C3 (complement C3) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: C3 (complement C3) Rattus norvegicus
Symbol: C3
Name: complement C3
RGD ID: 2232
Description: Enables lipid binding activity. Involved in several processes, including positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade; response to estradiol; and response to steroid hormone. Located in extracellular space. Used to study glomerulonephritis; membranous glomerulonephritis; obesity; pneumonia; and pre-eclampsia. Biomarker of several diseases, including artery disease (multiple); cerebrovascular disease (multiple); eye disease (multiple); pneumocystosis; and sciatic neuropathy. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in several diseases, including complement deficiency (multiple); macular degeneration (multiple); paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria; sickle cell anemia; and silicosis. Orthologous to human C3 (complement C3); PARTICIPATES IN classical complement pathway; Chagas disease pathway; coagulation cascade pathway; INTERACTS WITH (S)-colchicine; 1,1,1-Trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane; 17alpha-ethynylestradiol.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Previously known as: complement component 3
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: C3em1Linf   C3em1Kyo  
Genetic Models: F344;SD-C3em1Linf
Candidate Gene For: Ciaa3
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr892,174,412 - 2,201,339 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.292,087,437 - 2,114,366 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl92,087,437 - 2,114,429 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx92,515,463 - 2,542,310 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.097,864,836 - 7,891,685 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.096,820,692 - 6,847,542 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.099,721,137 - 9,747,084 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl99,721,105 - 9,747,167 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.098,728,465 - 8,754,412 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera96,407,133 - 6,432,968 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map9q11NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (ISO)
Acute Lung Injury  (IEP)
acute myocardial infarction  (ISO)
adult respiratory distress syndrome  (ISO)
age related macular degeneration 7  (ISO)
age related macular degeneration 9  (ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  (IEP)
anterior uveitis  (IEP,ISO)
arteriolosclerosis  (ISO)
asthma  (ISO)
atopic dermatitis  (ISO)
atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome  (ISO)
autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease  (ISO)
bacterial pneumonia  (ISO)
boutonneuse fever  (ISO)
Brain Injuries  (IEP)
brain ischemia  (IEP)
Carcinoma, Lewis Lung  (ISO)
Cerebral Hemorrhage  (IEP)
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury  (ISO)
Chemically-Induced Disorders  (ISO)
Chronic Allograft Dysfunction  (IDA)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  (ISO)
complement component 3 deficiency  (ISO,ISS)
congenital hemolytic anemia  (ISO)
conjunctivitis  (ISO)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (IEP,ISO)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions  (ISO)
erythema nodosum  (ISO)
Experimental Arthritis  (IDA,ISO)
Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis  (IEP)
Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis  (IEP,ISO)
Experimental Autoimmune Uveoretinitis  (ISO)
factor VIII deficiency  (ISO)
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis  (ISO)
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 1  (ISO)
Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy  (ISO)
genetic disease  (ISO)
glomerulonephritis  (IDA)
Hematuria  (ISO)
Henoch-Schoenlein purpura  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (IEP)
herpes simplex  (ISO)
Herpesviridae Infections  (ISO)
high grade glioma  (ISO)
human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease  (ISO)
Human Influenza  (ISO)
Hyperalgesia  (IEP)
hypertension  (IEP)
IgA glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
Insulin Resistance  (ISO)
kidney disease  (ISO)
Kidney Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
Kuhnt-Junius degeneration  (ISO)
leishmaniasis  (ISO)
lepromatous leprosy  (ISO)
Liver Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
lung disease  (ISO)
lupus nephritis  (ISO)
macular degeneration  (ISO)
mastitis  (ISO)
melanoma  (ISO)
membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis  (ISO)
membranous glomerulonephritis  (IDA,ISO)
Meningococcal Infections  (ISO)
Metabolic Syndrome  (ISO)
middle cerebral artery infarction  (IEP,ISO)
mucolipidosis type IV  (ISO)
myocardial infarction  (IEP)
Myocardial Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
obesity  (IDA)
ocular hypertension  (IEP)
Optic Nerve Injuries  (IEP)
otitis media  (ISO)
Otitis Media with Effusion  (ISO)
Paratuberculosis  (ISO)
paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria  (ISO)
pemphigus  (ISO)
Penetrating Wounds  (ISO)
pleurisy  (ISO)
Pneumococcal Pneumonia  (IEP,ISO)
pneumocystosis  (IEP)
pneumonia  (IDA)
pre-eclampsia  (IDA)
primary immunodeficiency disease  (ISO)
primary ovarian insufficiency  (ISO)
pulmonary eosinophilia  (ISO)
pulmonary sarcoidosis  (ISO)
pulmonary tuberculosis  (ISO)
Radiation Pneumonitis  (ISO)
Refractory Anemia with Excess of Blasts  (ISO)
Reperfusion Injury  (IEP)
retinal degeneration  (IEP)
rheumatoid arthritis  (ISO)
rhinitis  (IEP,ISO)
Rhinosinusitis  (ISO)
sciatic neuropathy  (IEP)
Sepsis  (IEP,ISO)
sickle cell anemia  (ISO)
silicosis  (ISO)
Sjogren's syndrome  (ISO)
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  (IEP)
systemic lupus erythematosus  (ISO)
systemic scleroderma  (ISO)
thrombophilia  (ISO)
Thrombotic Microangiopathies  (IDA)
transient cerebral ischemia  (IEP,ISO)
tropical spastic paraparesis  (ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
ulcerative colitis  (ISO)
Viral Bronchiolitis  (ISO)
vitiligo  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(+)-catechin  (ISO)
(S)-colchicine  (EXP)
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethane  (ISO)
1,1,1-Trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane  (EXP,ISO)
1,1-dichloroethene  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene  (ISO)
1-Hydroxypyrene  (ISO)
1-naphthyl isothiocyanate  (ISO)
17alpha-ethynylestradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
17beta-estradiol 3-benzoate  (EXP)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid  (ISO)
3'-amino-3'-deoxy-N(6),N(6)-dimethyladenosine  (EXP)
3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl  (EXP)
3,4-dichloroaniline  (EXP,ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
4-tert-Octylphenol  (EXP)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
