Gnrh1 (gonadotropin releasing hormone 1) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Gnrh1 (gonadotropin releasing hormone 1) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Gnrh1
Name: gonadotropin releasing hormone 1
RGD ID: 2720
Description: Enables gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone activity. Involved in several processes, including estrous cycle; negative regulation of immature T cell proliferation; and response to prolactin. Located in several cellular components, including cytoplasmic side of rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane; cytoplasmic vesicle; and perikaryon. Used to study prostatic hypertrophy. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in breast cancer; hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia; and periodontitis. Orthologous to human GNRH1 (gonadotropin releasing hormone 1); PARTICIPATES IN gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH 1,1,1-Trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane; 17beta-estradiol; 17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Gnrh; GNRHA; Gonadotropin releasing hormone; gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1; gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone); Lhrh; luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone; progonadoliberin I; progonadoliberin-1; Putative protein SH; RGNRHG1; SH-4
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Is Marker For: Strains:   W-Tg(Gnrh1-EGFP)Nphy  
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21541,972,482 - 41,976,690 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1541,972,905 - 41,973,581 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1541,942,339 - 41,976,690 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1543,837,145 - 43,841,353 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01544,987,366 - 44,991,574 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01543,432,699 - 43,436,907 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01544,441,856 - 44,446,064 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1544,441,856 - 44,446,064 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1544,442,555 - 44,442,875 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01547,151,131 - 47,155,339 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41547,303,309 - 47,307,517 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11547,319,088 - 47,323,286 (+)NCBI
Celera1541,636,731 - 41,640,939 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map15p12NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate  (ISO)
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane  (ISO)
1,1,1-Trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane  (EXP)
1,2-dichloroethane  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate  (EXP)
1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one  (EXP)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP)
2,2',4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
3',5'-cyclic GMP  (EXP)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (EXP)
acetamide  (EXP)
alfuzosin  (EXP)
allethrin  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
atrazine  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP)
beta-hexachlorocyclohexane  (ISO)
bicuculline  (EXP)
bifenthrin  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calcium dichloride  (EXP)
carvone  (ISO)
chlormequat chloride  (EXP)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP,ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
clomiphene  (ISO)
cocaine  (ISO)
cyhalothrin  (EXP)
cypermethrin  (EXP,ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
dieldrin  (EXP)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
dopamine  (EXP)
Estradiol 17beta-cyclopentylpropionate  (EXP)
fenvalerate  (EXP)
flavonoids  (EXP)
flutamide  (EXP)
fulvestrant  (ISO)
gamma-aminobutyric acid  (EXP)
gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane  (ISO)
genistein  (EXP)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glyphosate  (ISO)
haloperidol  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
indole-3-methanol  (EXP)
ketoconazole  (EXP)
KT 5823  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP)
melatonin  (EXP)
melittin  (ISO)
mercury atom  (ISO)
mercury(0)  (ISO)
methoxychlor  (EXP,ISO)
methylene blue  (EXP)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP)
muscimol  (EXP)
ochratoxin A  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
Phenoxybenzamine  (EXP)
phenylephrine  (EXP)
potassium chloride  (EXP)
potassium chromate  (ISO)
procymidone  (EXP)
progesterone  (ISO)
propofol  (ISO)
pyrethrins  (EXP)
raloxifene  (ISO)
sevoflurane  (ISO)
T-2 toxin  (EXP)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
testosterone  (EXP)
tetrodotoxin  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (EXP)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
zearalenone  (EXP)

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Two mammalian genes transcribed from opposite strands of the same DNA locus. Adelman JP, etal., Science 1987 Mar 20;235(4795):1514-7.
2. Adhesion-related kinase repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression requires Rac activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Allen MP, etal., J Biol Chem 2002 Oct 11;277(41):38133-40.
3. The role of gonadectomy and testosterone replacement on thymic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone production. Azad N, etal., J Endocrinol. 1998 Aug;158(2):229-35.
