Glul (glutamate-ammonia ligase) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Glul (glutamate-ammonia ligase) Rattus norvegicus
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Symbol: Glul
Name: glutamate-ammonia ligase
RGD ID: 2710
Description: Enables several functions, including dynein light chain binding activity; glutamine synthetase activity; and ion binding activity. Involved in glutamine metabolic process; positive regulation of cell communication; and positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation. Located in axon terminus; myelin sheath; and perikaryon. Part of protein-containing complex. Used to study obesity; temporal lobe epilepsy; and visual epilepsy. Biomarker of diabetic retinopathy; middle cerebral artery infarction; and transient cerebral ischemia. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in Alzheimer's disease; Huntington's disease; heart disease; and temporal lobe epilepsy. Orthologous to human GLUL (glutamate-ammonia ligase); PARTICIPATES IN glutamic acid/glutamate metabolic pathway; 2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria pathway; homocarnosinosis pathway; INTERACTS WITH (+)-pilocarpine; (+)-schisandrin B; (+)-taxifolin.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: Glns; glutamate decarboxylase; glutamate--ammonia ligase; glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase); glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase); glutamine synthetase; glutamine synthetase (glutamate-ammonia ligase); glutamine synthetase 1; GS; palmitoyltransferase GLUL
RGD Orthologs
Human
Mouse
Chinchilla
Bonobo
Dog
Squirrel
Pig
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
mRatBN7.21365,969,053 - 66,035,121 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1366,025,630 - 66,035,108 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1368,570,130 - 68,636,818 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01369,860,229 - 69,925,952 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01367,117,264 - 67,182,892 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01371,331,052 - 71,340,207 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1371,331,052 - 71,340,229 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01376,294,471 - 76,303,626 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.11232,761,556 - 32,788,230 (+)NCBI
Celera1365,922,875 - 65,932,149 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map13q21NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)
Model


Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-pilocarpine  (EXP)
(+)-schisandrin B  (EXP)
(+)-taxifolin  (EXP)
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
1,1-dichloroethene  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-hydroxy-17-methylestra-4,9,11-trien-3-one  (ISO)
17beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-3-one  (ISO)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran  (EXP)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (ISO)
2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene  (EXP)
2-chloroethanol  (EXP)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (ISO)
3-chloropropane-1,2-diol  (EXP)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (ISO)
3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione  (EXP)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (ISO)
acetazolamide  (ISO)
acrolein  (ISO)
acrylamide  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP,ISO)
agathisflavone  (EXP)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP)
all-trans-4-oxoretinoic acid  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
allopurinol  (EXP)
alpha-pinene  (ISO)
ammonia  (EXP,ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphotericin B  (ISO)
antirheumatic drug  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
Aroclor 1254  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
astragaloside IV  (EXP)
atrazine  (EXP)
avobenzone  (ISO)
bacitracin  (EXP)
benzene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide I  (ISO)
beta-naphthoflavone  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol B  (ISO)
bisphenol F  (EXP,ISO)
buta-1,3-diene  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (EXP,ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
calcidiol  (EXP)
calcitriol  (ISO)
captan  (ISO)
carbamazepine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
chlordecone  (ISO)
chloroprene  (ISO)
chloroquine  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
chromium(6+)  (ISO)
ciguatoxin CTX1B  (ISO)
clobetasol  (ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
clozapine  (ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
corticosterone  (EXP)
cortisone  (EXP)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
cypermethrin  (ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
diethyl maleate  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
dioxygen  (EXP)
diuron  (EXP,ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
enzyme inhibitor  (ISO)
Erionite  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP,ISO)
excitatory amino acid agonist  (EXP)
felbamate  (ISO)
fentin chloride  (EXP)
fenvalerate  (EXP)
flutamide  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
folpet  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
fructose  (EXP)
fumonisin B1  (ISO)
gamma-aminobutyric acid  (EXP)
gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane  (EXP)
genistein  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP)
glufosinate  (ISO)
guanosine  (ISO)
haloperidol  (EXP)
Hexachloro-1,3-butadiene  (EXP)
hydrogen chloride  (ISO)
hydrogen cyanide  (ISO)
hydroquinone  (ISO)
indometacin  (ISO)
iron dichloride  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
kainic acid  (EXP)
ketamine  (EXP,ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
lead diacetate  (EXP,ISO)
lead(0)  (EXP)
leflunomide  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
manganese(II) chloride  (EXP)
manganese(II) sulfate  (EXP)
methidathion  (ISO)
methionine sulfoximine  (EXP)
methoxyacetic acid  (ISO)
methoxychlor  (EXP)
methylisothiazolinone  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP)
miconazole  (ISO)
mitoxantrone  (ISO)
N-nitrosodiethylamine  (EXP)
N-nitrosomorpholine  (EXP)
nefazodone  (EXP)
nevirapine  (EXP)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel sulfate  (ISO)
nimesulide  (EXP)
nitrofen  (EXP)
Nor-9-carboxy-delta9-THC  (ISO)
O-methyleugenol  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (EXP)
oridonin  (EXP)
ozone  (EXP,ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
PCB138  (EXP)
perfluorononanoic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP,ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
phenobarbital  (EXP,ISO)
phenytoin  (ISO)
PhIP  (EXP)
piperonyl butoxide  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium cyanide  (ISO)
potassium dichromate  (EXP,ISO)
pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP)
promegestone  (ISO)
propiconazole  (ISO)
Propiverine  (EXP)
quercetin  (EXP)
rac-lactic acid  (ISO)
raloxifene  (EXP)
reactive oxygen species  (EXP)
resveratrol  (EXP)
Riluzole  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP)
sarin  (EXP,ISO)
SB 203580  (EXP)
SB 431542  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
Soman  (EXP)
sotorasib  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP)
sunitinib  (ISO)
tamoxifen  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
thapsigargin  (EXP)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
toluene  (EXP)
topiramate  (ISO)
trametinib  (ISO)
tremolite asbestos  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
trichostatin A  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP)
triptonide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP)
uranium atom  (ISO)
urea  (ISO)
urethane  (ISO)
valdecoxib  (EXP)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vancomycin  (EXP,ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
zinc atom  (EXP)
zinc protoporphyrin  (EXP)
zinc sulfate  (EXP)
zinc(0)  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Severity of middle cerebral artery occlusion determines retinal deficits in rats. Allen RS, etal., Exp Neurol. 2014 Apr;254:206-15. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.02.005. Epub 2014 Feb 8.
2. Progesterone treatment in two rat models of ocular ischemia. Allen RS, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 May;56(5):2880-91. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-16070.
