Insr (insulin receptor) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Insr (insulin receptor) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Insr
Name: insulin receptor
RGD ID: 2917
Description: Enables several functions, including enzyme binding activity; insulin binding activity; and insulin receptor activity. Involved in several processes, including brain development; negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process; and neuron projection organization. Located in several cellular components, including dendrite membrane; external side of plasma membrane; and neuronal cell body membrane. Colocalizes with dendrite and neuronal cell body. Used to study chronic kidney disease; diabetic neuropathy; liver disease (multiple); and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biomarker of several diseases, including Alzheimer's disease; diabetes mellitus (multiple); hepatic encephalopathy; liver disease (multiple); and short bowel syndrome. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in Donohue syndrome; glucose metabolism disease (multiple); and reproductive organ cancer (multiple). Orthologous to human INSR (insulin receptor); PARTICIPATES IN altered leptin system pathway; insulin signaling pathway; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-catechin; (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid; (S)-nicotine.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: insulin receptor preproprotein; IR
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Is Marker For: Strains:   LEW-Tg(H1/tetO-RNAi:Insr)87Hrjb   LEW-Tg(H1/tetO-RNAi:Insr)4Hrjb  
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8125,991,135 - 6,129,275 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2121,193,193 - 1,330,976 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl121,197,100 - 1,330,883 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx121,861,209 - 1,995,191 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0122,484,768 - 2,618,760 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0121,257,014 - 1,390,911 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0121,682,527 - 1,816,414 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl121,680,957 - 1,816,414 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,848,670 - 3,989,302 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4122,934,967 - 3,087,691 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1122,934,966 - 3,087,691 (+)NCBI
Celera123,053,590 - 3,185,991 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12p12NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
46, XY Disorders of Sex Development  (ISO)
AIDS Dementia Complex  (ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (IEP,ISO)
autism spectrum disorder  (ISO)
breast cancer  (ISO)
Breast Neoplasms  (ISO)
cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
choriocarcinoma  (ISO)
chronic kidney disease  (IDA)
congenital diaphragmatic hernia  (ISO)
diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
diabetic ketoacidosis  (ISO)
diabetic neuropathy  (IDA,ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (ISS)
Donohue syndrome  (ISO)
esophageal atresia  (ISO)
Experimental Diabetes Mellitus  (IDA,IEP,ISO)
Experimental Liver Neoplasms  (IEP)
familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 4  (ISO)
familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 5  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
gestational diabetes  (IEP,ISO)
glucose intolerance  (ISO)
hepatic encephalopathy  (IEP)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (IEP,IMP)
Hyperalgesia  (ISO)
hyperglycemia  (ISO)
hyperinsulinism  (ISO)
Insulin Resistance  (IEP,ISO)
Insulin-Resistant Diabetes Mellitus, with Acanthosis Nigricans  (ISO)
Lewy body dementia  (ISO)
lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
lipodystrophy  (ISO)
lung disease  (ISO)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 1  (ISO)
metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease  (IEP,IMP,ISO)
Metabolic Syndrome  (ISO)
mucolipidosis type IV  (ISO)
Native American myopathy  (ISO)
Parkinson's disease  (ISO)
pre-malignant neoplasm  (IEP)
prostate adenocarcinoma  (ISO)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (ISO)
Protein Deficiency  (IEP)
renal cell carcinoma  (ISO)
seminoma  (ISO)
short bowel syndrome  (IEP)
steatotic liver disease  (IEP,IMP)
substance-related disorder  (ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (IDA,IEP,IMP,ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-catechin  (EXP,ISO)
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acetic acid  (EXP)
(S)-nicotine  (EXP)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-\{[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl](methyl)amino\}-2-(propan-2-yl)pentanenitrile  (EXP)
2-palmitoylglycerol  (ISO)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (EXP)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-nitrophenol  (ISO)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
9-cis,11-trans-octadecadienoic acid  (ISO)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (EXP)
acetamide  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
Aflatoxin B2 alpha  (ISO)
AICA ribonucleotide  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
allethrin  (EXP)
allopurinol  (EXP)
alloxan  (EXP)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (EXP,ISO)
AP20187  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
arsane  (ISO)
arsenic atom  (ISO)
arsenic trichloride  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
bellidifolin  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
benzo[e]pyrene  (ISO)
benzoic acid  (ISO)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
caffeine  (EXP,ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
choline  (EXP)
chromium atom  (ISO)
chromium(3+) trichloride  (EXP)
chromium(6+)  (EXP)
cobalt atom  (EXP)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
curcumin  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cyhalothrin  (EXP)
cypermethrin  (EXP)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
dapagliflozin  (EXP)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
diclofenac  (ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP,ISO)
dipyridamole  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
duvoglustat  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
fenthion  (ISO)
fenvalerate  (EXP)
fructose  (EXP)
fulvestrant  (EXP)
Geniposide  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
hexachlorobenzene  (EXP,ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
indometacin  (EXP)
insulin  (EXP)
