LRRK2 (leucine rich repeat kinase 2) - Rat Genome Database

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Gene: LRRK2 (leucine rich repeat kinase 2) Homo sapiens
Analyze
Symbol: LRRK2
Name: leucine rich repeat kinase 2
RGD ID: 1353141
HGNC Page HGNC
Description: Enables several functions, including GTP binding activity; cytoskeletal protein binding activity; and protein serine/threonine kinase activity. Involved in several processes, including protein phosphorylation; regulation of autophagy; and regulation of signal transduction. Acts upstream of or within negative regulation of GTPase activity and protein autophosphorylation. Located in several cellular components, including autophagosome; caveola neck; and cytoplasmic vesicle. Part of Wnt signalosome. Implicated in Crohn's disease; Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease 8; Parkinsonism; and cancer. Biomarker of Parkinson's disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; frontotemporal dementia; and rheumatoid arthritis.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Previously known as: augmented in rheumatoid arthritis 17; AURA17; DARDARIN; leucine-rich repeat kinase 2; leucine-rich repeat serine/threonine-protein kinase 2; PARK8; Parkinson disease (autosomal dominant) 8; RIPK7; ROCO2
RGD Orthologs
Mouse
Rat
Chinchilla
Bonobo
Dog
Squirrel
Pig
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Allele / Splice: See ClinVar data
Is Marker For: Strains:   SD-Tg(LRRK2*R1441C)268Rwm   SD-Tg(LRRK2*G2019S)418Rwm   SD-Tg(LRRK2)302Rwn  
Latest Assembly: GRCh38 - Human Genome Assembly GRCh38
Position:
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCh381240,224,997 - 40,369,285 (+)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl1240,196,744 - 40,369,285 (+)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh371240,618,799 - 40,763,087 (+)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 361238,905,081 - 39,049,354 (+)NCBINCBI36hg18NCBI36
Celera1239,422,059 - 39,566,110 (+)NCBI
Cytogenetic Map12q12NCBI
HuRef1237,646,624 - 37,790,676 (+)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_11240,584,126 - 40,728,194 (+)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.01240,177,355 - 40,321,422 (+)NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)
Model


Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
1,1-dichloroethene  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
3-methyladenine  (EXP)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (ISO)
acetamide  (ISO)
aflatoxin B1  (EXP)
Aflatoxin B2 alpha  (EXP)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP)
amphetamine  (ISO)
arsenite(3-)  (ISO)
bafilomycin A1  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
benzo[e]pyrene  (EXP)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
butanal  (EXP)
cadmium atom  (EXP)
carbon nanotube  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (EXP)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
cisplatin  (EXP)
clozapine  (EXP)
copper(II) sulfate  (EXP)
corticosterone  (ISO)
crocidolite asbestos  (ISO)
dimethylarsinic acid  (ISO)
dioxygen  (EXP)
dopamine  (EXP)
dorsomorphin  (EXP)
doxorubicin  (EXP)
endosulfan  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
ethyl methanesulfonate  (EXP)
fenamidone  (ISO)
folic acid  (ISO)
furan  (ISO)
gentamycin  (ISO)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
luteolin  (ISO)
maneb  (ISO)
manganese atom  (EXP)
manganese(0)  (EXP)
methapyrilene  (EXP)
methylarsonic acid  (ISO)
N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide  (ISO)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (EXP)
nickel atom  (EXP)
paracetamol  (EXP,ISO)
paraquat  (EXP,ISO)
pentanal  (EXP)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP)
permethrin  (ISO)
pirinixic acid  (EXP,ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP)
rotenone  (EXP,ISO)
SB 431542  (EXP)
sodium arsenate  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sulforaphane  (ISO)
sunitinib  (EXP)
thioacetamide  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (ISO)
trichostatin A  (EXP)
trimellitic anhydride  (ISO)
tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate  (EXP)
tungsten  (ISO)
valproic acid  (EXP)
zoledronic acid  (EXP)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
autophagy  (IEA)
calcium-mediated signaling  (IBA,IMP)
canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (TAS)
cell differentiation  (IEA)
cellular response to dopamine  (IMP)
cellular response to manganese ion  (IMP)
cellular response to organic cyclic compound  (IBA,IEA,ISO)
cellular response to oxidative stress  (IMP)
cellular response to starvation  (IMP)
determination of adult lifespan  (IMP)
endocytosis  (IGI,IMP)
endoplasmic reticulum organization  (IBA,IEA,IMP)
excitatory postsynaptic potential  (IEA,ISS)
exploration behavior  (IMP)
Golgi organization  (IBA,IEA,IMP,ISO)
GTP metabolic process  (IDA)
intracellular distribution of mitochondria  (IMP)
intracellular signal transduction  (IEA,ISS)
JNK cascade  (IDA)
locomotory exploration behavior  (IEA)
lysosome organization  (IMP)
MAPK cascade  (IDA)
mitochondrion localization  (IMP)
mitochondrion organization  (IBA,IMP)
negative regulation of autophagosome assembly  (IBA,IMP)
negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway  (IMP)
negative regulation of excitatory postsynaptic potential  (IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of GTPase activity  (IDA)
negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death  (IMP)
negative regulation of late endosome to lysosome transport  (TAS)
negative regulation of macroautophagy  (IMP)
negative regulation of neuron death  (IGI)
negative regulation of neuron projection development  (IEA,ISO)
negative regulation of peroxidase activity  (IEA)
negative regulation of protein binding  (IMP)
negative regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IEA,ISS)
negative regulation of protein processing  (IDA)
negative regulation of protein processing involved in protein targeting to mitochondrion  (IC)
negative regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion  (IDA)
negative regulation of thioredoxin peroxidase activity by peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation  (IDA)
neuromuscular junction development  (IMP)
neuron death  (IMP)
neuron projection arborization  (IEA,ISO)
neuron projection morphogenesis  (IBA,IMP)
olfactory bulb development  (IMP)
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation  (IDA)
peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation  (IDA,IMP)
phosphorylation  (IEA,IMP)
positive regulation of autophagy  (IBA,IEA,IMP,ISS)
positive regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (IGI)
positive regulation of cellular catabolic process  (IEA)
positive regulation of dopamine receptor signaling pathway  (IMP)
positive regulation of histone deacetylase activity  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of MAP kinase activity  (IC,IMP)
positive regulation of microglial cell activation  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of nitric-oxide synthase biosynthetic process  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of programmed cell death  (IDA)
positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process  (IEA,ISS)
positive regulation of protein autoubiquitination  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein binding  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein kinase activity  (IDA)
positive regulation of protein phosphorylation  (IDA,IMP)
positive regulation of protein ubiquitination  (IDA)
positive regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis  (IEA,ISO)
positive regulation of tumor necrosis factor production  (IEA,ISO)
protein autophosphorylation  (IDA,IMP)
protein dephosphorylation  (IEA)
protein import into nucleus  (IEA,ISO)
protein localization  (IEA,ISS)
protein localization to endoplasmic reticulum exit site  (IBA,IEA,IMP)
protein localization to mitochondrion  (TAS)
protein phosphorylation  (IBA,IDA,IEA,IMP)
reactive oxygen species metabolic process  (IMP)
regulation of autophagy  (IMP)
regulation of branching morphogenesis of a nerve  (IMP)
regulation of CAMKK-AMPK signaling cascade  (IMP)
regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (IBA,IEA,TAS)
regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis  (IBA,IEA,IMP,ISS)
regulation of dopamine receptor signaling pathway  (IBA,IEA,ISS)
regulation of ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of gene expression  (IEA,ISO)
regulation of kidney size  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of locomotion  (IMP)
regulation of lysosomal lumen pH  (IMP)
regulation of membrane potential  (IBA,IMP)
regulation of mitochondrial depolarization  (IMP)
regulation of mitochondrial fission  (TAS)
regulation of neuroblast proliferation  (IMP)
regulation of neuron death  (IMP)
regulation of neuron maturation  (IMP)
regulation of protein kinase A signaling  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of protein stability  (IMP)
regulation of proteolysis  (IEA)
regulation of retrograde transport, endosome to Golgi  (IBA,IGI)
regulation of signal transduction  (IEA)
regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic  (IEA,ISS)
regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis  (IEA)
regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis  (IMP)
regulation of synaptic vesicle transport  (IBA,IEA,ISS,TAS)
response to oxidative stress  (IMP)
signal transduction  (IBA)
spermatogenesis  (IEA,ISO)
striatum development  (IEA,ISO)
tangential migration from the subventricular zone to the olfactory bulb  (IMP)
Wnt signalosome assembly  (IPI,TAS)