3. Aqueous humor oxidative stress proteomic levels in primary open angle glaucoma. Bagnis A, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2012 Oct;103:55-62. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2012.07.011. Epub 2012 Aug 21.
4. Inhibition of Muller cell glutamine synthetase rapidly impairs the retinal response to light. Barnett NL, etal., Glia. 2000 Mar;30(1):64-73.
5. Validation of a Congestive Hepatic Fibrosis Scoring System. Bosch DE, etal., Am J Surg Pathol. 2019 Jun;43(6):766-772. doi: 10.1097/PAS.0000000000001250.
6. Reduced GABA transaminase activity in the Huntington's disease putamen. Carter CJ Neurosci Lett. 1984 Aug 10;48(3):339-42.
7. Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1. Castegna A, etal., Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Aug 15;33(4):562-71.
8. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase decreases proliferation of cultured rat intestinal epithelial cells. DeMarco V, etal., J Nutr. 1999 Jan;129(1):57-62.
9. The distribution of glutamine synthetase in subcellular fractions of rat brain. Dennis SC, etal., Brain Res. 1980 Sep 22;197(2):469-75.
10. Glutamine synthetase from rat liver. Purification, properties, and preparation of specific antisera. Deuel TF, etal., J Biol Chem. 1978 Sep 10;253(17):6111-8.
11. Recurrent seizures and brain pathology after inhibition of glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus in rats. Eid T, etal., Brain. 2008 Aug;131(Pt 8):2061-70. Epub 2008 Jul 6.
12. Loss of glutamine synthetase in the human epileptogenic hippocampus: possible mechanism for raised extracellular glutamate in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Eid T, etal., Lancet. 2004 Jan 3;363(9402):28-37.
13. Prevention of Cyclophilin D-Mediated mPTP Opening Using Cyclosporine-A Alleviates the Elevation of Necroptosis, Autophagy and Apoptosis-Related Markers Following Global Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion. Fakharnia F, etal., J Mol Neurosci. 2017 Jan;61(1):52-60. doi: 10.1007/s12031-016-0843-3. Epub 2016 Sep 23.
14. Ischemic conditioning protects from axoglial alterations of the optic pathway induced by experimental diabetes in rats. Fernandez DC, etal., PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51966. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051966. Epub 2012 Dec 20.
15. Glutamine synthetase expression in activated hepatocyte progenitor cells and loss of hepatocellular expression in congestion and cirrhosis. Fleming KE and Wanless IR, Liver Int. 2013 Apr;33(4):525-34. doi: 10.1111/liv.12099. Epub 2013 Jan 31.
16. Quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase in human and rat brain: activity in Huntington's disease and in quinolinate-lesioned rat striatum. Foster AC, etal., Brain Res. 1985 Jun 17;336(2):207-14.
17. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
18. Glucocorticoid induced expression of glutamine synthetase in hepatoma cells. Gaunitz F, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Aug 30;296(4):1026-32.
19. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
20. Erythropoietin exerts a neuroprotective function against glutamate neurotoxicity in experimental diabetic retina. Gu L, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Oct 21;55(12):8208-22. doi: 10.1167/iovs.14-14435.
21. Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia: Expression Pattern of Glutamine Synthetase and a Potential Role for Hepatic Progenitor Cells. Guilbert MC, etal., Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2020 Mar;28(3):243-248. doi: 10.1097/PAI.0000000000000793.
22. Detection of glutamine synthetase in the cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer diseased patients: a potential diagnostic biochemical marker. Gunnersen D and Haley B, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 15;89(24):11949-53.
23. Muscle amino acid pattern in obese rats. Herrero MC, etal., Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1997 Aug;21(8):698-703.
24. KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes KEGG
25. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical localization of glutamine synthetase in the superficial pineal gland of the rat. Krstic R and Nicolas D, Acta Histochem. 1992;93(2):382-7.
26. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
27. Cloning and functional characterization of the rat glutamine synthetase gene. Mill JF, etal., Brain Res Mol Brain Res 1991 Feb;9(3):197-207.
28. Glutamate decarboxylase and GABA aminotransferase levels in different regions of rat brain on the onset of Leptazol induced convulsions. Nasreen Z, etal., Neurochem Res. 2012 Jan;37(1):202-4. doi: 10.1007/s11064-011-0603-2. Epub 2011 Sep 21.
29. Proteomic identification of brain proteins that interact with dynein light chain LC8. Navarro-Lerida I, etal., Proteomics. 2004 Feb;4(2):339-46.
30. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
31. Prospective Association of GLUL rs10911021 With Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality Among Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: The Look AHEAD Study. NO_AUTHOR Diabetes. 2016 Jan;65(1):297-302. doi: 10.2337/db15-0890. Epub 2015 Sep 22.
32. Fine structural localization of glutamine synthetase in astrocytes of rat brain. Norenberg MD and Martinez-Hernandez A, Brain Res. 1979 Feb 2;161(2):303-10.
33. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
34. Perflubron emulsion in prolonged hemorrhagic shock: influence on hepatocellular energy metabolism and oxygen-dependent gene expression. Paxian M, etal., Anesthesiology. 2003 Jun;98(6):1391-9. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200306000-00014.
35. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
36. SMPDB Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
37. L-NAME combats excitotoxicity and recuperates neurological deficits in MCAO/R rats. Pramila B, etal., Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Aug;135:246-53. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.06.006. Epub 2015 Jun 18.