isoliquiritigenin  (ISO)
ketoconazole  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP)
lead diacetate  (EXP)
leflunomide  (EXP)
linoleic acid  (ISO)
linsidomine  (ISO)
lovastatin  (EXP)
luteolin  (ISO)
magnesium atom  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP,ISO)
manganese(0)  (EXP,ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP)
melatonin  (EXP)
metformin  (EXP,ISO)
methamphetamine  (ISO)
methapyrilene  (EXP,ISO)
methidathion  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methoxychlor  (EXP)
methylglyoxal  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (ISO)
miconazole  (EXP)
molybdate  (EXP)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
N-methyl-N-nitrosourea  (EXP)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
N-nitrosomorpholine  (EXP)
NAD zwitterion  (ISO)
NAD(+)  (ISO)
nickel atom  (EXP,ISO)
nicotinamide  (EXP)
nicotine  (EXP)
nitrofen  (EXP)
oleanolic acid  (EXP)
oleic acid  (ISO)
orientin  (ISO)
ozone  (EXP)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
phenylarsine oxide  (ISO)
phenytoin  (ISO)
picolinic acid  (EXP)
potassium chromate  (ISO)
procyanidin B1  (ISO)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
puerarin  (ISO)
pyrethrins  (EXP)
quercetin  (EXP)
quercitrin  (ISO)
raffinose  (EXP,ISO)
rebaudioside A  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rivastigmine  (EXP)
Rutamarin  (ISO)
rutin  (EXP)
SB 203580  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
Soman  (EXP)
steviol  (ISO)
stevioside  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP,ISO)
sulfasalazine  (ISO)
taurine  (EXP)
testosterone  (ISO)
tetrachloroethene  (ISO)
thiazolidines  (ISO)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
tributylstannane  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
triclosan  (EXP)
triphenyl phosphate  (ISO)
Triptolide  (EXP)
troglitazone  (ISO)
urethane  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
verapamil  (EXP)
vildagliptin  (EXP)
vitamin E  (EXP)
wortmannin  (EXP)
zinc atom  (EXP,ISO)
zinc dichloride  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (EXP,ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
adrenal gland development  (IEA,ISO)
amyloid-beta clearance  (IMP)
animal organ morphogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
cell surface receptor protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathway  (IEA)
cellular response to growth factor stimulus  (IEA,ISO)
cellular response to insulin stimulus  (ISO)
cellular response to zinc ion starvation  (IEP)
cerebellum development  (IEP)
dendritic spine maintenance  (IGI)
embryonic liver development  (IEP)
epidermis development  (IEA,ISO)
exocrine pancreas development  (IEA,ISO)
fat cell differentiation  (IEP)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
glucose homeostasis  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
heart morphogenesis  (ISO)
hippocampus development  (IEP)
insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IDA,IEA,IEP,IMP,ISO)
liver development  (IEP)
liver regeneration  (IEP)
male gonad development  (IEA,ISO)
male sex determination  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of feeding behavior  (IMP)
negative regulation of gene expression  (IMP)
negative regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process  (IEP)
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IMP)
negative regulation of transporter activity  (IMP)
neuron projection maintenance  (IGI)
peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  (IMP)
positive regulation of cell migration  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of developmental growth  (ISO)
positive regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of glucose import  (ISO)
positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of glycolytic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process  (IMP)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of meiotic cell cycle  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B signal transduction  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of phosphorylation  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein-containing complex disassembly  (IGI)
positive regulation of receptor internalization  (ISO)
positive regulation of respiratory burst  (ISO)
protein autophosphorylation  (IDA,IMP)
protein phosphorylation  (IDA,IEP)
receptor internalization  (IEA,ISO)
receptor-mediated endocytosis  (IMP)
regulation of DNA-templated transcription  (ISO)
regulation of embryonic development  (ISO)
regulation of female gonad development  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of gluconeogenesis  (IEP)
regulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process  (IDA)
response to activity  (IEP)
response to estradiol  (IEP)
response to ethanol  (IEP)
response to food  (IEP)
response to glucocorticoid  (IEP)
response to glucose  (IEP)
response to hormone  (IEP)
response to hypoxia  (IEP)
response to insulin  (IEP)
response to manganese ion  (IEP)
response to nutrient levels  (IDA,IEP)
response to organic substance  (IEP)
response to resveratrol  (IEP)
response to starvation  (IEP)
response to testosterone  (IEP)
response to tumor necrosis factor  (IMP)
response to vanadate(3-)  (IEP)
response to vitamin D  (IEP)
symbiont entry into host cell  (ISO)

Cellular Component

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Upregulation of the insulin receptor and type I insulin-like growth factor receptor are early events in hepatocarcinogenesis. Aleem E, etal., Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Apr;39(3):524-43. doi: 10.1177/0192623310396905. Epub 2011 Mar 16.
2. Blockade of IRS1 in isolated rat pancreatic islets improves glucose-induced insulin secretion. Araujo EP, etal., FEBS Lett 2002 Nov 20;531(3):437-42.
3. Infliximab reverses steatosis and improves insulin signal transduction in liver of rats fed a high-fat diet. Barbuio R, etal., J Endocrinol. 2007 Sep;194(3):539-50.
4. Insulin signaling coordinately regulates cardiac size, metabolism, and contractile protein isoform expression. Belke DD, etal., J Clin Invest 2002 Mar;109(5):629-39.
5. Oral insulin stimulates intestinal epithelial cell turnover in correlation with insulin-receptor expression along the villus-crypt axis in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Ben Lulu S, etal., Pediatr Surg Int. 2010 Jan;26(1):37-44. doi: 10.1007/s00383-009-2520-x.
6. Impaired insulin action but normal insulin receptor activity in diabetic rat liver: effect of vanadate. Blondel O, etal., Am J Physiol. 1990 Mar;258(3 Pt 1):E459-67. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.1990.258.3.E459.