4. Isolated familial hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and a GNRH1 mutation. Bouligand J, etal., N Engl J Med. 2009 Jun 25;360(26):2742-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0900136. Epub 2009 Jun 17.
5. GNRH1 mutations in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Chan YM, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 14;106(28):11703-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0903449106. Epub 2009 Jun 30.
6. Regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene transcription by gonadotropin-releasing hormone: measurement of primary transcript ribonucleic acids by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Dalkin AC, etal., Endocrinology 2001 Jan;142(1):139-46.
7. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
8. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
9. Age-related changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor gene expression, and their regulation by oestrogen, in the female rat. Gore AC, etal., J Neuroendocrinol 2002 Apr;14(4):300-9.
10. Glucocorticoid repression of the reproductive axis: effects on GnRH and gonadotropin subunit mRNA levels. Gore AC, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 Aug 15;256(1-2):40-8. Epub 2006 Jul 12.
11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in the preoptic-hypothalamic region of the rat contain lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone III, mammalian luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, or both peptides. Hiney JK, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Feb 19;99(4):2386-91.
12. Bisexual behavior in male rats treated neonatally with antibodies to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. Kalcheim C, etal., J Comp Physiol Psychol. 1981 Feb;95(1):36-44.
13. Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus of the female rat. Kelly MJ, etal., Exp Brain Res. 1982;48(1):97-106.
14. Hypothalamic molecular changes underlying natural reproductive senescence in the female rat. Kermath BA, etal., Endocrinology. 2014 Sep;155(9):3597-609. doi: 10.1210/en.2014-1017. Epub 2014 Jun 10.
15. R31C GNRH1 mutation and congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Maione L, etal., PLoS One. 2013 Jul 25;8(7):e69616. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069616. Print 2013.
16. The hypogonadal mouse: reproductive functions restored by gene therapy. Mason AJ, etal., Science. 1986 Dec 12;234(4782):1372-8.
17. The Pro-LHRH system of the rat brain. Effects of changes in the endocrine background. Merchenthaler I, etal., Brain Res Bull. 1988 Jun;20(6):713-20.
18. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
19. Effect of immune and metabolic challenges on the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuronal system in cycling female rats: an evaluation at the transcriptional level. Nappi RE and Rivest S, Endocrinology. 1997 Apr;138(4):1374-84.
20. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
21. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
22. Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM). Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM (TM).
23. Phosphodiesterase expression targeted to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons inhibits luteinizing hormone pulses in transgenic rats. Paruthiyil S, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Dec 24;99(26):17191-6.
24. GnRH and LHR gene variants predict adverse outcome in premenopausal breast cancer patients. Piersma D, etal., Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9(4):R51.
25. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
26. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
27. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
28. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
29. Comprehensive gene review and curation RGD comprehensive gene curation
30. Combining growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonist greatly augments benign prostatic hyperplasia shrinkage. Rick FG, etal., J Urol. 2012 Apr;187(4):1498-504. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.11.081. Epub 2012 Feb 17.
31. Daily GnRH and GnRH-receptor mRNA expression in the ovariectomized and intact rat. Schirman-Hildesheim TD, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 Jun 27;252(1-2):120-5. Epub 2006 May 2.
32. Localization of Immunoreactive Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and Relative Expression of Its mRNA in the Oviduct During Pregnancy in Rats. Sengupta A, etal., J Histochem Cytochem. 2007 Feb 5;.
33. Large-scale investigation of genomic markers for severe periodontitis. Suzuki A, etal., Odontology. 2004 Sep;92(1):43-7.
34. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
35. Morphological evidence for neuronal regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-containing neurons by neuropeptide Y in the rat septo-preoptic area. Tsuruo Y, etal., Neurosci Lett. 1990 Mar 14;110(3):261-6.
36. Differential secretion of proLHRH fragments in response to [K+], prostaglandin E2 and C kinase activation. Valenca MM, etal., Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1988 Jan;55(1):95-100.
37. Coordinate gene expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and the LHRH-receptor after prolactin stimulation in the rat Nb2 T-cell line: implications for a role in immunomodulation and cell cycle gene expression. Wilson TM, etal., Mol Endocrinol. 1995 Jan;9(1):44-53.