7,12-dimethyltetraphene  (EXP)
9-phenanthrol  (ISO)
acetamide  (EXP)
afimoxifene  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
aluminium oxide  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (EXP)
amphibole asbestos  (EXP)
antirheumatic drug  (ISO)
aristolochic acid A  (EXP,ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
arsenous acid  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (EXP)
benzalkonium chloride  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
benzo[b]fluoranthene  (ISO)
bexarotene  (EXP)
bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
butyric acid  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP)
calciol  (ISO)
capecitabine  (ISO)
carbon nanotube  (EXP,ISO)
carnosic acid  (ISO)
chlordecone  (ISO)
chlorpromazine  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
chondroitin sulfate  (ISO)
ciguatoxin CTX1B  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP,ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
copper atom  (EXP,ISO)
copper(0)  (EXP,ISO)
corticosterone  (EXP)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
Cuprizon  (EXP)
curcumin  (ISO)
cyclophosphamide  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (EXP,ISO)
cylindrospermopsin  (ISO)
D-glucose  (ISO)
D-penicillamine  (EXP)
daidzein  (EXP)
danazol  (ISO)
deoxynivalenol  (ISO)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (ISO)
diethyl malate  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP,ISO)
dioxygen  (ISO)
diquat  (ISO)
diuron  (EXP,ISO)
dorsomorphin  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (EXP,ISO)
endosulfan  (EXP)
entinostat  (ISO)
fenthion  (ISO)
fenvalerate  (ISO)
ferulic acid  (ISO)
flutamide  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
fructose  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (EXP,ISO)
furan  (EXP)
genistein  (EXP,ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
glucose  (ISO)
glycidol  (EXP)
glycidyl methacrylate  (ISO)
glyphosate  (EXP,ISO)
gold atom  (ISO)
gold(0)  (ISO)
GW 4064  (ISO)
heparin  (ISO)
herbicide  (ISO)
hydrazine  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
ibuprofen  (ISO)
indometacin  (EXP)
isoflavones  (EXP)
isoprenaline  (EXP,ISO)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
ivermectin  (ISO)
ketoconazole  (EXP)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP)
lead(0)  (ISO)
levonorgestrel  (EXP)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
magnesium atom  (ISO)
mangiferin  (ISO)
medroxyprogesterone acetate  (EXP)
mercury atom  (ISO)
mercury dichloride  (ISO)
mercury(0)  (ISO)
methacholine chloride  (ISO)
methidathion  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methoxychlor  (ISO)
methylmercury chloride  (EXP)
methyltestosterone  (ISO)
microcystin-LR  (ISO)
mifepristone  (EXP)
Mizoribine  (EXP)
mycotoxin  (ISO)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (EXP)
N-Acetyl-S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-cysteine  (ISO)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
neoechinulin A  (ISO)
nickel atom  (ISO)
nickel dichloride  (EXP)
nickel subsulfide  (EXP)
nilotinib  (ISO)
nitrofen  (EXP)
nitroglycerin  (ISO)
Nonylphenol  (EXP,ISO)
olanzapine  (ISO)
ozone  (EXP,ISO)
p-tert-Amylphenol  (EXP)
paclitaxel  (EXP)
panobinostat  (ISO)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
PCB138  (EXP)
pemetrexed  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (EXP,ISO)
pifithrin-?  (EXP)
pirinixic acid  (EXP)
poly(styrene)  (ISO)
potassium chromate  (ISO)
pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile  (ISO)
procymidone  (EXP)
progesterone  (EXP,ISO)
propofol  (ISO)
raloxifene  (ISO)
reactive oxygen species  (ISO)
reserpine  (EXP)
resveratrol  (ISO)
rofecoxib  (ISO)
rosuvastatin calcium  (ISO)
rotenone  (EXP)
SB 431542  (ISO)
senecionine  (ISO)
serpentine asbestos  (ISO)
silicon dioxide  (ISO)
sirolimus  (EXP)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dichromate  (EXP,ISO)
Soman  (EXP)
sophoraflavanone B  (EXP)
succimer  (ISO)
sulforaphane  (ISO)
tacrolimus hydrate  (EXP,ISO)
tamoxifen  (EXP,ISO)
testosterone  (EXP,ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP,ISO)
thalidomide  (ISO)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (EXP,ISO)
TMC-120A  (ISO)
toluene  (EXP)
trichloroethene  (ISO)
triclosan  (EXP,ISO)
trimegestone  (EXP)
trimellitic anhydride  (ISO)
Triptolide  (EXP)
troglitazone  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP,ISO)
vancomycin  (ISO)
vinclozolin  (EXP)
zearalenone  (EXP)
zinc atom  (ISO)
zinc dichloride  (ISO)
zinc sulfate  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (ISO)
zoledronic acid  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
amyloid-beta clearance  (IEA,ISO)
chemotaxis  (IEA)
complement activation  (IBA,IDA,ISO)
complement activation, alternative pathway  (IEA)
complement activation, classical pathway  (IEA,TAS)
complement receptor mediated signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO)
complement-dependent cytotoxicity  (IEA,ISO)
complement-mediated synapse pruning  (IEA,ISO)
fatty acid metabolic process  (IEA)
inflammatory response  (IEA)
innate immune response  (ISO)
neuron remodeling  (IEA,ISO)
oviduct epithelium development  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of activation of membrane attack complex  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of angiogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of apoptotic cell clearance  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of developmental growth  (IDA)
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (IDA)
positive regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of glucose transmembrane transport  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of lipid storage  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of phagocytosis  (ISO)
positive regulation of phagocytosis, engulfment  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
positive regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of type IIa hypersensitivity  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor production  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of triglyceride biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO,ISS)
response to bacterium  (IEA,ISO)
response to estradiol  (IEP)
response to estrogen  (IEP)
response to glucocorticoid  (IEP)
response to magnesium ion  (IEP)
response to progesterone  (IEP)
response to xenobiotic stimulus  (IEP)
retina development in camera-type eye  (ISO)
tolerance induction  (IEP)
vascular associated smooth muscle cell differentiation  (ISO)
vertebrate eye-specific patterning  (IEA,ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Complement components (C3, C4) as inflammatory markers in asthma. Abdel Fattah M, etal., Indian J Pediatr. 2010 Jul;77(7):771-3. Epub 2010 Jun 29.