7. Adipose tissue selective insulin receptor knockout protects against obesity and obesity-related glucose intolerance. Bluher M, etal., Dev Cell 2002 Jul;3(1):25-38.
8. The last enzyme of the de novo purine synthesis pathway 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) plays a central role in insulin signaling and the Golgi/endosomes protein network. Boutchueng-Djidjou M, etal., Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015 Apr;14(4):1079-92. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M114.047159. Epub 2015 Feb 16.
9. Maternal prenatal undernutrition alters the response of POMC neurons to energy status variation in adult male rat offspring. Breton C, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Mar;296(3):E462-72. Epub 2008 Dec 16.
10. Insulin receptors in developing rat liver: acquisition of down regulation in the immediate postnatal period. Caliendo AM and Patel MS, Arch Biochem Biophys. 1983 Dec;227(2):552-61. doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(83)90484-8.
11. Genomic actions of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on insulin receptor gene expression, insulin receptor number and insulin activity in the kidney, liver and adipose tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Calle C, etal., BMC Mol Biol. 2008 Jul 18;9:65.
12. Mitogenic insulin receptor-A is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma due to EGFR-mediated dysregulation of RNA splicing factors. Chettouh H, etal., Cancer Res. 2013 Jul 1;73(13):3974-86. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-3824. Epub 2013 Apr 30.
13. Defective insulin signaling in placenta from pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. Colomiere M, etal., Eur J Endocrinol. 2009 Apr;160(4):567-78. Epub 2009 Jan 29.
14. Culture and differentiation of preadipocytes in two-dimensional and three-dimensional in vitro systems. Daya S, etal., Differentiation. 2007 Jun;75(5):360-70. Epub 2007 Feb 5.
15. Profiling of the renal kinome: a novel tool to identify protein kinases involved in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive renal damage. de Borst MH, etal., Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Jul;293(1):F428-37. Epub 2007 Apr 11.
16. Protection of synapses against Alzheimer's-linked toxins: insulin signaling prevents the pathogenic binding of Abeta oligomers. De Felice FG, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 10;106(6):1971-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0809158106. Epub 2009 Feb 2.
17. The nonclassical insulin binding of insulin receptors from rat liver is due to the presence of two interacting alpha-subunits in the receptor complex. Deger A, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986 Mar 13;135(2):458-64.
18. Compartmentalization and in vivo insulin-induced translocation of the insulin-signaling inhibitor Grb14 in rat liver. Desbuquois B, etal., FEBS J. 2008 Sep;275(17):4363-77. Epub 2008 Jul 24.
19. IGF-II regulates metastatic properties of choriocarcinoma cells through the activation of the insulin receptor. Diaz LE, etal., Mol Hum Reprod. 2007 Aug;13(8):567-76. Epub 2007 Jun 6.
20. Alpha-lipoic acid as a directly binding activator of the insulin receptor: protection from hepatocyte apoptosis. Diesel B, etal., Biochemistry. 2007 Feb 27;46(8):2146-55. Epub 2007 Feb 3.
21. Insulin Resistance Disrupts the Interaction Between AKT and the NMDA Receptor and the Inactivation of the CaMKIV/CREB Pathway in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy. Ding S, etal., Toxicol Sci. 2017 Oct 1;159(2):290-306. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfx093.
22. Insulin resistance promotes Lysyl Oxidase Like 2 induction and fibrosis accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Dongiovanni P, etal., Clin Sci (Lond). 2017 Jun 7;131(12):1301-1315. doi: 10.1042/CS20170175. Print 2017 Jun 1.
23. Insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) proteins form a complex on the rat hepatocyte membrane. Eisenberg ML, etal., Cell Physiol Biochem. 2005;15(1-4):51-8.
24. Insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, Raf-1, and Mek-1 during hormonal hepatocarcinogenesis by intrahepatic pancreatic islet transplantation in diabetic rats. Evert M, etal., Cancer Res. 2004 Nov 1;64(21):8093-100.
25. Soybean diet alters the insulin-signaling pathway in the liver of rats recovering from early-life malnutrition. Feres NH, etal., Nutrition. 2010 Apr;26(4):441-8. Epub 2009 Oct 31.
26. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 by the insulin receptor is necessary for insulin metabolic signaling. Fiory F, etal., Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Dec;25(24):10803-14.
27. Structural and functional studies of insulin receptors in human breast cancer. Frittitta L, etal., Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1993;25(1):73-82.
28. Mitofusin-2 ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in liver of rats. Gan KX, etal., World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar 14;19(10):1572-81. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i10.1572.
29. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
30. Soluble and cell-associated insulin receptor dysfunction correlates with severity of HAND in HIV-infected women. Gerena Y, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37358. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037358. Epub 2012 May 22.
31. Insulin receptor gene expression during development: developmental regulation of insulin receptor mRNA abundance in embryonic rat liver and yolk sac, developmental regulation of insulin receptor gene splicing, and comparison to abundance of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor mRNA. Giddings SJ and Carnaghi LR, Mol Endocrinol. 1992 Oct;6(10):1665-72. doi: 10.1210/mend.6.10.1448116.
32. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
33. Lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptor expression. Grillo CA, etal., Physiol Behav. 2007 Nov 23;92(4):691-701. Epub 2007 May 21.
34. The effects of induced type-I diabetes on developmental regulation of insulin & insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptors in the cerebellum of rat neonates. Haghir H, etal., Metab Brain Dis. 2013 Sep;28(3):397-410. doi: 10.1007/s11011-013-9386-2. Epub 2013 Feb 10.