38. Association between a genetic variant related to glutamic acid metabolism and coronary heart disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Qi L, etal., JAMA. 2013 Aug 28;310(8):821-8. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.276305.
39. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
40. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
41. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
42. An analysis of the cortical and striatal involvement in dyskinesia induced in rats by intracerebral injection of GABA-transaminase inhibitors and picrotoxin. Robin MM, etal., Eur J Pharmacol. 1980 Apr 4;62(4):319-27.
43. Protective effect of grape seed and skin extract on cerebral ischemia in rat: implication of transition metals. Safwen K, etal., Int J Stroke. 2015 Apr;10(3):415-24. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12391. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
44. Effects of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate on insulin secretion in rat pancreatic islets: implication of nitric oxide synthase and glutamine synthetase pathways. Schneid C, etal., Br J Nutr. 2003 Feb;89(2):249-57.
45. Purification and comparison of glutamine synthetase from rat and chick livers. Seyama S, etal., J Biochem. 1972 Oct;72(4):1017-27.
46. Effect of pigment epithelium derived factor on the expression of glutamine synthetase in early phase of experimental diabetic retinopathy. Shen X, etal., Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011 Aug;19(4):246-54. doi: 10.3109/09273948.2011.580073.
47. Glutamine synthetase in human carotid plaque macrophages associates with features of plaque vulnerability: An immunohistological study. Sorto P, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2022 Jul;352:18-26. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2022.05.008. Epub 2022 May 18.
48. Cortical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and glutamine synthetase is decreased in schizophrenia. Steffek AE, etal., Schizophr Res. 2008 Aug;103(1-3):71-82. Epub 2008 Jun 17.
49. Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. Strausberg RL, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Dec 24;99(26):16899-903. Epub 2002 Dec 11.
50. Binding of nickel to testicular glutamate-ammonia ligase inhibits its enzymatic activity. Sun Y, etal., Mol Reprod Dev. 2011 Feb;78(2):104-15. doi: 10.1002/mrd.21275. Epub 2011 Jan 20.
51. Total oligomeric flavonoids of Cyperus rotundus ameliorates neurological deficits, excitotoxicity and behavioral alterations induced by cerebral ischemic-reperfusion injury in rats. Sunil AG, etal., Brain Res Bull. 2011 Apr 5;84(6):394-405. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.01.008. Epub 2011 Jan 25.
52. Discrete cellular and subcellular localization of glutamine synthetase and the glutamate transporter GLAST in the rat vestibular end organ. Takumi Y, etal., Neuroscience. 1997 Aug;79(4):1137-44.
53. Rat liver glutamine synthetase. Preparation, properties, and mechanism of inhibition by carbamyl phosphate. Tate SS, etal., J Biol Chem. 1972 Sep 10;247(17):5312-21.
54. Isolation and characterization of the rat glutamine synthetase-encoding gene. van de Zande L, etal., Gene 1990 Mar 15;87(2):225-32.
55. Nucleotide sequence of rat glutamine synthetase mRNA. van de Zande L, etal., Nucleic Acids Res 1988 Aug 11;16(15):7726.
56. Object-based analysis of astroglial reaction and astrocyte subtype morphology after ischemic brain injury. Wagner DC, etal., Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2013;73(1):79-87.
57. Neuroprotective effect of transcorneal electrical stimulation on ischemic damage in the rat retina. Wang X, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2011 Nov;93(5):753-60. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2011.09.022. Epub 2011 Oct 12.
58. Relative activities of glutamine synthetase and glutaminase in mammalian synaptosomes. Ward HK and Bradford HF, J Neurochem. 1979 Jul;33(1):339-42.
59. Protective Effect of Raf-1 Kinase Inhibitory Protein on Diabetic Retinal Neurodegeneration through P38-MAPK Pathway. Wu C, etal., Curr Eye Res. 2022 Jan;47(1):135-142. doi: 10.1080/02713683.2021.1944644. Epub 2021 Jul 26.
60. Two-dimensional electrophoresis with cationic detergents: a powerful tool for the proteomic analysis of myelin proteins. Part 2: analytical aspects. Yamaguchi Y, etal., J Neurosci Res. 2008 Mar;86(4):766-75.
61. Resveratrol Prevents Retinal Dysfunction by Regulating Glutamate Transporters, Glutamine Synthetase Expression and Activity in Diabetic Retina. Zeng K, etal., Neurochem Res. 2016 May;41(5):1050-64. doi: 10.1007/s11064-015-1793-9. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
62. Neuroprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning on global brain ischemia in rats through upregulation of hippocampal glutamine synthetase. Zhang W, etal., J Clin Neurosci. 2011 May;18(5):685-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2010.08.027. Epub 2011 Mar 2.
63. Chronic lead exposure enhances the sympathoexcitatory response associated with P2X4 receptor in rat stellate ganglia. Zhu G, etal., Environ Toxicol. 2018 Jun;33(6):631-639. doi: 10.1002/tox.22547. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:12871952   PMID:12923239   PMID:14563934   PMID:14651853   PMID:15489334   PMID:15830392   PMID:16189514   PMID:16839656   PMID:17170234   PMID:17634366   PMID:17854388   PMID:18001575  
PMID:18005987   PMID:18555765   PMID:18662667   PMID:19056867   PMID:19204801   PMID:19447967   PMID:19533812   PMID:19728998   PMID:20064572   PMID:20557426   PMID:21193003   PMID:21630459  
PMID:21734190   PMID:21988832   PMID:22134673   PMID:22339645   PMID:22391793   PMID:22544812   PMID:22871113   PMID:23260145   PMID:23361961   PMID:23376485   PMID:23386608   PMID:23525248  
PMID:23656379   PMID:25350774   PMID:25416956   PMID:25502805   PMID:26711351   PMID:29476059   PMID:30053369   PMID:30158707   PMID:31515488   PMID:32445055   PMID:37838216  