38. Proestrous surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion inhibits apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells in cycling female rats. Yin P and Arita J, Neuroendocrinology 2002 Nov;76(5):272-82.
39. A hypothalamic follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing decapeptide in the rat. Yu WH, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Aug 19;94(17):9499-503.
40. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone in thymus and hypothalamus of rat fetuses: suppressing effect of antagonist and of antibodies on concanavalin A-induced proliferation of thymocytes. Zakharova LA, etal., Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Oct;65(10):1135-9.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1468115   PMID:2476669   PMID:2867548   PMID:7771642   PMID:10803590   PMID:11738808   PMID:11897697   PMID:12198245   PMID:12403831   PMID:12433965   PMID:12598657   PMID:12639934  
PMID:12639939   PMID:12697272   PMID:12810529   PMID:12810551   PMID:12838577   PMID:12865345   PMID:14670985   PMID:14715715   PMID:15138251   PMID:15824321   PMID:15908340   PMID:15919747  
PMID:15964850   PMID:15994198   PMID:16337733   PMID:16405927   PMID:16469806   PMID:17241740   PMID:17280591   PMID:17332066   PMID:17557168   PMID:17935160   PMID:18032409   PMID:18063679  
PMID:18227283   PMID:18467526   PMID:18550775   PMID:18603625   PMID:18701637   PMID:18716286   PMID:18775461   PMID:19179437   PMID:19200975   PMID:19228890   PMID:19253008   PMID:19524128  
PMID:19757493   PMID:19819960   PMID:19856133   PMID:19889867   PMID:20016824   PMID:20380165   PMID:20680515   PMID:20814074   PMID:20937356   PMID:20970475   PMID:21074602   PMID:22039515  
PMID:22147011   PMID:22684563   PMID:23090753   PMID:23197165   PMID:23321696   PMID:23452939   PMID:23518222   PMID:23668015   PMID:23736294   PMID:24216131   PMID:24374911   PMID:24668712  
PMID:24708241   PMID:25048263   PMID:25177948   PMID:25794706   PMID:26248220   PMID:27349532   PMID:30130567   PMID:30218420   PMID:31272713   PMID:31430847   PMID:34268716   PMID:37797313  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21541,972,482 - 41,976,690 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1541,972,905 - 41,973,581 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1541,942,339 - 41,976,690 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1543,837,145 - 43,841,353 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01544,987,366 - 44,991,574 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01543,432,699 - 43,436,907 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01544,441,856 - 44,446,064 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1544,441,856 - 44,446,064 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1544,442,555 - 44,442,875 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01547,151,131 - 47,155,339 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41547,303,309 - 47,307,517 (+)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11547,319,088 - 47,323,286 (+)NCBI
Celera1541,636,731 - 41,640,939 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map15p12NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38825,419,258 - 25,425,040 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl825,419,258 - 25,424,654 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37825,276,774 - 25,282,556 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36825,332,691 - 25,338,473 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34825,332,692 - 25,337,836NCBI
Celera824,237,655 - 24,243,437 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8p21.2NCBI
HuRef823,821,751 - 23,827,534 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1825,478,220 - 25,484,032 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0825,694,484 - 25,700,266 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391467,982,717 - 67,986,889 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1467,982,630 - 67,986,888 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381467,745,181 - 67,749,440 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1467,745,181 - 67,749,439 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371468,363,286 - 68,367,493 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361466,699,676 - 66,702,621 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1465,502,860 - 65,507,056 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map14D1NCBI
cM Map1434.66NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495540348,343,597 - 48,346,595 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495540348,341,731 - 48,346,595 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1819,674,806 - 19,680,584 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0824,700,268 - 24,707,332 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1821,609,407 - 21,616,521 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl821,609,407 - 21,615,936 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.12532,038,631 - 32,043,192 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2532,039,613 - 32,043,028 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2532,623,319 - 32,627,816 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02532,237,978 - 32,242,489 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2532,238,905 - 32,242,478 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12532,193,651 - 32,198,162 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02532,043,144 - 32,047,652 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02532,208,954 - 32,213,456 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440494310,029,435 - 10,033,174 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049367571,282,185 - 1,285,832 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049367571,282,185 - 1,285,804 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl149,442,971 - 9,453,035 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1149,442,971 - 9,447,521 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21410,597,132 - 10,607,824 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.1823,543,717 - 23,550,728 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl823,542,806 - 23,547,771 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366605218,616,776 - 18,623,795 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462475820,447,583 - 20,450,968 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462475820,447,413 - 20,451,059 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Gnrh1