35. Sex differences and left-right asymmetries in expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptors in developing rat hippocampus. Hami J, etal., Brain Struct Funct. 2012 Apr;217(2):293-302. doi: 10.1007/s00429-011-0358-1. Epub 2011 Nov 1.
36. The effects of maternal diabetes on expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin receptors in male developing rat hippocampus. Hami J, etal., Brain Struct Funct. 2013 Jan;218(1):73-84. doi: 10.1007/s00429-011-0377-y. Epub 2012 Jan 13.
37. Pre-germinated brown rice extract ameliorates high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Hao CL, etal., J Food Biochem. 2019 Mar;43(3):e12769. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.12769. Epub 2019 Jan 13.
38. Inducible and reversible gene silencing by stable integration of an shRNA-encoding lentivirus in transgenic rats. Herold MJ, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 25;105(47):18507-12. Epub 2008 Nov 18.
39. Reciprocal feedback regulation of insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate tyrosine phosphorylation by phosphoinositide 3-kinase in primary adipocytes. Hers I, etal., Biochem J 2002 Dec 15;368(Pt 3):875-84.
40. Zinc deficiency decreases osteoblasts and osteoclasts associated with the reduced expression of Runx2 and RANK. Hie M, etal., Bone. 2011 Dec;49(6):1152-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.08.019. Epub 2011 Aug 26.
41. Modulation of IR/PTP1B interaction and downstream signaling in insulin sensitive tissues of MSG-rats. Hirata AE, etal., Life Sci. 2003 Aug 1;73(11):1369-81.
42. Insulin action and insulin resistance: diseases involving defects in insulin receptors, signal transduction, and the glucose transport effector system. Hunter SJ and Garvey WT, Am J Med. 1998 Oct;105(4):331-45.
43. Altered hypothalamic leptin, insulin, and melanocortin binding associated with moderate-fat diet and predisposition to obesity. Irani BG, etal., Endocrinology. 2007 Jan;148(1):310-6. Epub 2006 Oct 5.
44. The regulatory domain of protein kinase C delta positively regulates insulin receptor signaling. Jacob AI, etal., J Mol Endocrinol. 2010 Mar;44(3):155-69. Epub 2009 Dec 1.
45. Identification of the rat adapter Grb14 as an inhibitor of insulin actions. Kasus-Jacobi A, etal., J Biol Chem 1998 Oct 2;273(40):26026-35.
46. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
47. Insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 in normal liver development. Khamzina L, etal., Gastroenterology 2003 Aug;125(2):572-85.
48. Insulin receptor-overexpressing beta-cells ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic rats through Wnt signaling activation. Kim MH, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 9;8(7):e67802. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067802. Print 2013.
49. Mosaic analysis of insulin receptor function. Kitamura T, etal., J Clin Invest 2004 Jan;113(2):209-19.
50. Effects of dexamethasone on insulin receptor in aging. Koricanac G, etal., Acta Biol Hung. 2008 Mar;59(1):17-29.
51. Insulin signaling in the liver and uterus of ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol. Koricanac G, etal., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Jan;108(1-2):109-16. Epub 2007 Sep 7.
52. Inducible transgenic rat model for diabetes mellitus based on shRNA-mediated gene knockdown. Kotnik K, etal., PLoS ONE. 2009;4(4):e5124. Epub 2009 Apr 2.
53. Down-regulation of insulin signaling is involved in painful diabetic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Kou ZZ, etal., Pain Physician. 2013 Mar-Apr;16(2):E71-83.
54. Intracerebral streptozotocin model of type 3 diabetes: relevance to sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Lester-Coll N, etal., J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Mar;9(1):13-33.
55. Insulin potentiates the proliferation and bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced osteogenic differentiation of rat spinal ligament cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Li H, etal., Spine. 2008 Oct 15;33(22):2394-402.
56. Chronic ethanol consumption resulting in the downregulation of insulin receptor-beta subunit, insulin receptor substrate-1, and glucose transporter 4 expression in rat cardiac muscles. Limin T, etal., Alcohol. 2009 Feb;43(1):51-8.
57. Dendrobium mixture regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in diabetic rats via the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling pathway. Lin X, etal., Exp Ther Med. 2018 Jul;16(1):204-212. doi: 10.3892/etm.2018.6194. Epub 2018 May 18.
58. Insulin regulates P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells via an insulin receptor-mediated PKC/NF-kappaB pathway but not a PI3K/Akt pathway. Liu H, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Jan 14;602(2-3):277-82. Epub 2008 Nov 21.
59. Bidirectional regulation of upstream IGF-I/insulin receptor signaling and downstream FOXO1 in cardiomyocytes. Liu TJ, etal., J Endocrinol. 2007 Jan;192(1):149-58.
60. The diabetes drug liraglutide ameliorates aberrant insulin receptor localisation and signalling in parallel with decreasing both amyloid-beta plaque and glial pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Long-Smith CM, etal., Neuromolecular Med. 2013 Mar;15(1):102-14. doi: 10.1007/s12017-012-8199-5. Epub 2012 Sep 21.
61. Liver-specific insulin receptor isoform A expression enhances hepatic glucose uptake and ameliorates liver steatosis in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Lopez-Pastor AR, etal., Dis Model Mech. 2019 Feb 7;12(2). pii: dmm.036186. doi: 10.1242/dmm.036186.
