Gcg (glucagon) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: Gcg (glucagon) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: Gcg
Name: glucagon
RGD ID: 2668
Description: Enables glucagon receptor binding activity and hormone activity. Involved in adenylate cyclase-modulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway; negative regulation of appetite; and response to L-arginine. Located in extracellular space. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in Alzheimer's disease and prediabetes syndrome. Orthologous to human GCG (glucagon); PARTICIPATES IN forkhead class A signaling pathway; glucagon signaling pathway; INTERACTS WITH 1,2-dimethylhydrazine; 3',5'-cyclic AMP; 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: GLP-1; Glp1; glucagon-like peptide-1; pro-glucagon
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2347,113,914 - 47,122,958 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl347,113,914 - 47,122,929 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx350,468,582 - 50,477,739 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0359,052,116 - 59,061,273 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0356,825,210 - 56,834,365 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0348,442,635 - 48,451,650 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl348,442,635 - 48,451,650 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0355,108,272 - 55,117,287 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4344,433,180 - 44,438,004 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1344,329,550 - 44,334,376 (-)NCBI
Celera346,755,241 - 46,764,256 (-)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map3602.83RGD
Cytogenetic Map3q21NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (EXP,ISO)
2-deoxy-D-glucose  (ISO)
3',5'-cyclic AMP  (EXP,ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
9-(tetrahydrofuryl)adenine  (ISO)
9-phenanthrol  (EXP)
acetate ester  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (ISO)
aminophylline  (EXP)
amitraz  (EXP)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bicalutamide  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
budesonide  (EXP)
butyric acid  (EXP)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
calcium atom  (EXP)
calcium(0)  (EXP)
candesartan  (ISO)
cannabidiol  (ISO)
capsaicin  (ISO)
carbachol  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
chitosan  (ISO)
chlorogenic acid  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (EXP)
citronellal  (ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
colforsin daropate hydrochloride  (EXP)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
Deoxycorticosterone acetate  (EXP)
deoxynivalenol  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP)
dexloxiglumide  (ISO)
diazoxide  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (EXP)
ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl)tetraacetic acid  (ISO)
fipronil  (EXP)
fructose  (EXP)
gatifloxacin  (EXP,ISO)
geraniol  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
hexadecanoic acid  (ISO)
indometacin  (ISO)
irinotecan  (EXP)
Isosteviol  (ISO)
linoleic acid  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (EXP)
lithium chloride  (ISO)
lithocholic acid  (ISO)
mangiferin  (EXP)
metformin  (EXP,ISO)
metoclopramide  (ISO)
N'-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-N-methylformamidine  (EXP)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP)
niclosamide  (EXP)
nicotinamide  (EXP)
nicotinic acid  (ISO)
nitrendipine  (ISO)
oleic acid  (ISO)
orlistat  (ISO)
paraquat  (ISO)
PCB138  (EXP)
pentetrazol  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (ISO)
potassium chloride  (EXP)
prednisone  (EXP)
pyruvic acid  (EXP)
rotenone  (ISO)
SB 203580  (ISO)
Sodium oleate  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP)
tacrolimus hydrate  (EXP)
tadalafil  (EXP)
terbutaline  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP)
tolbutamide  (EXP)
tributylstannane  (ISO)
triphenylphosphane oxide  (ISO)
troglitazone  (EXP)
U-73122  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
Voglibose  (ISO)
zinc atom  (EXP,ISO)
zinc(0)  (EXP,ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Cellular Component
cytoplasm  (IEA,ISO)
extracellular region  (TAS)
extracellular space  (IBA,IDA,IEA,ISO)
plasma membrane  (IEA,ISO)

Molecular Function

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Novel fusion of GLP-1 with a domain antibody to serum albumin prolongs protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Bao W, etal., Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013 Oct 14;12:148. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-12-148.
2. Biologic actions and therapeutic potential of the proglucagon-derived peptides. Drucker DJ Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Nov;1(1):22-31.
3. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
4. Estradiol increases glucagon's satiating potency in ovariectomized rats. Geary N and Asarian L, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Oct;281(4):R1290-4.
5. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
6. Glucagon induces the plasma membrane insertion of functional aquaporin-8 water channels in isolated rat hepatocytes. Gradilone SA, etal., Hepatology 2003 Jun;37(6):1435-41.
7. Pre-germinated brown rice extract ameliorates high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Hao CL, etal., J Food Biochem. 2019 Mar;43(3):e12769. doi: 10.1111/jfbc.12769. Epub 2019 Jan 13.
8. Pre-proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid: nucleotide and encoded amino acid sequences of the rat pancreatic complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. Heinrich G, etal., Endocrinology 1984 Dec;115(6):2176-81.
9. Glucagon gene sequence. Four of six exons encode separate functional domains of rat pre-proglucagon. Heinrich G, etal., J Biol Chem 1984 Nov 25;259(22):14082-7.
10. High-density rat radiation hybrid maps containing over 24,000 SSLPs, genes, and ESTs provide a direct link to the rat genome sequence. Kwitek AE, etal., Genome Res. 2004 Apr;14(4):750-7
11. Foxa3 (HNF-3gamma) binds to and activates the rat proglucagon gene promoter but is not essential for proglucagon gene expression. Liu Y, etal., Biochem J 2002 Sep 1;366(Pt 2):633-41.
12. Berberine promotes glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Lu SS, etal., J Endocrinol. 2009 Feb;200(2):159-65. doi: 10.1677/JOE-08-0419. Epub 2008 Nov 7.
13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 cleavage product GLP-1(9-36) amide rescues synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in Alzheimer's disease model mice. Ma T, etal., J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 3;32(40):13701-8. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2107-12.2012.
14. Pancreatic function of spontaneously diabetic torii rats in pre-diabetic stage. Matsui K, etal., Exp Anim. 2009 Jul;58(4):363-74.
15. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
16. Impaired glucagon response to sympathetic nerve stimulation in the BB diabetic rat: effect of early sympathetic islet neuropathy. Mundinger TO, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;285(5):E1047-54. Epub 2003 Jul 22.
17. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
18. PID Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
19. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
20. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
21. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
22. The daily rhythm in plasma glucagon concentrations in the rat is modulated by the biological clock and by feeding behavior. Ruiter M, etal., Diabetes 2003 Jul;52(7):1709-15.
23. Cold acclimation reduces hepatic protein Kinase B and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation and increases gluconeogenesis in Rats. Sepa-Kishi DM, etal., Physiol Rep. 2018 Mar;6(5). doi: 10.14814/phy2.13592.
24. Localization of the rat genes encoding glucagon, glucagon receptor, and insulin receptor, candidates for diabetes mellitus susceptibility loci. Szpirer C, etal., Mamm Genome 1997 Aug;8(8):586-8
25. Tentative Sequence Identification Numbers Tentative Sequence Data IDs. TIGR Gene Index, Rat Data
26. Glucagon-like peptide-2 receptor activation in the rat intestinal mucosa. Walsh NA, etal., Endocrinology. 2003 Oct;144(10):4385-92. Epub 2003 Jul 3.
27. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor stimulation increases blood pressure and heart rate and activates autonomic regulatory neurons. Yamamoto H, etal., J Clin Invest 2002 Jul;110(1):43-52.
