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0002361)43443048482490359Rat
8552801Bw143Body weight QTL 1437.3body mass (VT:0001259)change in body weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0002216)43443048482490359Rat
8552809Vie5Viral induced encephalitis QTL 525.3brain integrity trait (VT:0010579)encephalitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0002361)43443048482490359Rat
8655961Kidm43Kidney mass QTL 4318kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)436303261103194984Rat
1358352Srcrt3Stress Responsive Cort QTL 32.29blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)438465774146803430Rat
61475Aia2Adjuvant induced arthritis QTL 25.8joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)43950527573892441Rat
1331807Rf31Renal function QTL 312.988urine potassium amount (VT:0010539)urine potassium level (CMO:0000128)43952426474726312Rat
1300139Hrtrt6Heart rate QTL 62.85heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)439524264116179656Rat
61445Strs3Sensitivity to stroke QTL 33cerebrum integrity trait (VT:0010549)post-insult time to onset of cerebrovascular lesion (CMO:0002343)44043338885433388Rat
8694439Bw168Body weight QTL 1689.570.001retroperitoneal fat pad mass (VT:0010430)retroperitoneal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000635)44043341485433414Rat
6893678Bw108Body weight QTL 1082.60.006body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)44345797688457976Rat
1576305Emca6Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 65.8mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)444463720155883716Rat
1354612Foco1Food consumption QTL 18.87eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)food intake rate (CMO:0000427)444463908148090542Rat
1354660Salc1Saline consumption QTL 111.26drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)saline drink intake rate (CMO:0001627)444463908148090542Rat
2312567Glom19Glomerulus QTL 191.90.006kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)445456990146803430Rat
1298082Stresp4Stress response QTL 4blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)450119848146803430Rat
4889969Bss96Bone structure and strength QTL 964.9tibia size trait (VT:0100001)tibia cortical bone volume (CMO:0001725)45664777678882945Rat
4889972Bss97Bone structure and strength QTL 975.6tibia size trait (VT:0100001)tibia total bone volume (CMO:0001724)45664777678882945Rat
5685009Bmd86Bone mineral density QTL 863.7tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)bone mineral density (CMO:0001226)45664777678882945Rat
5685012Bmd87Bone mineral density QTL 875.1tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)bone mineral content (CMO:0001554)45664777678882945Rat
70200Alc18Alcohol consumption QTL 189.2drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001591)456647873149491524Rat
1641833Alc21Alcohol consumption QTL 218.60.0001drinking behavior trait (VT:0001422)ethanol drink intake rate (CMO:0001407)456698790126192555Rat
634311Sach7Saccharin preference QTL 7taste sensitivity trait (VT:0001986)saccharin intake volume to total fluid intake volume ratio (CMO:0001601)45711443281266970Rat
631546Bp86Blood pressure QTL 863.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)45711443291360801Rat
61336Bp21Blood pressure QTL 214.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)45711470578881294Rat
1358363Sradr3Stress Responsive Adrenal Weight QTL 36.19adrenal gland mass (VT:0010420)both adrenal glands wet weight (CMO:0000164)457486946102486946Rat

Related Rat Strains
The following Strains have been annotated to Smo


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 28 8 6 6 56 24 33 2
Low 3 15 49 35 19 35 8 11 18 11 8 9 8
Below cutoff


Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000011356   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000011356
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl457,019,941 - 57,041,779 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000080223   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000070665
RefSeq Status:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl458,343,529 - 58,373,829 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl457,034,675 - 57,042,770 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012807   ⟹   NP_036939
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2458,344,101 - 58,372,828 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.0457,019,941 - 57,041,779 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.0456,787,102 - 56,809,935 (+)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4456,623,494 - 56,645,571 (+)RGD
Celera453,450,322 - 53,474,674 (+)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_036939 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAB41789 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDM15233 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  P97698 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  QST77978 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Reference Sequences
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_036939   ⟸   NM_012807
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: G3V736 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000070665   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000080223
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000011356   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000011356
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P97698-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P97698 1-793 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:3726 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-45382 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000008332 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000070665 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOP00000070665.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000080223 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000080223.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH 1.10.2000.10 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Rhodopsin 7-helix transmembrane proteins UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Frizzled/SFRP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Frizzled/Smoothened_TM UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Frizzled_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Frizzled_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GPCR_2-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SMO_7TM UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SMO_CRD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:25273 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
PANTHER PTHR11309 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR11309:SF35 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Frizzled UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PF01392 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Smo PhenoGen
  PS50038 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
SMART FRI UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Frizzled UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF63501 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC218758
  P97698 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary G3V736 UniProtKB/TrEMBL

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2014-02-06 Smo  smoothened, frizzled class receptor  Smo  smoothened, frizzled family receptor  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2011-08-01 Smo  smoothened, frizzled family receptor  Smo  smoothened homolog (Drosophila)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2004-09-10 Smo  smoothened homolog (Drosophila)  Smoh    Symbol updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Smoh  Smoothened      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_disease upregulated in uterine tumors 70348
gene_disease upregulated in uterine tumors 70557
gene_expression expressed in uterus 70348
gene_expression expressed in uterus 70557