62. SHPTP2 serves adapter protein linking between Janus kinase 2 and insulin receptor substrates. Maegawa H, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Nov 1;228(1):122-7.
63. Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos Extract Reduces Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Modulating PI3K/AKT and AMPK Pathways. Mazibuko-Mbeje SE, etal., Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Feb 1;20(3). pii: ijms20030633. doi: 10.3390/ijms20030633.
64. The beta secretase BACE1 regulates the expression of insulin receptor in the liver. Meakin PJ, etal., Nat Commun. 2018 Apr 3;9(1):1306. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03755-2.
65. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
66. Loss of insulin signaling in hepatocytes leads to severe insulin resistance and progressive hepatic dysfunction. Michael MD, etal., Mol Cell 2000 Jul;6(1):87-97.
67. Endogenous insulin signaling protects cultured neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell death. Mielke JG, etal., Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 17;143(1):165-73. Epub 2006 Sep 14.
68. Defects in IGF-1 receptor, insulin receptor and IRS-1/2 in Alzheimer's disease indicate possible resistance to IGF-1 and insulin signalling. Moloney AM, etal., Neurobiol Aging. 2010 Feb;31(2):224-43. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.04.002. Epub .
69. Insulin receptor is an independent predictor of a favorable outcome in early stage breast cancer. Mulligan AM, etal., Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007 Nov;106(1):39-47. Epub 2007 Jan 13.
70. TANK-binding kinase 1 mediates phosphorylation of insulin receptor at serine residue 994: a potential link between inflammation and insulin resistance. Munoz MC, etal., J Endocrinol. 2009 May;201(2):185-97. Epub 2009 Feb 27.
71. Insulin receptor mutation results in insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia but does not exacerbate Alzheimer's-like phenotypes in mice. Murakami K, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 May 27;409(1):34-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.04.101. Epub 2011 Apr 28.
72. Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on insulin receptor status in type 2 diabetic rats: studies on insulin binding to erythrocytes. Murugan P, etal., J Biosci. 2008 Mar;33(1):63-72.
73. Testosterone deficiency impairs glucose oxidation through defective insulin and its receptor gene expression in target tissues of adult male rats. Muthusamy T, etal., Life Sci. 2007 Jul 26;81(7):534-42. Epub 2007 Jun 28.
74. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
75. Differential expression of IGF components and insulin receptor isoforms in human seminoma versus normal testicular tissue. Neuvians TP, etal., Neoplasia. 2005 May;7(5):446-56.
76. Decreasing hypothalamic insulin receptors causes hyperphagia and insulin resistance in rats. Obici S, etal., Nat Neurosci 2002 Jun;5(6):566-72.
77. Both IGF1R and INSR Knockdown Exert Antitumorigenic Effects in Prostate Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo. Ofer P, etal., Mol Endocrinol. 2015 Dec;29(12):1694-707. doi: 10.1210/me.2015-1073. Epub 2015 Oct 9.
78. Exercise type and muscle fiber specific induction of caveolin-1 expression for insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle. Oh YS, etal., Exp Mol Med. 2007 Jun 30;39(3):395-401.
79. Transgenic rescue of insulin receptor-deficient mice. Okamoto H, etal., J Clin Invest 2004 Jul;114(2):214-23.
80. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
81. Regulation of insulin receptor function by a small molecule insulin receptor activator. Pender C, etal., J Biol Chem 2002 Nov 15;277(46):43565-71.
82. Apo A-1 mimetic peptide, L-4F prevents insulin resistance through increased HO-1 and pAMPK in obese mice. Peterson SJ, etal., J Lipid Res. 2009 Mar 26.
83. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
84. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
85. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
86. Multiple factors and pathways involved in hepatic very low density lipoprotein-apoB100 overproduction in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats. Qin B, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2012 Jun;222(2):409-16. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.03.033. Epub 2012 Apr 11.
87. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
88. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
89. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
90. Insulin induces calcium signals in the nucleus of rat hepatocytes. Rodrigues MA, etal., Hepatology. 2008 Nov;48(5):1621-31.
91. Inhibition of protein kinase Cepsilon prevents hepatic insulin resistance in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Samuel VT, etal., J Clin Invest. 2007 Mar;117(3):739-45. Epub 2007 Feb 22.
92. Protein tyrosine phosphatase regulation in fibroblasts from patients with an insulin receptor gene mutation. Seki N, etal., Horm Metab Res. 2008 Dec;40(12):833-7. Epub 2008 Oct 16.
93. Aldosterone induces vascular insulin resistance by increasing insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and hybrid receptor. Sherajee SJ, etal., Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012 Feb;32(2):257-63. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.111.240697. Epub 2011 Dec 15.
94. Study of antidiabetic activity of a new ultralow-dose antibody preparation on the model of streptozotocin diabetes in rats. Spasov AA, etal., Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007 Jul;144(1):46-8.
95. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is involved in insulin-stimulated hydrogen peroxide production and plays an integral role in insulin receptor autophosphorylation in neurons. Storozhevykh TP, etal., BMC Neurosci. 2007 Oct 8;8:84.
96. Early changes in insulin receptor signaling and pain sensation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. Sugimoto K, etal., J Pain. 2008 Mar;9(3):237-45. Epub 2007 Dec 3.
97. Duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery up-regulates the expression of the hepatic insulin signaling proteins and the key regulatory enzymes of intestinal gluconeogenesis in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Sun D, etal., Obes Surg. 2013 Nov;23(11):1734-42. doi: 10.1007/s11695-013-0985-0.