28. Suppression of synthesis and release of glucagon by glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36 amide) without affect on mRNA level in isolated rat islets. Yamato E, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Mar 16;167(2):431-7.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1692320   PMID:3528148   PMID:7937770   PMID:8721980   PMID:10322410   PMID:10605628   PMID:11564680   PMID:12540594   PMID:12554744   PMID:12649389   PMID:12850280   PMID:14719035  
PMID:14736883   PMID:14988413   PMID:15093702   PMID:15590659   PMID:15902400   PMID:16870611   PMID:17289853   PMID:17628719   PMID:17631146   PMID:17693256   PMID:17928203   PMID:18054375  
PMID:18256135   PMID:18492769   PMID:18773927   PMID:18829741   PMID:19056762   PMID:19106249   PMID:19520739   PMID:19560500   PMID:19661152   PMID:19683981   PMID:19915011   PMID:19915164  
PMID:19929145   PMID:20358868   PMID:20368116   PMID:20413910   PMID:20448207   PMID:20522638   PMID:21048149   PMID:21145820   PMID:21234744   PMID:21389245   PMID:21593184   PMID:22054347  
PMID:22186413   PMID:22212535   PMID:22311299   PMID:22338073   PMID:22401907   PMID:22459287   PMID:22492036   PMID:22504208   PMID:22729158   PMID:22750144   PMID:22801106   PMID:22929182  
PMID:22983684   PMID:22986021   PMID:23193054   PMID:23238833   PMID:23338623   PMID:23364453   PMID:23595987   PMID:23663526   PMID:23746147   PMID:23798598   PMID:24051374   PMID:24302978  
PMID:24425760   PMID:24520357   PMID:24525020   PMID:24601880   PMID:24613839   PMID:24887687   PMID:25050009   PMID:25089000   PMID:25111274   PMID:25114295   PMID:25157092   PMID:25247193  
PMID:25471579   PMID:25601282   PMID:25673670   PMID:25849341   PMID:25853863   PMID:25961284   PMID:26037249   PMID:26290496   PMID:26459881   PMID:26561648   PMID:26658813   PMID:26717963  
PMID:26791475   PMID:26936779   PMID:26964897   PMID:26968794   PMID:27101990   PMID:27454242   PMID:27698937   PMID:27702763   PMID:28161724   PMID:28188284   PMID:28237410   PMID:28242257  
PMID:28243920   PMID:28782537   PMID:28870812   PMID:29247677   PMID:29341824   PMID:29409356   PMID:29510158   PMID:29847161   PMID:29927808   PMID:30195035   PMID:30222528   PMID:30634956  
PMID:30792230   PMID:31828140   PMID:31835410   PMID:32229720   PMID:32386193   PMID:33116243   PMID:33197511   PMID:33397977   PMID:33641439   PMID:33804063   PMID:35581617   PMID:35644422  
PMID:36706972   PMID:37139968   PMID:37228045   PMID:37614130   PMID:37980723  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.2347,113,914 - 47,122,958 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl347,113,914 - 47,122,929 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx350,468,582 - 50,477,739 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0359,052,116 - 59,061,273 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0356,825,210 - 56,834,365 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.0348,442,635 - 48,451,650 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl348,442,635 - 48,451,650 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.0355,108,272 - 55,117,287 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4344,433,180 - 44,438,004 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1344,329,550 - 44,334,376 (-)NCBI
Celera346,755,241 - 46,764,256 (-)NCBICelera
RH 3.4 Map3602.83RGD
Cytogenetic Map3q21NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh382162,142,882 - 162,152,247 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl2162,142,882 - 162,152,404 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh372162,999,392 - 163,008,757 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 362162,707,634 - 162,717,003 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 342162,824,894 - 162,834,264NCBI
Celera2156,609,679 - 156,619,210 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2q24.2NCBI
HuRef2154,881,734 - 154,891,273 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_12163,005,267 - 163,014,802 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.02162,599,534 - 162,608,895 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm39262,304,874 - 62,313,997 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl262,304,874 - 62,313,994 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm38262,474,530 - 62,483,653 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl262,474,530 - 62,483,650 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv37262,312,587 - 62,321,710 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv36262,275,369 - 62,284,492 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera264,164,668 - 64,173,806 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map2C1.3NCBI