2. Intraglomerular synthesis of complement C3 and its activation products in IgA nephropathy. Abe K, etal., Nephron. 2001 Mar;87(3):231-9.
3. C-reactive protein and complement components but not other acute-phase reactants discriminate between clinical subsets and organ damage in systemic lupus erythematosus. Amezcua-Guerra LM, etal., Clin Lab. 2011;57(7-8):607-13.
4. Treatment with captopril abrogates the altered expression of alpha1 macroglobulin and alpha1 antiproteinase in sera of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Aminudin N, etal., Proteome Sci. 2012 Mar 15;10(1):17. doi: 10.1186/1477-5956-10-17.
5. Cathepsin B and complement C3 are major comigrants in the estrogen-induced peroxidase fraction of rat uterine fluid. Balan KV, etal., J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2001 Jul;33(3):221-30.
6. Complement proteins and C3 anaphylatoxin in the tears of patients with conjunctivitis. Ballow M, etal., J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985 Sep;76(3):473-6.
7. Variants in the gene encoding C3 are associated with asthma and related phenotypes among African Caribbean families. Barnes KC, etal., Genes Immun. 2006 Jan;7(1):27-35.
8. Complement abnormalities during an epidemic of group B meningococcal infection in children. Beatty DW, etal., Clin Exp Immunol. 1986 Jun;64(3):465-70.
9. Up-regulation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules characterizes disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. The Shwartzman phenomenon revisited. Belmont HM, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 1994 Mar;37(3):376-83.
10. Dynamics of intrapulmonary bacterial growth in a murine model of repeated microaspiration. Ben-David I, etal., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005 Nov;33(5):476-82. Epub 2005 Jul 13.
11. Molecular basis of hereditary C3 deficiency. Botto M, etal., J Clin Invest. 1990 Oct;86(4):1158-63.
12. Increase in complement component C3 is an early response to experimental magnesium deficiency in rats. Bussiere FI, etal., Life Sci. 2003 Jun 13;73(4):499-507.
13. Plasma proteomic analysis may identify new markers for radiation-induced lung toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Cai XW, etal., Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010 Jul 1;77(3):867-76.
14. Proteomic analysis of rat plasma following transient focal cerebral ischemia. Chen R, etal., Biomark Med. 2011 Dec;5(6):837-46.
15. Beneficial effect of the polysaccharides from Bupleurum smithii var. parvifolium on "two-hit" acute lung injury in rats. Cheng XQ, etal., Inflammation. 2012 Oct;35(5):1715-22. doi: 10.1007/s10753-012-9489-7.
16. Increased activation of the alternative complement pathway in sickle cell disease. Chudwin DS, etal., Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1985 Oct;37(1):93-7.
17. Complement deposition and microglial activation in the outer retina in light-induced retinopathy: inhibition by a 5-HT1A agonist. Collier RJ, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Oct 11;52(11):8108-16. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6418.
18. Complement levels in pneumococcal pneumonia. Coonrod JD and Rylko-Bauer B, Infect Immun. 1977 Oct;18(1):14-22.
19. Gene array analysis of a rat model of liver transplant tolerance identifies increased complement C3 and the STAT-1/IRF-1 pathway during tolerance induction. Cordoba SP, etal., Liver Transpl. 2006 Apr;12(4):636-43.
20. Complement activation contributes to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. Cowell RM, etal., J Neurosci. 2003 Oct 15;23(28):9459-68.
21. Increased serum complement component 3 and mannose-binding lectin levels in adult Chinese patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Cui YH, etal., Rhinology. 2009 Jun;47(2):187-91.
22. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) attenuates antibody binding in acute haemorrhagic immunopneumonitis in a rat model of complement-dependent lung injury. Dantas M, etal., Clin Exp Immunol. 2000 Jul;121(1):139-45.
23. Rat C-reactive protein activates the autologous complement system. Diaz Padilla N, etal., Immunology. 2003 Aug;109(4):564-71.
24. Cutting edge: the absence of C3 demonstrates a role for complement in Th2 effector functions in a murine model of pulmonary allergy. Drouin SM, etal., J Immunol. 2001 Oct 15;167(8):4141-5.
25. Endogenous C1-inhibitor production and expression in the heart after acute myocardial infarction. Emmens RW, etal., Cardiovasc Pathol. 2016 Jan-Feb;25(1):33-9. doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2015.09.006. Epub 2015 Sep 25.
26. CD36-mediated hematoma absorption following intracerebral hemorrhage: negative regulation by TLR4 signaling. Fang H, etal., J Immunol. 2014 Jun 15;192(12):5984-92. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1400054. Epub 2014 May 7.
27. Autoantibodies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Feghali-Bostwick CA, etal., Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Jan 15;177(2):156-63. Epub 2007 Nov 1.
28. Thrombus formation induced by antibodies to beta2-glycoprotein I is complement dependent and requires a priming factor. Fischetti F, etal., Blood. 2005 Oct 1;106(7):2340-6. Epub 2005 Jun 14.
29. The complement anaphylatoxin C5a induces apoptosis in adrenomedullary cells during experimental sepsis. Flierl MA, etal., PLoS One. 2008 Jul 2;3(7):e2560.
30. Anti-ischemia/reperfusion of C1 inhibitor in myocardial cell injury via regulation of local myocardial C3 activity. Fu J, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Nov 10;350(1):162-8. Epub 2006 Sep 15.
31. Cloning and characterization of rat C3a receptor: differential expression of rat C3a and C5a receptors by LPS stimulation. Fukuoka Y, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998 Jan 26;242(3):663-8.
32. Genetic dissection of a rat model for rheumatoid arthritis: significant gender influences on autosomal modifier loci Furuya T, etal., Hum Mol Genet 2000 Sep 22;9(15):2241-50
33. A single localized dose of enzyme-responsive hydrogel improves long-term survival of a vascularized composite allograft. Gajanayake T, etal., Sci Transl Med. 2014 Aug 13;6(249):249ra110. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3008778.
34. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
35. Vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) improves kidney structure and function following ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Ghebremariam YT, etal., J Surg Res. 2010 Apr;159(2):747-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2009.04.049. Epub 2009 Jun 6.