Genomics

Comparative Map Data
Glul
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
mRatBN7.21365,969,053 - 66,035,121 (+)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1366,025,630 - 66,035,108 (+)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx1368,570,130 - 68,636,818 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.01369,860,229 - 69,925,952 (+)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.01367,117,264 - 67,182,892 (+)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.01371,331,052 - 71,340,207 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1371,331,052 - 71,340,229 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01376,294,471 - 76,303,626 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.11232,761,556 - 32,788,230 (+)NCBI
Celera1365,922,875 - 65,932,149 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map13q21NCBI
GLUL
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCh381182,378,098 - 182,391,790 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl1182,378,098 - 182,392,206 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371182,347,233 - 182,360,925 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361180,618,292 - 180,627,573 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 341179,083,688 - 179,092,561NCBI
Celera1155,461,927 - 155,472,429 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q25.3NCBI
HuRef1153,587,169 - 153,597,671 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11183,773,938 - 183,784,435 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01181,737,671 - 181,751,363 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
Glul
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCm391153,775,692 - 153,785,469 (+)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1153,775,690 - 153,785,469 (+)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381153,899,929 - 153,909,723 (+)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1153,899,944 - 153,909,723 (+)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371155,747,075 - 155,756,844 (+)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361155,662,163 - 155,671,932 (+)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1156,333,065 - 156,342,886 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1G3NCBI
cM Map165.43NCBI
Glul
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495540621,266,383 - 21,275,309 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495540621,266,383 - 21,274,546 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
GLUL
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
NHGRI_mPanPan1167,039,838 - 67,049,341 (+)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v01157,882,258 - 157,891,562 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.11161,534,106 - 161,543,411 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl1161,534,106 - 161,543,411 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
GLUL
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
CanFam3.1715,730,898 - 15,740,241 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl715,730,898 - 15,740,241 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha715,314,979 - 15,324,324 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0715,461,328 - 15,470,693 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl715,461,336 - 15,470,695 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1715,369,339 - 15,378,686 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0715,477,997 - 15,487,355 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0715,609,290 - 15,618,655 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
Glul
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HiC_Itri_2NW_02440934489,446,520 - 89,455,988 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049364817,293,091 - 7,306,202 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049364817,293,301 - 7,301,416 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
GLUL
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl9123,751,548 - 123,762,547 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.19123,751,551 - 123,762,575 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.29135,909,152 - 135,909,595 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
Sscrofa10.29135,960,436 - 135,968,442 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
GLUL
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChlSab1.12546,988,853 - 46,998,112 (+)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl2546,989,205 - 47,000,555 (+)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366605548,207,460 - 48,216,850 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
Glul
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247712,608,779 - 2,618,130 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2

Variants

.
Variants in Glul
371 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:540
Count of miRNA genes:265
Interacting mature miRNAs:321
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000075480
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.


QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)131101056920Rat
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)131101056920Rat
1354666Bp244Blood pressure QTL 2444.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)131101056920Rat
1581554Pur11Proteinuria QTL 11urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)13599483377046787Rat
1581573Uae36Urinary albumin excretion QTL 36urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin excretion rate (CMO:0000757)13599483377046787Rat
1581570Eae17Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 174.1nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001046)138897350101631289Rat
7207885Glom27Glomerulus QTL 273.9kidney glomerulus integrity trait (VT:0010546)kidney crescentic glomeruli count to kidney normal glomeruli count ratio (CMO:0002139)1320605871101339738Rat
61391Bp5Blood pressure QTL 55.6arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)132230187567301875Rat
70170Eae14Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 140.0024nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001046)132320344868203448Rat
6893338Cm76Cardiac mass QTL 7600.99heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)132369296968692969Rat
1558644Cm45Cardiac mass QTL 453.60.002heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)132369296968692969Rat
1354621Rf47Renal function QTL 473.7kidney renin amount (VT:0010559)kidney renin level (CMO:0002166)1330395351101056920Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)133124133193395974Rat
70181BpQTLcluster11Blood pressure QTL cluster 116.922arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000533)133124133193395974Rat
2303563Bw89Body weight QTL 896body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)133228447177284471Rat
61340Bp25Blood pressure QTL 254.20.004arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133453521879535218Rat
12879477Bp401Blood pressure QTL 401arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)133726209282262092Rat
61349Bp31Blood pressure QTL 315.75arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)133737450982374509Rat
70220Bp55Blood pressure QTL 555.75arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure measurement (CMO:0000003)133737450982374509Rat
4889861Pur29Proteinuria QTL 2913.80.005urine total protein amount (VT:0000032)urine total protein excretion rate (CMO:0000756)133741558480753406Rat
1331750Bp220Blood pressure QTL 2202.98arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)diastolic blood pressure (CMO:0000005)133741558482415584Rat
1549897Stresp12Stress response QTL 123.35stress-related behavior trait (VT:0010451)number of approaches toward negative stimulus before onset of defensive burying response (CMO:0001960)133843340883433408Rat
619615Bp80Blood pressure QTL 800.0354arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)133975454484754544Rat
12879444Bp397Blood pressure QTL 397arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134504940490049404Rat
12879471Bp398Blood pressure QTL 398arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134551471990514719Rat
12879441Bp396Blood pressure QTL 396arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)134569998390699983Rat
1298066Bp159Blood pressure QTL 1590.004arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)134608804691088046Rat
71119Thym2Thymus enlargement QTL 23.8thymus mass (VT:0004954)thymus weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000612)134619797684753113Rat
1641901Alcrsp6Alcohol response QTL 6response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)duration of loss of righting reflex (CMO:0002289)135236217197362171Rat
1354655Bp241Blood pressure QTL 2413.9arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)1356056920101056920Rat
2303028Bp329Blood pressure QTL 329arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)135849787273485113Rat
724564Uae11Urinary albumin excretion QTL 115.7urine albumin amount (VT:0002871)urine albumin level (CMO:0000130)135949252277046890Rat
738026Lnnr5Liver neoplastic nodule remodeling QTL 53.29liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)liver remodeling tumorous lesion number (CMO:0001461)135987440885581182Rat
12879475Bp400Blood pressure QTL 400arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)1361825626106807694Rat
2293702Bss34Bone structure and strength QTL 344.610.0001femur strength trait (VT:0010010)femur midshaft polar moment of inertia (CMO:0001669)1365103704106807694Rat
2293687Bss26Bone structure and strength QTL 264.60.0001femur morphology trait (VT:0000559)femur cross-sectional area (CMO:0001661)1365103704106807694Rat

Markers in Region
AA818930  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21366,034,584 - 66,034,799 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01371,339,993 - 71,340,208NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01376,303,412 - 76,303,627UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera1365,931,816 - 65,932,064UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13341.1UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q22UniSTS
RH143873  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21366,032,684 - 66,033,303 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01371,338,093 - 71,338,711NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01376,301,512 - 76,302,130UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera1365,929,916 - 65,930,534UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map13358.3UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q22UniSTS
RH138167  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21231,822,868 - 31,822,995 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01237,237,627 - 37,237,753NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01239,111,625 - 39,111,751UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41232,924,378 - 32,924,504UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera1233,514,434 - 33,514,560UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map12565.0UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q22UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map12q15UniSTS
RH140286  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21366,033,850 - 66,034,042 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01371,339,259 - 71,339,450NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01376,302,678 - 76,302,869UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera1365,931,082 - 65,931,273UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q22UniSTS
Glul  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.21366,033,468 - 66,034,467 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.01371,338,877 - 71,339,875NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.01376,302,296 - 76,303,294UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera1365,930,700 - 65,931,698UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map13q22UniSTS


Expression


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 5 7 4
Medium 3 43 57 41 19 41 8 11 69 28 37 11 8
Low
Below cutoff

Sequence

Nucleotide Sequences
RefSeq Transcripts NM_001393804 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  NM_017073 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039090367 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  XM_039090368 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
GenBank Nucleotide AH003066 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC061559 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  BC072694 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  CH473958 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ213256 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ216093 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ226911 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ227474 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ230371 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ232853 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ232963 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ233770 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ234289 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  FQ234811 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  JACYVU010000243 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  M29579 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  M91652 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  X07921 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles
  X92074 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer   Search GEO for Microarray Profiles

RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000075480   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000065890
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1366,025,907 - 66,035,108 (+)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1371,331,052 - 71,340,229 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000118700   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000078038
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1366,025,630 - 66,033,692 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_001393804   ⟹   NP_001380733
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21365,969,053 - 66,034,885 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_017073   ⟹   NP_058769
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21366,025,629 - 66,034,885 (+)NCBI
Rnor_6.01371,331,052 - 71,340,207 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.01376,294,471 - 76,303,626 (+)NCBI
Celera1365,922,875 - 65,932,149 (+)RGD
Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039090367   ⟹   XP_038946295
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21366,026,240 - 66,035,121 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039090368   ⟹   XP_038946296
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.21366,025,954 - 66,035,121 (+)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058769   ⟸   NM_017073
- UniProtKB: Q6P7Q9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P09606 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6ICW8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I5Y1V3 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000065890   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000075480
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038946296   ⟸   XM_039090368
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: P09606 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q6P7Q9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6ICW8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I5Y1V3 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038946295   ⟸   XM_039090367
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A0A8L2QX10 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I5Y1V3 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000078038   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000118700
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_001380733   ⟸   NM_001393804
- UniProtKB: P09606 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q6P7Q9 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   A6ICW8 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I5Y1V3 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
Protein Domains
GS beta-grasp   GS catalytic

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P09606-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P09606 1-373 view protein structure

Transcriptome

eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Promoters
RGD ID:13698902
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R9427
Type:single initiation site
Name:Glul_1
Description:glutamate-ammonia ligase
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.01371,331,040 - 71,331,100EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2710 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-17872 BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway GLNSYN-PWY [L-glutamine biosynthesis I] BioCyc
BioCyc Pathway Image GLNSYN-PWY BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000049560 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOG00055018616 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00060014474 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOG00065025118 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000075480 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000075480.3 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000118700 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000118700.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00055031714 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00060024776 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  ENSRNOT00065043299 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
Gene3D-CATH 3.10.20.70 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Glutamine synthetase/guanido kinase, catalytic domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
IMAGE_CLONE IMAGE:6918514 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
  IMAGE:7103110 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
  IMAGE:7112880 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
InterPro Gln_synt_b-grasp UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gln_synt_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gln_synth/guanido_kin_cat_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gln_synth_cat_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gln_synth_gly_rich_site UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gln_synth_N_conserv_site UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24957 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
MGC_CLONE MGC:72888 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
  MGC:91746 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
  MGC:94942 IMAGE-MGC_LOAD
NCBI Gene 24957 ENTREZGENE
PANTHER GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Gln-synt_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Gln-synt_N UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Glul PhenoGen
PROSITE GLNA_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GLNA_ATP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GS_BETA_GRASP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GS_CATALYTIC UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000049560 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00055018616 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00060014474 RatGTEx
  ENSRNOG00065025118 RatGTEx
SMART Gln-synt_C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF54368 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF55931 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
UniProt A0A8I5Y1V3 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A0A8L2QX10 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6ICW8 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  GLNA_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, ENTREZGENE
  Q6P7Q9 ENTREZGENE
UniProt Secondary Q6P7Q9 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot


Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2011-08-02 Glul  glutamate-ammonia ligase  Glul  glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-02-18 Glul  glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthetase)  Glul  glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2005-11-17 Glul  glutamate-ammonia ligase (glutamine synthase)      Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2004-09-10 Glul  glutamine synthetase 1  Glns    Symbol and Name updated 1299863 APPROVED
2002-11-06 Glns  glutamine synthetase 1  Glul  Glutamine synthetase (glutamate-ammonia ligase)  Symbol and Name updated 625702 APPROVED
2002-06-10 Glul  Glutamine synthetase (glutamate-ammonia ligase)      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_expression expressed in hepatoma cells after glucocorticoid administration 632693
gene_expression expressed in the hepatoma cell line FAO 625554
gene_regulation activity is medaited by glucocorticoids at the posttranscriptional level 632693
gene_regulation induced by glucocorticoid treatment 625554
gene_transcript a glucocorticoid response element is located within the first intron and has a protein half life of 4-5 days in normal liver and brain 625554