cM Map235.85NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495544911,708,152 - 11,716,429 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495544911,708,152 - 11,716,429 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan12B64,849,961 - 64,856,251 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v02B49,436,379 - 49,446,559 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.12B166,804,877 - 166,814,374 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl2B166,806,016 - 166,811,155 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.1367,544,637 - 7,554,171 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl367,544,637 - 7,554,021 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha367,688,385 - 7,697,769 (-)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.0367,676,373 - 7,685,875 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl367,676,373 - 7,685,757 (-)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.1367,695,095 - 7,704,477 (-)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.0367,736,177 - 7,745,567 (-)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0367,843,487 - 7,852,871 (-)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024405303124,701,669 - 124,710,958 (-)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_00493646916,906,658 - 16,916,045 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_00493646916,906,658 - 16,916,045 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1568,800,560 - 68,810,242 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11568,800,557 - 68,810,268 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21576,292,316 - 76,302,025 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.11047,550,097 - 47,560,610 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666040151,966,064 - 151,975,601 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046247323,362,234 - 3,370,536 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046247323,361,897 - 3,370,020 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in Gcg
38 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:41
Count of miRNA genes:37
Interacting mature miRNAs:40
Prediction methods:Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
2290452Scl56Serum cholesterol level QTL 562.26blood cholesterol amount (VT:0000180)plasma total cholesterol level (CMO:0000585)3191609953Rat
10401810Kidm53Kidney mass QTL 53kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)3822719447233430Rat
70191BpQTLcluster4Blood pressure QTL cluster 43arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000533)31077870450302886Rat
70191BpQTLcluster4Blood pressure QTL cluster 43arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)absolute change in systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000607)31077870450302886Rat
1358905Hrtrt17Heart rate QTL 175.90.000014heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)31086191289878372Rat
1358885Bp251Blood pressure QTL 2513.8arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
1358888Bp264Blood pressure QTL 2644.43arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)314489145121056321Rat
2298542Neuinf11Neuroinflammation QTL 113.9nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)spinal cord complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain mRNA level (CMO:0002126)31500542276927699Rat
631676Cm8Cardiac mass QTL 87.030.0001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight (CMO:0000076)31695470861954708Rat
731172Bp151Blood pressure QTL 1510.04arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)31831145447233430Rat
12879849Bw180Body weight QTL 1800.037body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)31831145447233430Rat
12879850Cm91Cardiac mass QTL 910.001heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0002408)31831145447233430Rat
12879851Cm92Cardiac mass QTL 920.001heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)31831145447233430Rat
12879852Cm93Cardiac mass QTL 930.001heart right ventricle mass (VT:0007033)heart right ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000914)31831145447233430Rat
12879853Am5Aortic mass QTL 50.001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight to aorta length to body weight ratio (CMO:0002722)31831145447233430Rat
12879854Kidm63Kidney mass QTL 630.001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)31831145447233430Rat
10450804Scl70Serum cholesterol level QTL 704.70.001blood LDL cholesterol amount (VT:0000181)blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol level (CMO:0000053)32071409065714090Rat
10450794Scl69Serum cholesterol level QTL 696.30.001blood LDL cholesterol amount (VT:0000181)blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol level (CMO:0000053)32071409065714090Rat
2313049Bss72Bone structure and strength QTL 722.60.0001tibia area (VT:1000281)tibia midshaft cross-sectional area (CMO:0001717)32749462150302886Rat
2313076Bss74Bone structure and strength QTL 7420.0001tibia strength trait (VT:1000284)tibia total energy absorbed before break (CMO:0001736)32749462150302886Rat
2313079Bss73Bone structure and strength QTL 731.5tibia size trait (VT:0100001)tibia midshaft cross-sectional area (CMO:0001717)32749462150302886Rat
2313093Bmd77Bone mineral density QTL 772.20.0001tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)compact volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001730)32749462150302886Rat
2313101Bmd76Bone mineral density QTL 763.60.0001tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)32749462150302886Rat
2302055Pia30Pristane induced arthritis QTL 303.50.001blood autoantibody amount (VT:0003725)serum immunoglobulin M-type rheumatoid factor level relative to an arbitrary reference serum (CMO:0002111)32793691972936919Rat
9590286Uminl1Urine mineral level QTL 13.50.001urine mineral amount (VT:0015086)urine electrolyte level (CMO:0000593)32824968773249687Rat
8694196Abfw2Abdominal fat weight QTL 216.580.001visceral adipose mass (VT:0010063)abdominal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000095)32824968773249687Rat
8694386Bw159Body weight QTL 1594.520.001body lean mass (VT:0010483)lean tissue morphological measurement (CMO:0002184)32824968773249687Rat
8552950Pigfal12Plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level QTL 127.3blood insulin-like growth factor amount (VT:0010479)plasma insulin-like growth factor 1 level (CMO:0001299)32824968773249687Rat