36. Rat ISS GO annotations from GOA human gene data--August 2006 GOA data from the GO Consortium
37. CD36 deficiency increases insulin sensitivity in muscle, but induces insulin resistance in the liver in mice. Goudriaan JR, etal., J Lipid Res. 2003 Dec;44(12):2270-7. Epub 2003 Aug 16.
38. Identification of four new quantitative trait loci regulating arthritis severity and one new quantitative trait locus regulating autoantibody production in rats with collagen-induced arthritis. Griffiths MM, etal., Arthritis Rheum 2000 Jun;43(6):1278-89
39. A murine model for the study of mycotic mastitis. Guhad FA, etal., J Comp Pathol. 1995 Nov;113(4):315-25.
40. Variations in the C3, C3a receptor, and C5 genes affect susceptibility to bronchial asthma. Hasegawa K, etal., Hum Genet. 2004 Sep;115(4):295-301.
41. Inhibition of classical complement activation attenuates liver ischaemia and reperfusion injury in a rat model. Heijnen BH, etal., Clin Exp Immunol. 2006 Jan;143(1):15-23.
42. Responsiveness of endometrial genes Connexin26, Connexin43, C3 and clusterin to primary estrogen, selective estrogen receptor modulators, phyto- and xenoestrogens. Heikaus S, etal., J Mol Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;29(2):239-49.
43. The complement system in Mediterranean spotted fever. Herrero-Herrero JI, etal., J Infect Dis. 1988 May;157(5):1093-5.
44. Complement component C3 plays a critical role in protecting the aging retina in a murine model of age-related macular degeneration. Hoh Kam J, etal., Am J Pathol. 2013 Aug;183(2):480-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 Jun 6.
45. Species difference in correlation between in vivo/in vitro liposome-complement interactions. Huong TM, etal., Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Apr;24(4):439-41.
46. Effect of the C3a-receptor antagonist SB 290157 on anti-OVA polyclonal antibody-induced arthritis. Hutamekalin P, etal., J Pharmacol Sci. 2010;112(1):56-63. Epub 2010 Jan 6.
47. Association study of the C3 gene with adult and childhood asthma. Inoue H, etal., J Hum Genet. 2008;53(8):728-38. Epub 2008 Jun 20.
48. Genetic-biochemical criteria for individual sensitivity in development of occupational bronchopulmonary diseases. Izmerov NF, etal., Cent Eur J Public Health. 2002 Jun;10(1-2):35-41.
49. Complement C3 is required for the progression of cutaneous lesions and neutrophil attraction in Leishmania major infection. Jacobs T, etal., Med Microbiol Immunol. 2005 May;194(3):143-9. Epub 2004 Sep 17.
50. Intravenous immunoglobulin protects against experimental thrombotic microangiopathy. Jefferson JA, etal., Kidney Int. 2001 Sep;60(3):1018-25.
51. Suppression of complement regulatory proteins (CRPs) exacerbates experimental autoimmune anterior uveitis (EAAU). Jha P, etal., J Immunol. 2006 Jun 15;176(12):7221-31.
52. Inhibition of mannose-binding lectin reduces postischemic myocardial reperfusion injury. Jordan JE, etal., Circulation. 2001 Sep 18;104(12):1413-8.
53. Critical role of complement and viral evasion of complement in acute, persistent, and latent gamma-herpesvirus infection. Kapadia SB, etal., Immunity. 2002 Aug;17(2):143-55.
54. Involvement of complement in atopic dermatitis. Kapp A and Schopf E, Acta Derm Venereol Suppl (Stockh). 1985;114:152-4.
55. Phospholipase A in acute lung injury after trauma and sepsis: its relation to the inflammatory mediators PMN-elastase, C3a, and neopterin. Kellermann W, etal., Klin Wochenschr. 1989 Feb 1;67(3):190-5.
56. Renal C3 complement component: feed forward to diabetic kidney disease. Kelly KJ, etal., Am J Nephrol. 2015;41(1):48-56. doi: 10.1159/000371426. Epub 2015 Jan 30.
57. Innate immune defense against pneumococcal pneumonia requires pulmonary complement component C3. Kerr AR, etal., Infect Immun. 2005 Jul;73(7):4245-52.
58. Studies on type II collagen induced polyarthritis in rats. Effect of complement depletion. Kerwar SS, etal., J Immunopharmacol. 1981-1982;3(3-4):323-37.
59. Serum complement C3 predicts renal arteriolosclerosis in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. Kojima C, etal., J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19(9):854-61. Epub 2012 Aug 1.
60. Potentiation of photodynamic therapy of cancer by complement: the effect of gamma-inulin. Korbelik M and Cooper PD, Br J Cancer. 2007 Jan 15;96(1):67-72. Epub 2006 Dec 5.
61. Complement component 3 (C 3) and diabetes mellitus. Krantz S, etal., Exp Clin Endocrinol. 1988 Mar;92(3):287-96.
62. Retinal synthesis and deposition of complement components induced by ocular hypertension. Kuehn MH, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2006 Sep;83(3):620-8. Epub 2006 May 4.
63. Complement-mediated regulation of the IL-17A axis is a central genetic determinant of the severity of experimental allergic asthma. Lajoie S, etal., Nat Immunol. 2010 Oct;11(10):928-35. Epub 2010 Aug 29.
64. [MRNA expression of complement C3 and C4 in rat nasal mucosa with allergic rhinitis]. Lang JT, etal., Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2006 Dec;41(12):928-31.
65. Expression and activation of complement protein and alveolar damage during Pneumocystis pneumonia. Lasbury ME, etal., J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2006;53 Suppl 1:S136-7.
66. Photodynamic therapy boosts anti-glioma immunity in mice: a dependence on the activities of T cells and complement C3. Li F, etal., J Cell Biochem. 2011 Oct;112(10):3035-43. doi: 10.1002/jcb.23228.
67. Regulation of complement C3 expression by the bile acid receptor FXR. Li J, etal., J Biol Chem. 2005 Mar 4;280(9):7427-34. Epub 2004 Dec 7.
68. Complement activation contributes to leukocyte recruitment and neuropathic pain following peripheral nerve injury in rats. Li M, etal., Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Dec;26(12):3486-500. Epub 2007 Dec 4.