1 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:281
Count of miRNA genes:183
Interacting mature miRNAs:214
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000017939, ENSRNOT00000018006
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1641887Alcrsp14Alcohol response QTL 14response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)brain neurotensin receptor 1 density (CMO:0002068)15142356671Rat
2298549Neuinf12Neuroinflammation QTL 123.5nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)spinal cord beta-2 microglobulin mRNA level (CMO:0002125)15155302115Rat
10401805Kidm51Kidney mass QTL 51kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight (CMO:0000085)1530632945306329Rat
738017Hcas7Hepatocarcinoma susceptibility QTL 72.91liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver nonremodeling tumorous lesion volume to total liver volume ratio (CMO:0001464)15226636846921453Rat
1582251Gluco24Glucose level QTL 243.20.0008blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)15553075650530756Rat
631273Lecl2Lens clarity QTL 20.001lens clarity trait (VT:0001304)age of onset/diagnosis of cataract (CMO:0001584)151059608955596089Rat
2300167Bmd63Bone mineral density QTL 635.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)151111114256111142Rat
2300173Bmd62Bone mineral density QTL 6212.80.0001lumbar vertebra mineral mass (VT:0010511)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)151111114256111142Rat
2293688Bss29Bone structure and strength QTL 295.310.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur midshaft cortical cross-sectional area (CMO:0001663)151111114256111142Rat
2317750Glom26Glomerulus QTL 264.3urine protein amount (VT:0005160)urine protein level (CMO:0000591)151249614165205939Rat
61424Scl1Serum cholesterol level QTL 17.70.001blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)serum total cholesterol level (CMO:0000363)151672552880672115Rat
1331729Rf42Renal function QTL 423.071kidney blood vessel physiology trait (VT:0100012)absolute change in renal blood flow rate (CMO:0001168)151736289773690657Rat
2324620Coatc3Coat color QTL 3coat/hair pigmentation trait (VT:0010463)pigmented coat/hair area to total coat/hair area ratio (CMO:0001810)151985656646187442Rat
10054130Srcrt8Stress Responsive Cort QTL 82.180.0085blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)152211793367117933Rat
1578646Bmd18Bone mineral density QTL 185.2femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001729)152280624098288169Rat
1578647Bmd17Bone mineral density QTL 174femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)152280624098288169Rat
1578660Bss19Bone structure and strength QTL 194.3femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)bone trabecular cross-sectional area (CMO:0002311)152280624098288169Rat
1582214Stl21Serum triglyceride level QTL 213.10.022blood triglyceride amount (VT:0002644)serum triglyceride level (CMO:0000360)152803066582262678Rat
1582227Gluco30Glucose level QTL 303.60.0003blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)absolute change in blood glucose level area under curve (CMO:0002034)152803066582262678Rat
1582228Epfw3Epididymal fat weight QTL 34.10.0002epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)152803066582262678Rat
1582242Gluco28Glucose level QTL 283.30.0008blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level area under curve (AUC) (CMO:0000350)152803066582262678Rat
1582244Bw79Body weight QTL 7940.0002epididymal fat pad mass (VT:0010421)epididymal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000658)152803066582262678Rat
2293691Bmd37Bone mineral density QTL 376.60.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur total energy absorbed before break (CMO:0001677)153361105871477291Rat
2293686Bmd36Bone mineral density QTL 367.40.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femoral neck ultimate force (CMO:0001703)153361105871477291Rat
1598828Glom14Glomerulus QTL 142.5kidney glomerulus morphology trait (VT:0005325)index of glomerular damage (CMO:0001135)153405413979054139Rat
7411725Strs7Sensitivity to stroke QTL 73.8cerebrum integrity trait (VT:0010549)percentage of study population developing cerebrovascular lesions during a period of time (CMO:0000932)154028990149308583Rat
2306968Anxrr23Anxiety related response QTL 234.83reflex trait (VT:0001961)amplitude of the acoustic startle response (CMO:0001520)154063126846187442Rat
1300144Rf23Renal function QTL 233.61renal blood flow trait (VT:2000006)absolute change in renal vascular resistance (CMO:0001900)154063126898288169Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21541,971,604 - 41,971,702 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01544,440,979 - 44,441,076NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01547,156,119 - 47,156,216UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41547,302,431 - 47,302,529RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41547,302,432 - 47,302,529UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11547,318,211 - 47,318,309RGD