98. Localization of the rat genes encoding glucagon, glucagon receptor, and insulin receptor, candidates for diabetes mellitus susceptibility loci. Szpirer C, etal., Mamm Genome 1997 Aug;8(8):586-8
99. Altered expression of members of the IGF-axis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Takahashi M, etal., Int J Oncol. 2005 Apr;26(4):923-31.
100. Combined thiazolidinedione-metformin treatment synergistically improves insulin signalling to insulin receptor substrate-1-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, atypical protein kinase C and protein kinase B/Akt in human diabetic muscle. Temofonte N, etal., Diabetologia. 2009 Jan;52(1):60-4. Epub 2008 Oct 30.
101. Contraction of insulin-resistant muscle normalizes insulin action in association with increased mitochondrial activity and fatty acid catabolism. Thyfault JP, etal., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Feb;292(2):C729-39. Epub 2006 Oct 18.
102. Reduced expression of insulin receptors in the kidneys of insulin-resistant rats. Tiwari S, etal., J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007 Oct;18(10):2661-71. Epub 2007 Sep 12.
103. Identification of the insulin receptor tyrosine residues undergoing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation in intact rat hepatoma cells. Tornqvist HE, etal., J Biol Chem. 1988 Jan 5;263(1):350-9.
104. Effects of STZ-induced diabetes and fasting on insulin receptor mRNA expression and insulin receptor gene transcription in rat liver. Tozzo E and Desbuquois B, Diabetes. 1992 Dec;41(12):1609-16. doi: 10.2337/diab.41.12.1609.
105. Association of diet-induced hyperinsulinemia with accelerated growth of prostate cancer (LNCaP) xenografts. Venkateswaran V, etal., J Natl Cancer Inst. 2007 Dec 5;99(23):1793-800. Epub 2007 Nov 27.
106. Resveratrol attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced insulin resistance in rats: involvement of Sirtuin 1 and the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Wang Q, etal., Mol Med Rep. 2015 Jan;11(1):151-8. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2762. Epub 2014 Oct 23.
107. Upregulation of miR-497 induces hepatic insulin resistance in E3 rats with HFD-MetS by targeting insulin receptor. Wang X, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015 Nov 15;416:57-69. doi: 10.1016/j.mce.2015.08.021. Epub 2015 Aug 20.
108. Kinetic properties and sites of autophosphorylation of the partially purified insulin receptor from hepatoma cells. White MF, etal., J Biol Chem. 1984 Jan 10;259(1):255-64.
109. Resistin and insulin resistance in hepatocytes: Resistin disturbs glycogen metabolism at the protein level. Yang Y, etal., Biomed Pharmacother. 2008 Jul 9.
110. [Effects of Lactobacillus paracasei N1115 combined with fructooligosaccharides on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high-fat diet in mice]. Yao FF, etal., Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2017 Dec 20;25(12):927-933. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2017.12.008.
111. Regulation of insulin receptor function. Youngren JF Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Apr;64(7-8):873-91.
112. Study on the mechanism of hepatocytic insulin signal transduction defects in severely scalded rats Zhang B, etal., Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2002 Aug;18(4):220-2.
113. Extracts from Salvia-Nelumbinis naturalis alleviate hepatosteatosis via improving hepatic insulin sensitivity. Zhang L, etal., J Transl Med. 2014 Aug 27;12:236. doi: 10.1186/s12967-014-0236-8.
114. Insulin receptor dysfunction impairs cellular clearance of neurotoxic oligomeric a{beta}. Zhao WQ, etal., J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 10;284(28):18742-53. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.011015. Epub 2009 Apr 30.
115. Vascular insulin resistance related to endoplasmic reticulum stress in aortas from a rat model of chronic kidney disease. Zhou QG, etal., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012 Nov 1;303(9):H1154-65. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00407.2012. Epub 2012 Aug 31.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1520270   PMID:1898103   PMID:2210055   PMID:2330003   PMID:3518947   PMID:6849137   PMID:7493946   PMID:7537849   PMID:7556070   PMID:7559478   PMID:7693131   PMID:8276809  
PMID:8440175   PMID:8452530   PMID:8496180   PMID:9092559   PMID:9415395   PMID:9447983   PMID:9819385   PMID:9832615   PMID:10100151   PMID:10747347   PMID:11500939   PMID:11750072  
PMID:11939351   PMID:12079879   PMID:12101187   PMID:12138094   PMID:12477932   PMID:12488434   PMID:12821126   PMID:12881524   PMID:14506612   PMID:14562105   PMID:14628051   PMID:14644152  
PMID:15069075   PMID:15134438   PMID:15134829   PMID:15182363   PMID:15337529   PMID:15375597   PMID:16052330   PMID:16246733   PMID:16353347   PMID:16513830   PMID:16803852   PMID:16839253  
PMID:16921752   PMID:16957736   PMID:17001305   PMID:17299086   PMID:17555093   PMID:17925406   PMID:17974582   PMID:18278056   PMID:18313837   PMID:18492485   PMID:18679562   PMID:18713797  
PMID:18752648   PMID:19345745   PMID:19386987   PMID:19554259   PMID:19575708   PMID:19744960   PMID:19953342   PMID:20032056   PMID:20100694   PMID:20149705   PMID:20443665   PMID:20455999  
PMID:20458337   PMID:20868513   PMID:21195590   PMID:21211393   PMID:21301931   PMID:21443795   PMID:21683721   PMID:21828334   PMID:22207502   PMID:22248283   PMID:22564491   PMID:22611938  
PMID:22871113   PMID:22996137   PMID:23059533   PMID:23066017   PMID:23300479   PMID:23322319   PMID:23382219   PMID:23592917   PMID:23839970   PMID:23906066   PMID:24023699   PMID:24023717  
PMID:24078630   PMID:24130215   PMID:24462861   PMID:24963636   PMID:25401701   PMID:26853939   PMID:27930980   PMID:28470423   PMID:28495883   PMID:29215540   PMID:29289466   PMID:29412813  
PMID:29955950   PMID:33513940   PMID:33915127   PMID:34022289   PMID:37566482  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr8125,991,135 - 6,129,275 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.2121,193,193 - 1,330,976 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl121,197,100 - 1,330,883 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx121,861,209 - 1,995,191 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0122,484,768 - 2,618,760 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0121,257,014 - 1,390,911 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0121,682,527 - 1,816,414 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl121,680,957 - 1,816,414 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,848,670 - 3,989,302 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4122,934,967 - 3,087,691 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1122,934,966 - 3,087,691 (+)NCBI
Celera123,053,590 - 3,185,991 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map12p12NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38197,112,265 - 7,294,414 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl197,112,255 - 7,294,414 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37197,112,276 - 7,294,425 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36197,063,266 - 7,245,011 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34197,067,637 - 7,245,011NCBI
Celera197,049,684 - 7,205,258 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19p13.2NCBI
HuRef196,846,024 - 7,028,322 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1197,111,894 - 7,294,424 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0197,103,362 - 7,286,608 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm3983,200,922 - 3,329,649 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl83,172,061 - 3,329,617 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm3883,150,922 - 3,279,649 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl83,122,061 - 3,279,617 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv3783,150,922 - 3,279,617 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv3683,155,669 - 3,279,176 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera83,375,321 - 3,505,728 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8A1.1NCBI