69. Essential role of factor B of the alternative complement pathway in complement activation and opsonophagocytosis during acute pneumococcal otitis media in mice. Li Q, etal., Infect Immun. 2011 Jul;79(7):2578-85. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00168-11. Epub 2011 Apr 18.
70. The protective effect of SCR(15-18) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Li S, etal., Neurol Res. 2011 Oct;33(8):866-74. doi: 10.1179/1743132811Y.0000000016.
71. Complement activation is critical for placental ischemia-induced hypertension in the rat. Lillegard KE, etal., Mol Immunol. 2013 Nov;56(1-2):91-7. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2013.04.009. Epub 2013 May 15.
72. C5aR and C3aR antagonists each inhibit diet-induced obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and adipocyte and macrophage signaling. Lim J, etal., FASEB J. 2013 Feb;27(2):822-31. doi: 10.1096/fj.12-220582. Epub 2012 Nov 1.
73. Treatment with mycophenolate mofetil attenuates the development of Heymann nephritis. Luca ME, etal., Exp Nephrol. 2000 Mar-Apr;8(2):77-83.
74. Rat uterine complement C3 expression as a model for progesterone receptor modulators: characterization of the new progestin trimegestone. Lundeen SG, etal., J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Aug;78(2):137-43.
75. Ethanol preconditioning reduces hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting the complement system activation. Ma ZW, etal., J Surg Res. 2011 Apr;166(2):314-23. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2009.05.037. Epub 2009 Jun 18.
76. Mutations in alternative pathway complement proteins in American patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Maga TK, etal., Hum Mutat. 2010 Jun;31(6):E1445-60. doi: 10.1002/humu.21256.
77. Elevated expression of complement C3 protein in chemically induced hepatotumorogenesis in Wistar rats: a correlative proteomics and histopathological study. Malik S, etal., Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013 Sep;65(6):767-73. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Dec 12.
78. Complement component 3: an assessment of association with AMD and analysis of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in a Northern Irish cohort. McKay GJ, etal., Mol Vis. 2010 Feb 10;16:194-9.
79. Rat ISS GO annotations from MGI mouse gene data--August 2006 MGD data from the GO Consortium
80. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of rat complement C3. Misumi Y, etal., Nucleic Acids Res 1990 Apr 25;18(8):2178.
81. Rat membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed only in the acrosome of developing and mature spermatozoa and mediates binding to immobilized activated C3. Mizuno M, etal., Biol Reprod. 2004 Oct;71(4):1374-83. Epub 2004 Jun 23.
82. Complement activation during painful crisis in sickle cell anemia. Mold C, etal., Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1995 Sep;76(3 Pt 1):314-20.
83. Activated complement in inflamed aqueous humor. Mondino BJ, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1984 Jul;25(7):871-3.
84. Overexpression of innate immune response genes in a model of recessive polycystic kidney disease. Mrug M, etal., Kidney Int. 2008 Jan;73(1):63-76. Epub 2007 Oct 24.
85. Complement components (C3, C4) in childhood asthma. Najam FI, etal., Indian J Pediatr. 2005 Sep;72(9):745-9.
86. Complement C3 cleavage and cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in otitis media with effusion. Narkio-Makela M, etal., Laryngoscope. 2000 Oct;110(10 Pt 1):1745-9.
87. Electronic Transfer of LocusLink and RefSeq Data NCBI rat LocusLink and RefSeq merged data July 26, 2002
88. Development of Sjogren's syndrome in nonobese diabetic-derived autoimmune-prone C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice is dependent on complement component-3. Nguyen CQ, etal., J Immunol. 2007 Aug 15;179(4):2318-29.
89. Abnormal activation of complement C3 in the spinal dorsal horn is closely associated with progression of neuropathic pain. Nie F, etal., Int J Mol Med. 2013 Jun;31(6):1333-42. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2013.1344. Epub 2013 Apr 11.
90. A Protective Role for Complement C3 Protein during Pandemic 2009 H1N1 and H5N1 Influenza A Virus Infection. O'Brien KB, etal., PLoS One. 2011 Mar 9;6(3):e17377.
91. Complement activation following optic nerve crush in the adult rat. Ohlsson M, etal., J Neurotrauma. 2003 Sep;20(9):895-904.
92. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
93. C-reactive protein and natural IgM antibodies are activators of complement in a rat model of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion. Padilla ND, etal., Surgery. 2007 Nov;142(5):722-33.
94. Increased enzymatic activity of the alternative pathway convertase when bound to the erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Parker CJ, etal., J Clin Invest. 1982 Feb;69(2):337-46.
95. Association of c3 gene polymorphisms with neovascular age-related macular degeneration in a chinese population. Pei XT, etal., Curr Eye Res. 2009 Aug;34(8):615-22.
96. Spontaneous hemolytic uremic syndrome triggered by complement factor H lacking surface recognition domains. Pickering MC, etal., J Exp Med. 2007 Jun 11;204(6):1249-56. Epub 2007 May 21.
97. Requirement of activation of complement C3 and C5 for antiphospholipid antibody-mediated thrombophilia. Pierangeli SS, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jul;52(7):2120-4.
98. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
99. A role for immune complexes in enhanced respiratory syncytial virus disease. Polack FP, etal., J Exp Med. 2002 Sep 16;196(6):859-65.
100. Alzheimer's disease and age-related macular degeneration have different genetic models for complement gene variation. Proitsi P, etal., Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Aug;33(8):1843.e9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2011.12.036. Epub 2012 Feb 1.
101. Cirrhosis-induced defects in innate pulmonary defenses against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Propst-Graham KL, etal., BMC Microbiol. 2007 Oct 23;7:94.
102. Immune complement and coagulation dysfunction in adverse outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ramlall V, etal., Nat Med. 2020 Aug 3. pii: 10.1038/s41591-020-1021-2. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-1021-2.
103. Genetic deficiency of C3 as well as CNS-targeted expression of the complement inhibitor sCrry ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Read RW, etal., Exp Eye Res. 2006 Mar;82(3):389-94. Epub 2005 Sep 6.
104. GOA pipeline RGD automated data pipeline
105. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
106. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
107. Comprehensive gene review and curation RGD comprehensive gene curation
108. Alterations in the aqueous humor proteome in patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Richardson MR, etal., Mol Vis. 2010 Nov 11;16:2376-83.