9590136Scort3Serum corticosterone level QTL 323.370.001blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)32824968773249687Rat
2303593Gluco46Glucose level QTL 463blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)32846857173468571Rat
1354590Despr11Despair related QTL 110.000031locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)32846857173468571Rat
737818Hcar12Hepatocarcinoma resistance QTL 122.6liver integrity trait (VT:0010547)volume of individual liver tumorous lesion (CMO:0001078)329463235118376539Rat
61419Cia11Collagen induced arthritis QTL 115.6joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)33035677398535386Rat
61356Bp37Blood pressure QTL 373blood pressure trait (VT:0000183)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)33068464275684642Rat
631647Bp122Blood pressure QTL 1226.2arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)systolic blood pressure (CMO:0000004)33068464275684642Rat
70216Cm14Cardiac mass QTL 142.1heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight (CMO:0000069)331172320163586636Rat
11565451Bw177Body weight QTL 1770.002body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33142640370668733Rat
11565452Kidm57Kidney mass QTL 570.001kidney mass (VT:0002707)both kidneys wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000340)33142640370668733Rat
12879866Cm94Cardiac mass QTL 940.001heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)33142640370668733Rat
12879867Cm95Cardiac mass QTL 950.047heart right ventricle mass (VT:0007033)heart right ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000914)33142640370668733Rat
12879868Am6Aortic mass QTL 60.001aorta mass (VT:0002845)aorta weight to aorta length to body weight ratio (CMO:0002722)33142640370668733Rat
2301400Cm68Cardiac mass QTL 680.001heart mass (VT:0007028)heart wet weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0002408)33142640370668733Rat
1300169Bp177Blood pressure QTL 1772.96arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)blood pressure time series experimental set point of the baroreceptor response (CMO:0002593)33370334761017857Rat
1354589Bw31Body weight QTL 313.3body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33370334778196190Rat
1354604Bw36Body weight QTL 362.9body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)333703347104104347Rat
10450852Stl33Serum triglyceride level QTL 333.40.05blood LDL triglyceride amount (VT:0010699)blood lipoprotein triglyceride level (CMO:0002685)33819223350749747Rat
10450816Scl75Serum cholesterol level QTL 754.40.001blood LDL cholesterol amount (VT:0000181)blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol level (CMO:0000053)33819223350749747Rat
10450813Scl74Serum cholesterol level QTL 745.80.001blood LDL cholesterol amount (VT:0000181)blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol level (CMO:0000053)33819223350749747Rat
1358362Srcrt2Stress Responsive Cort QTL 22.78blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)338192233133483320Rat
738019Anxrr10Anxiety related response QTL 103.9exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)33851780383517803Rat
4889975Bmd81Bone mineral density QTL 814.3tibia mineral mass (VT:1000283)total volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001728)33871036550302886Rat
634317Bw117Body weight QTL 1173.58abdominal fat pad mass (VT:1000711)abdominal fat pad weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000095)33945463753296578Rat
2302276Bw82Body weight QTL 824.32body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33945463762951183Rat
1331777Bw24Body weight QTL 243.503body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)33945463789115240Rat
1331795Rf30Renal function QTL 303.708urine potassium amount (VT:0010539)urine potassium level (CMO:0000128)33945463789115240Rat
1354597Kidm13Kidney mass QTL 132.9kidney mass (VT:0002707)right kidney wet weight (CMO:0000082)341874578104104347Rat
2301970Bw81Body weight QTL 815.19body mass (VT:0001259)body weight (CMO:0000012)341874578155617519Rat
2301971Cm71Cardiac mass QTL 714.63heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight (CMO:0000776)341874578155617519Rat
1300178Hrtrt4Heart rate QTL 43.74heart pumping trait (VT:2000009)heart rate (CMO:0000002)34382736490905114Rat
1581503Cm58Cardiac mass QTL 582.70.05heart left ventricle mass (VT:0007031)heart left ventricle weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000530)343827364121056321Rat
1559282Emca5Estrogen-induced mammary cancer QTL 53.9mammary gland integrity trait (VT:0010552)percentage of study population developing mammary tumors during a period of time (CMO:0000948)343827364169034231Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2347,113,531 - 47,113,655 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0348,442,253 - 48,442,376NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0355,107,890 - 55,108,013UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4344,431,620 - 44,431,743UniSTSRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.4344,431,619 - 44,431,743RGDRGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.1344,327,992 - 44,328,115RGD
Celera346,754,852 - 46,754,982UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map3603.13RGD
RH 3.4 Map3603.13UniSTS
RH 2.0 Map3376.0RGD
SHRSP x BN Map332.8199RGD