cM Map81.82NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049555631,867,400 - 2,009,149 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049555631,867,400 - 2,011,845 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v22011,772,936 - 11,957,738 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11910,890,695 - 11,075,653 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0196,393,407 - 6,578,234 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1197,255,444 - 7,411,916 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl197,260,246 - 7,414,889 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.12052,017,261 - 52,136,061 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2052,021,887 - 52,136,046 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2051,822,227 - 51,957,301 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02052,547,342 - 52,682,557 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2052,551,139 - 52,683,109 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12051,751,620 - 51,886,677 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02052,194,853 - 52,330,054 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02052,425,027 - 52,560,283 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024405118213,335,383 - 213,489,477 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049365884,345,306 - 4,453,668 (-)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365884,345,306 - 4,453,380 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl271,797,204 - 71,936,104 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1271,797,209 - 71,939,923 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2272,388,108 - 72,420,533 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
Pig Cytomap2q11-q21NCBI
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.166,625,951 - 6,803,610 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl66,630,777 - 6,803,592 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660811,077,953 - 1,266,880 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_004624828345,135 - 486,184 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_004624828345,135 - 485,856 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Insr
661 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:854
Count of miRNA genes:238
Interacting mature miRNAs:280
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000041155, ENSRNOT00000067448
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1300174Bw15Body weight QTL 152.93body mass (VT:0001259)body weight loss (CMO:0001399)1219318387Rat
2312418Kidm41Kidney mass QTL 413.70.0001kidney mass (VT:0002707)single kidney wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000622)12119611090Rat
10755457Coatc14Coat color QTL 140.01759coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented ventral coat/hair area to total ventral coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001812)12122591684Rat
6893681Bw109Body weight QTL 1092.30.004body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)12123297788Rat
1581516Cm56Cardiac mass QTL 564.20.05heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)12129333307Rat
1598855Bp294Blood pressure QTL 2943.5arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)12134851688Rat
7411660Foco28Food consumption QTL 2810.90.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
9590086Insglur6Insulin/glucose ratio QTL 618.970.001blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)calculated plasma insulin level (CMO:0002170)12142110980Rat
8694179Bw150Body weight QTL 1502.90.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)12142110980Rat
7411586Foco5Food consumption QTL 55.40.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
7411595Foco9Food consumption QTL 940.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)12142110980Rat
7411545Bw128Body weight QTL 1285.20.001body mass (VT:0001259)body weight gain (CMO:0000420)12142110980Rat
9590147Scort7Serum corticosterone level QTL 713.610.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)12142110980Rat
2303575Insul14Insulin level QTL 144blood insulin amount (VT:0001560)blood insulin level (CMO:0000349)12142450532Rat
737979Pia22Pristane induced arthritis QTL 2253.1joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)12144465750Rat
634351Apr5Acute phase response QTL 56.7blood interleukin-6 amount (VT:0008595)plasma interleukin-6 level (CMO:0001927)12144503507Rat
2302042Pia38Pristane induced arthritis QTL 383.50.001blood immunoglobulin amount (VT:0002460)serum immunoglobulin G1 level (CMO:0002115)12144503507Rat
7243862Mcs30Mammary carcinoma susceptibility QTL 308.62mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)mammary tumor number (CMO:0000343)127977298525593Rat
634350Apr4Acute phase response QTL 46orosomucoid 1 amount (VT:0010541)plasma orosomucoid 1 level (CMO:0001467)12117200546172005Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2121,247,864 - 1,248,029 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0121,733,779 - 1,733,943NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,906,310 - 3,906,474UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4123,017,038 - 3,017,201RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.4123,017,039 - 3,017,203UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1123,017,038 - 3,017,201RGD
Celera123,103,583 - 3,103,747UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map122.17UniSTS
SHRSP x BN Map122.17RGD
Cytogenetic Map12q12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2121,196,839 - 1,197,008 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0121,682,267 - 1,682,435NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,852,317 - 3,852,485UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4123,087,782 - 3,087,951RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.4123,087,783 - 3,087,951UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1123,087,782 - 3,087,951RGD
Celera123,053,330 - 3,053,498UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12q12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2121,196,848 - 1,197,057 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0121,682,276 - 1,682,484NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,852,326 - 3,852,534UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4123,087,734 - 3,087,942UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera123,053,339 - 3,053,547UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12q12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2121,201,555 - 1,201,778 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0121,686,983 - 1,687,205NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,857,033 - 3,857,255UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4123,083,013 - 3,083,235UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera123,058,046 - 3,058,258UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12q12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2121,307,815 - 1,307,954 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0121,793,684 - 1,793,822NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,966,395 - 3,966,533UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4122,957,559 - 2,957,697UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera123,163,279 - 3,163,417UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12q12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2121,270,183 - 1,270,340 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0121,756,051 - 1,756,207NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,928,762 - 3,928,918UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4122,995,176 - 2,995,332UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera123,125,753 - 3,125,909UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12q12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2121,268,402 - 1,268,538 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0121,754,270 - 1,754,405NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0123,926,981 - 3,927,116UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4122,996,978 - 2,997,113UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera123,123,972 - 3,124,107UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12q12UniSTS

Related Rat Strains
The following Strains have been annotated to Insr


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 2 41 51 39 12 39 8 8 74 35 33 11 8
Low 1 2 6 2 7 2 3 8
Below cutoff


Nucleotide Sequences
RefSeq Transcripts NM_017071 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039089096 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039089097 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_063271068 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
GenBank Nucleotide AF005776 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AF005777 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AH004882 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AH004883 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AH007826 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AJ006071 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  AY566293 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC159409 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  CH474084 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JAXUCZ010000012 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  KF112847 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  KF112848 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  M29014 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  U80633 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles

RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000041155   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000049655
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl121,197,100 - 1,330,883 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl121,680,957 - 1,816,414 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000067448   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000060141
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl121,197,100 - 1,330,883 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl121,682,527 - 1,816,414 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000113217   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000079583
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl121,197,100 - 1,330,883 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_017071   ⟹   NP_058767
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8125,995,042 - 6,128,803 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2121,197,100 - 1,330,883 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0121,682,527 - 1,816,414 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0123,848,670 - 3,989,302 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4122,934,967 - 3,087,691 (+)RGD
Celera123,053,590 - 3,185,991 (-)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039089096   ⟹   XP_038945024
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8125,991,135 - 6,129,275 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2121,193,193 - 1,330,976 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039089097   ⟹   XP_038945025
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8125,991,135 - 6,129,275 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.2121,193,193 - 1,330,974 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063271068   ⟹   XP_063127138
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr8125,991,135 - 6,129,275 (-)NCBI
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_058767 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038945024 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_038945025 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  XP_063127138 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAA41441 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB38746 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB38967 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB38968 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB61414 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAB61415 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40886 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40887 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40888 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40889 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40890 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40891 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40892 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40893 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40894 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40895 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40896 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAD40897 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAT00542 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AGV29469 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AGV29470 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL74923 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL74924 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL74925 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000049655.5
GenBank Protein P15127 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058767   ⟸   NM_017071
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: T2CB11 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   F1LPL6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   F1LN53 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A9K3Y780 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8J8Y5N6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000060141   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000067448
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000049655   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000041155
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038945024   ⟸   XM_039089096
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A0A8J8Y5N6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038945025   ⟸   XM_039089097
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5ZMZ8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8J8Y5N6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000079583   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000113217
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063127138   ⟸   XM_063271068
- Peptide Label: isoform X3
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P15127-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P15127 1-1383 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13698363
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R8888
Type:initiation region
Description:insulin receptor
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database,
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0121,816,502 - 1,816,562EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2917 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-20406 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000029986 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000041155.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000067448.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000113217.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Transferase(Phosphotransferase) domain 1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro FN3_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  FN3_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Furin-like_Cys-rich_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Furin_repeat UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Growth_fac_rcpt_cys_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ig-like_fold UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Insulin_TMD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Kinase-like_dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Prot_kinase_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Protein_kinase_ATP_BS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Rcpt_L-dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Rcpt_L-dom_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ser-Thr/Tyr_kinase_cat_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Tyr_kinase_AS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Tyr_kinase_cat_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Tyr_kinase_insulin-like_rcpt UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Tyr_kinase_rcpt_2_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24954 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam fn3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Furin-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Insulin_TMD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Pkinase_Tyr UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Recep_L_domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Insr PhenoGen
PIRSF Insulin_receptor UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PROSITE FN3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000029986 RatGTEx
SMART FN3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SM00261 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TyrKc UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP L domain-like UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF49265 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF56112 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF57184 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt Secondary F1LN53 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  P97681 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Insr  insulin receptor      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_disease mutation may lead to insulin resistance 61488
gene_function binds insulin and has a tyrosine-protein kinase activity 61488
gene_regulation rapid tyrosine phosphorylation is induced by insulin in primary adipocytes 727426