109. Activation of the complement system in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Robbins RA, etal., Am Rev Respir Dis. 1987 Mar;135(3):651-8.
110. Profiling and identification of cerebrospinal fluid proteins in a rat EAE model of multiple sclerosis. Rosenling T, etal., J Proteome Res. 2012 Apr 6;11(4):2048-60. Epub 2012 Feb 23.
111. The terminal pathway of the complement system is activated in focal penetrating but not in mild diffuse traumatic brain injury. Rostami E, etal., J Neurotrauma. 2013 Dec 1;30(23):1954-65. doi: 10.1089/neu.2012.2583. Epub 2013 Oct 30.
112. Complement component 3C3 and C3a receptor are required in chitin-dependent allergic sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus but dispensable in chitin-induced innate allergic inflammation. Roy RM, etal., MBio. 2013 Apr 2;4(2). pii: e00162-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00162-13.
113. Analysis of complement expression in light-induced retinal degeneration: synthesis and deposition of C3 by microglia/macrophages is associated with focal photoreceptor degeneration. Rutar M, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Jul 18;52(8):5347-58. doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-7119.
114. Elevated levels of iC3b and C4d, but not Bb, complement fragments from plasma of persons infected with human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV) with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Saarloos MN, etal., J Infect Dis. 1995 Oct;172(4):1095-7.
115. Breakdown product of factor B as an index of complement activation in lepromatous leprosy and its relation with bacillary load. Saha K, etal., Scand J Immunol. 1983 Jan;17(1):37-43.
116. Ultrastructural localization of immune complexes (IgG and C3) at the end-plate in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Sahashi K, etal., J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1978 Mar-Apr;37(2):212-23.
117. Down-regulation of complement receptor 3 and major histocompatibility complex I and II antigen-like immunoreactivity accompanies ramification in isolated rat microglia. Salimi K and Humpel C, Brain Res 2002 Aug 16;946(2):283-9.
118. Increased synthesis of secreted hepatic proteins during abdominal sepsis. Sax HC, etal., J Surg Res. 1988 Feb;44(2):109-16.
119. Alterations in gene expression of complement components in chronic rhinosinusitis. Schlosser RJ, etal., Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2010 Jan-Feb;24(1):21-5.
120. Comprehensive evaluation of complement components in the course of type I (Lepra) and type II (ENL) reactions. Sehgal VN, etal., Int J Dermatol. 1989 Jan-Feb;28(1):32-5.
121. Activation of the complement system in systemic sclerosis. Relationship to clinical severity. Senaldi G, etal., Arthritis Rheum. 1989 Oct;32(10):1262-7.
122. Defective solubilization of immune complexes and activation of the complement system in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Senbagavalli P, etal., J Clin Immunol. 2009 Sep;29(5):674-80. Epub 2009 May 27.
123. Vascular C3 deposits on renal biopsy in pediatric patients with hematuria. Sheth RD, etal., Pediatr Nephrol. 2000 Aug;14(8-9):797-801.
124. Involvement of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Shinosaki T, etal., Lab Invest. 2002 Apr;82(4):505-13.
125. Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling genes and innate immune genes. Siezen CL, etal., Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Apr;28(4):333-5.
126. A quantitative proteomic analysis of soluble bronchoalveolar fluid proteins from patients with sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease. Silva E, etal., Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. 2007 Mar;24(1):24-32.
127. Topical application of complement C3 in collagen formulation increases early wound healing. Sinno H, etal., J Dermatolog Treat. 2013 Apr;24(2):141-7. doi: 10.3109/09546634.2011.631977. Epub 2011 Nov 21.
128. C3 R102G polymorphism increases risk of age-related macular degeneration. Spencer KL, etal., Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Jun 15;17(12):1821-4. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddn075. Epub 2008 Mar 6.
129. Activation of complement C3, C5, and C9 genes in tumors treated by photodynamic therapy. Stott B and Korbelik M, Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2007 May;56(5):649-58. Epub 2006 Sep 1.
130. Complement Inhibition Alleviates Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury. Sun S, etal., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011 Mar 18.
131. Estrogen regulation of tissue-specific expression of complement C3. Sundstrom SA, etal., J Biol Chem 1989 Oct 5;264(28):16941-7.
132. Redundant and alternative roles for activating Fc receptors and complement in an antibody-dependent model of autoimmune vitiligo. Trcka J, etal., Immunity. 2002 Jun;16(6):861-8.
133. Replication of genetic association studies in asthma and related phenotypes. Undarmaa S, etal., J Hum Genet. 2010 Jun;55(6):342-9. Epub 2010 Apr 16.
134. Complement component C3 functions as an embryotrophic factor in early postimplantation rat embryos. Usami M, etal., Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54(8-9):1277-85.
135. The metabolic syndrome in relation to complement component 3 and postprandial lipemia in patients from an outpatient lipid clinic and healthy volunteers. van Oostrom AJ, etal., Atherosclerosis. 2007 Jan;190(1):167-73. Epub 2006 Feb 20.
136. Circulating immune complexes and complement levels in hemophilic children. Verroust F, etal., J Clin Lab Immunol. 1981 Sep;6(2):127-30.
137. Cutting edge: myeloid complement C3 enhances the humoral response to peripheral viral infection. Verschoor A, etal., J Immunol. 2001 Sep 1;167(5):2446-51.
138. [Changes of the complement system in myelodysplastic syndromes]. Villaescusa Blanco R, etal., Sangre (Barc). 1998 Jun;43(3):210-2.
139. The complement factor C5a contributes to pathology in a rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Woodruff TM, etal., J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15;181(12):8727-34.
140. Cellular and humoral immune responses in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy in NOD mice. Xiao X, etal., J Autoimmun. 2009 Mar;32(2):85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2008.12.003. Epub 2009 Feb 5.
141. Role of Complement in a Rat Model of Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. Xu J, etal., J Immunol. 2018 Jun 15;200(12):4094-4101. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701716. Epub 2018 Apr 25.
142. A common complement C3 variant is associated with protection against wet age-related macular degeneration in a Japanese population. Yanagisawa S, etal., PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28847. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028847. Epub 2011 Dec 12.