Celera1541,635,854 - 41,635,951UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map15p12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21541,971,560 - 41,971,801 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01544,440,935 - 44,441,175NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01547,156,020 - 47,156,260UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41547,302,387 - 47,302,628RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.41547,302,388 - 47,302,628UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11547,318,167 - 47,318,408RGD
Celera1541,635,810 - 41,636,050UniSTS
FHH x ACI Map1546.36UniSTS
FHH x ACI Map1546.36RGD
Cytogenetic Map15p12UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21541,973,792 - 41,973,984 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01544,443,167 - 44,443,358NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01547,153,837 - 47,154,028UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41547,304,620 - 47,304,811UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1541,638,042 - 41,638,233UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map15p12UniSTS

Related Rat Strains
The following Strains have been annotated to Gnrh1


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
Medium 1
Low 5 65 75 49 30 49 13 17 81 41 45 20 13
Below cutoff 6 1 2 12 2 8 1


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000017939   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000017939
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1541,972,905 - 41,973,581 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1544,442,555 - 44,442,875 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000018006   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000018006
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1541,972,482 - 41,975,781 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1544,441,856 - 44,446,064 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000110456   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000079319
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1541,942,339 - 41,976,690 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012767   ⟹   NP_036899
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21541,972,482 - 41,976,690 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.01544,441,856 - 44,446,064 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.01547,151,131 - 47,155,339 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.41547,303,309 - 47,307,517 (+)RGD
Celera1541,636,731 - 41,640,939 (+)RGD
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_006252096   ⟹   XP_006252158
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21541,973,270 - 41,976,683 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.01544,442,651 - 44,446,057 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.01547,151,131 - 47,155,339 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_036899   ⟸   NM_012767
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: P07490 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6K6Q6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2UJ58 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_006252158   ⟸   XM_006252096
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A0A8I6G553 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8L2UJ58 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000018006   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000018006
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000017939   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000017939
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000079319   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000110456

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P07490-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P07490 1-92 view protein structure
AF-P55248-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P55248 1-106 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2720 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-13302 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000013433 Ensembl, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00000013441 Ensembl
  ENSRNOG00000066847 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000017939 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00000018006.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000110456.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro GnRH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gonadoliberin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gonadoliberin_I_precursor UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:25194 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  PTHR10522 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam GnRH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Gnrh1 PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000013433 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00000013441 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00000066847 RatGTEx
TIGR TC231726
  P55248 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2015-11-19 Gnrh1  gonadotropin releasing hormone 1  Gnrh1  gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-09-26 Gnrh1  gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone)  Gnrh1  gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2005-01-20 Gnrh1  gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1      Symbol and Name status set to approved 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Gnrh1  gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1      Name updated 70585 PROVISIONAL

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_expression expressed in neurons and hypothalamus 628509
gene_process regulates synthesis and secretion of the pituitary gonadotropins LH and FSH 61523
gene_regulation secretion increases after gonadectomy in both sexes and during the proestrus LH surge in females 61523
gene_regulation hormone release in hypothalamus is mediated by the cAMP levels 628509