Cytogenetic Map3q22-q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2347,116,207 - 47,116,333 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0348,444,929 - 48,445,054NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0355,110,566 - 55,110,691UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4344,434,296 - 44,434,421UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera346,757,535 - 46,757,660UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q22-q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2347,113,978 - 47,114,129 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0348,442,700 - 48,442,850NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0355,108,337 - 55,108,487UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4344,432,067 - 44,432,217UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera346,755,306 - 46,755,456UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map3602.83UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q22-q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2347,113,689 - 47,113,890 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0348,442,411 - 48,442,611NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0355,108,048 - 55,108,248UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4344,431,778 - 44,431,978UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera346,755,017 - 46,755,217UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q22-q24UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.2347,117,911 - 47,118,073 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.0348,446,633 - 48,446,794NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.0355,112,270 - 55,112,431UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.4344,436,000 - 44,436,161UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera346,759,239 - 46,759,400UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map3q22-q24UniSTS


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system nervous system reproductive system respiratory system
Medium 3 4 4 2 4 1
Low 9 4 10 4 32 1
Below cutoff 7 3 5 3 27 4 1


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000007356   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000007356
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl347,113,914 - 47,122,929 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl348,442,635 - 48,451,650 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_012707   ⟹   NP_036839
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2347,113,914 - 47,122,958 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.0348,442,635 - 48,451,650 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.0355,108,272 - 55,117,287 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.4344,433,180 - 44,438,004 (-)RGD
Celera346,755,241 - 46,764,256 (-)NCBI
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_036839 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein EDL79008 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL79009 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000007356
GenBank Protein P06883 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_036839   ⟸   NM_012707
- Peptide Label: preproprotein
- UniProtKB: P06883 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   G3V6P5 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6HLV7 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000007356   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000007356
Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P06883-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P06883 1-180 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13692099
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R2624
Type:single initiation site
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.0348,451,679 - 48,451,739EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2668 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-49587 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000005498 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000007356 ENTREZGENE
  ENSRNOT00000007356.5 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Glucagon UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Glucagon_GIP_secretin_VIP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24952 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR11418 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam Hormone_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Gcg PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000005498 RatGTEx
SMART GLUCA UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
TIGR TC235994

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2002-06-10 Gcg  glucagon      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_expression expressed in pancreatic islet cDNA 61488
gene_process counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis 61488
gene_process counteracts the glucose-lowering action of insulin by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis 625455
gene_process promotes hydrolysis of glycogen and lipids 61488
gene_process promotes hydrolysis of glycogen and lipids 625455
gene_process raises blood sugar level 61488
gene_process raises blood sugar level 625455
gene_process promotes nutrient assimilation via stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin release and inhibition of glucagon secretion 625448
gene_protein glucagon peptide is cleaved from a polyprotein precursor that also contains two glucagon like peptides 728574
gene_regulation Glp-1 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) in the bloodstream 625448