143. A new mouse model of autoimmune ocular myasthenia gravis. Yang H, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Nov;48(11):5101-11.
144. CD36 deficiency rescues lipotoxic cardiomyopathy. Yang J, etal., Circ Res. 2007 Apr 27;100(8):1208-17. Epub 2007 Mar 15.
145. Complement 3 activates the KLF5 gene in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Yao EH, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008 Mar 7;367(2):468-73. Epub 2008 Jan 4.
146. Prostaglandin I2 plays a key role in zymosan-induced mouse pleurisy. Yuhki K, etal., J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 May;325(2):601-9. Epub 2008 Feb 6.
147. A complex role for complement in allergic asthma. Zhang X and Kohl J, Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2010 Mar;6(2):269-77.
148. Viral and host factors related to the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Zhang X, etal., Nature. 2020 May 20. pii: 10.1038/s41586-020-2355-0. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2355-0.
149. Brain edema after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats: the role of inflammation. Zhang X, etal., Neurol India. 2006 Dec;54(4):402-7.
150. Cardiospecific CD36 suppression by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference prevents cardiac hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction in high-fat-diet induced obese mice. Zhang Y, etal., Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2015 Jun 3;14:69. doi: 10.1186/s12933-015-0234-z.
151. Complement factor B is the downstream effector of TLRs and plays an important role in a mouse model of severe sepsis. Zou L, etal., J Immunol. 2013 Dec 1;191(11):5625-35. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301903. Epub 2013 Oct 23.
152. Protective effects of Ephedra sinica extract on blood-brain barrier integrity and neurological function correlate with complement C3 reduction after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. Zuo S, etal., Neurosci Lett. 2015 Nov 16;609:216-22. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2015.10.056. Epub 2015 Oct 27.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:309768   PMID:8889548   PMID:9059512   PMID:9555951   PMID:9688553   PMID:10432298   PMID:10825534   PMID:11901193   PMID:15611275   PMID:15833747   PMID:16034134   PMID:16452172  
PMID:16502470   PMID:18083105   PMID:18292556   PMID:18947875   PMID:19285573   PMID:19302245   PMID:19411110   PMID:19710459   PMID:20199584   PMID:20864665   PMID:21362503   PMID:22183312  
PMID:22438044   PMID:22516433   PMID:22537900   PMID:22632727   PMID:22768796   PMID:23012479   PMID:23181358   PMID:23376485   PMID:23487775   PMID:23533145   PMID:23580065   PMID:23613499  
PMID:23713944   PMID:24006456   PMID:24705166   PMID:25284781   PMID:25645918   PMID:26316108   PMID:26687560   PMID:28057640   PMID:28582497   PMID:29476059   PMID:30256128   PMID:31070083  
PMID:31654641   PMID:32617860  


Comparative Map Data
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCr892,174,412 - 2,201,339 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.292,087,437 - 2,114,366 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl92,087,437 - 2,114,429 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
UTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx92,515,463 - 2,542,310 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRUTH_Rnor_SHR_Utx
UTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.097,864,836 - 7,891,685 (-)NCBIRnor_SHRSPUTH_Rnor_SHRSP_BbbUtx_1.0
UTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.096,820,692 - 6,847,542 (-)NCBIRnor_WKYUTH_Rnor_WKY_Bbb_1.0
Rnor_6.099,721,137 - 9,747,084 (+)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl99,721,105 - 9,747,167 (+)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.098,728,465 - 8,754,412 (+)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
Celera96,407,133 - 6,432,968 (+)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map9q11NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38196,677,704 - 6,720,650 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl196,677,704 - 6,730,562 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37196,677,715 - 6,720,661 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36196,628,846 - 6,671,662 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Build 34196,628,877 - 6,671,660NCBI
Celera196,619,402 - 6,662,926 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map19p13.3NCBI
HuRef196,440,030 - 6,483,146 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1196,678,095 - 6,720,521 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0196,667,334 - 6,710,056 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm391757,510,967 - 57,535,136 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl1757,510,970 - 57,535,136 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm381757,203,967 - 57,228,136 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl1757,203,970 - 57,228,136 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv371757,343,396 - 57,367,559 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv361756,889,309 - 56,913,426 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera1761,551,995 - 61,576,136 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map17DNCBI
cM Map1729.72NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_0049554952,796,663 - 2,824,697 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_0049554952,796,601 - 2,824,233 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v22011,089,251 - 11,133,964 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan11910,314,594 - 10,360,037 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0195,708,211 - 5,753,178 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1196,629,240 - 6,674,786 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl196,629,287 - 6,674,699 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.12053,566,226 - 53,598,365 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl2053,566,261 - 53,598,761 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha2053,314,550 - 53,347,112 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02054,220,548 - 54,253,547 (+)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
ROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl2054,219,154 - 54,438,066 (+)EnsemblROS_Cfam_1.0 Ensembl
UMICH_Zoey_3.12053,287,896 - 53,320,436 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.02053,735,894 - 53,768,908 (+)NCBIUNSW_CanFamBas_1.0
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.02053,965,350 - 53,997,908 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_024405118213,824,886 - 213,849,048 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0NW_0049365883,985,732 - 4,023,221 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl272,431,212 - 72,472,228 (+)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.1272,431,470 - 72,471,622 (+)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.2272,762,013 - 72,820,437 (+)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
Sscrofa10.2272,950,572 - 72,957,968 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
Pig Cytomap2qNCBI
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.166,250,422 - 6,289,264 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_0236660811,706,107 - 1,746,127 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_0046248283,770,221 - 3,797,946 (-)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_0046248283,773,816 - 3,798,077 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2


Variants in C3
172 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:210
Count of miRNA genes:87
Interacting mature miRNAs:91
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000073042, ENSRNOT00000075494
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.

QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
10054141Gmadr4Adrenal mass QTL 42.450.0074adrenal gland mass (VT:0010420)both adrenal glands wet weight (CMO:0000164)9114209783Rat
70226Eae4Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis QTL 4nervous system integrity trait (VT:0010566)experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis incidence/prevalence measurement (CMO:0001046)9125661317Rat
9589055Scfw5Subcutaneous fat weight QTL 55.550.001subcutaneous adipose mass (VT:1000472)abdominal subcutaneous fat pad weight (CMO:0002069)9137999212Rat
7411592Foco8Food consumption QTL 87.40.001eating behavior trait (VT:0001431)feed conversion ratio (CMO:0001312)9137999212Rat
9589158Gluco65Glucose level QTL 656.820.001blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)plasma glucose level (CMO:0000042)9137999212Rat
1300124Cm4Cardiac mass QTL 43.55heart mass (VT:0007028)heart weight to body weight ratio (CMO:0000074)9140594091Rat
1298088Edpm11Estrogen-dependent pituitary mass QTL 112.5pituitary gland mass (VT:0010496)pituitary gland wet weight (CMO:0000853)9143718459Rat
1641911Alcrsp13Alcohol response QTL 13response to alcohol trait (VT:0010489)brain neurotensin receptor 1 density (CMO:0002068)9143718459Rat
10054125Srcrt7Stress Responsive Cort QTL 73.330.0011blood corticosterone amount (VT:0005345)plasma corticosterone level (CMO:0001173)9187073594Rat
1331757Cdexp1CD45RC expression in CD8 T cells QTL 14.3CD8-positive T cell quantity (VT:0008077)blood CD45RC(high) CD8 T cell count to CD45RC(low) CD8 T cell count ratio (CMO:0001990)9102453767509080Rat
1354650Despr5Despair related QTL 54.010.0017locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of time spent in voluntary immobility (CMO:0001043)9125408446254084Rat
2303559Gluco54Glucose level QTL 542blood glucose amount (VT:0000188)blood glucose level (CMO:0000046)9125408446254084Rat

Markers in Region
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.292,115,495 - 2,115,641 (-)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.099,719,862 - 9,720,007NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.098,727,190 - 8,727,335UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera96,405,858 - 6,406,003UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map9q11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.292,087,529 - 2,087,831 (-)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.099,746,690 - 9,746,991NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.098,754,018 - 8,754,319UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera96,432,574 - 6,432,875UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map9q11UniSTS
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.292,087,244 - 2,087,522 (-)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.099,746,999 - 9,747,276NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.098,754,327 - 8,754,604UniSTSRnor5.0
Celera96,432,883 - 6,433,160UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map9q11UniSTS

Genetic Models
This gene C3 is modified in the following models/strains:


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High 27 27 27 1
Medium 1 22 14 13 14 2 2 5 2 7 11 2
Low 2 26 8 6 6 7 26 29 26 6
Below cutoff 17 2 41 4 7


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000073042   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000066885
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl92,087,437 - 2,114,366 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl99,721,105 - 9,747,167 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000075494   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000066934
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl92,087,437 - 2,114,366 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl99,721,137 - 9,747,077 (+)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000109251   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000097996
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl92,087,437 - 2,114,429 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: NM_016994   ⟹   NP_058690
RefSeq Status: VALIDATED
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr892,174,412 - 2,201,339 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.292,087,437 - 2,114,366 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.099,721,137 - 9,747,084 (+)NCBI
Rnor_5.098,728,465 - 8,754,412 (+)NCBI
Celera96,407,133 - 6,432,968 (+)RGD
Protein Sequences
Protein RefSeqs NP_058690 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
GenBank Protein AAA40837 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  AAG00532 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  CAA36716 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
  EDL83571 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
Ensembl Protein ENSRNOP00000066885.2
GenBank Protein P01026 (Get FASTA)   NCBI Sequence Viewer  
RefSeq Acc Id: NP_058690   ⟸   NM_016994
- Peptide Label: precursor
- UniProtKB: Q9QV58 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q9QV57 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   Q9ET19 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   P01026 (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot),   M0RBJ7 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6KQR3 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000066885   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000073042
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000066934   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000075494
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000097996   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000109251
Protein Domains
Anaphylatoxin-like   NTR

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-P01026-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold P01026 1-1663 view protein structure


eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

RGD ID:13696435
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R6959
Type:multiple initiation site
Description:complement C3
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.099,721,123 - 9,721,183EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:2232 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-28483 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000046834 Ensembl, ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000073042.4 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000075494.2 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000109251.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Gene3D-CATH UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Anaphylotoxins (complement system) UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro A-macroglobulin_rcpt-bd UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A-macroglobulin_rcpt-bd_sf UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A2M_N_BRD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Alpha-macroglob_thiol-ester_cl UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Alpha-macroglobulin_TED UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Anaphylatoxin/fibulin UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Anaphylatoxin_comp_syst UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Anaphylatoxn_comp_syst_dom UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C3/4/5_MG1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C3_CUB1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C3_CUB2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Ig-like_fold UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Macroglobln_a2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MacrogloblnA2_CS UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MG2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MG3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MG4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Netrin_domain UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Netrin_module_non-TIMP UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  NTR_complement_C3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Terpenoid_cyclase/PrenylTrfase UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TIMP-like_OB-fold UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:24232 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR11412:SF81 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam A2M UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A2M_BRD UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A2M_recep UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ANATO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C3_CUB1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C3_CUB2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MG1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MG2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MG3 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  MG4 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  NTR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  TED_complement UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen C3 PhenoGen
  ANAPHYLATOXIN_1 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ANAPHYLATOXIN_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  NTR UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000046834 RatGTEx
SMART A2M UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A2M_N_2 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A2M_recep UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ANATO UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  C345C UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  Thiol-ester_cl UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Superfamily-SCOP SSF47686 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF48239 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF49410 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  SSF50242 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  CO3_RAT UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
UniProt Secondary Q9ET19 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q9QV57 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  Q9QV58 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2016-08-18 C3  complement C3  C3  complement component 3  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2002-06-10 C3  Complement component 3      Symbol and Name status set to approved 70586 APPROVED

RGD Curation Notes
Note Type Note Reference
gene_cellular_localization protein is secreted 634673
gene_homology 81 and 90% homologous to human and mouse 634673
gene_protein 180 kDa protein 634673
gene_regulation expression downregulated in ramified primary culture microglial cells, upregulated in primary culture microglial cells upon stimulation with serine and glycine or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 1299851
gene_regulation expression in uterine epithelial cells is upregulated by estradiol 634673