Cellular Component

Molecular Pathway Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Human Phenotype
Abnormal autonomic nervous system physiology  (IAGP)
Abnormality of higher mental function  (IAGP)
Abnormality of the sense of smell  (IAGP)
Agitation  (IAGP)
Akinesia  (IAGP)
Anxiety  (IAGP)
Apathy  (IAGP)
Autosomal dominant inheritance  (IAGP)
Bradykinesia  (IAGP)
Cerebral cortical atrophy  (IAGP)
Chronic constipation  (IAGP)
Color vision defect  (IAGP)
Constipation  (IAGP)
Dementia  (IAGP)
Depression  (IAGP)
Diarrhea  (IAGP)
Diplopia  (IAGP)
Dyskinesia  (IAGP)
Dysphagia  (IAGP)
Dystonia  (IAGP)
Female sexual dysfunction  (IAGP)
Frequent falls  (IAGP)
Frontal lobe dementia  (IAGP)
Frontotemporal dementia  (IAGP)
Gait disturbance  (IAGP)
Gait imbalance  (IAGP)
Gastroparesis  (IAGP)
Gliosis  (IAGP)
Hallucinations  (IAGP)
Hyperreflexia  (IAGP)
Hypomimic face  (IAGP)
Hyposmia  (IAGP)
Impaired social interactions  (IAGP)
Impulsivity  (IAGP)
Incomplete penetrance  (IAGP)
Insomnia  (IAGP)
Lewy bodies  (IAGP)
Low frustration tolerance  (IAGP)
Male sexual dysfunction  (IAGP)
Monotonic speech  (IAGP)
Muscle spasm  (IAGP)
Nausea  (IAGP)
Neoplasm  (IAGP)
Orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic dysfunction  (IAGP)
Panic attack  (IAGP)
Parkinsonism  (IAGP)
Parkinsonism with favorable response to dopaminergic medication  (IAGP)
Postural instability  (IAGP)
Resting tremor  (IAGP)
Restless legs  (IAGP)
Rigidity  (IAGP)
Schizophrenia  (IAGP)
Short attention span  (IAGP)
Shuffling gait  (IAGP)
Sleep disturbance  (IAGP)
Slowly progressive  (IAGP)
Spastic/hyperactive bladder  (IAGP)
Spasticity  (IAGP)
Spinocerebellar atrophy  (IAGP)
Substantia nigra gliosis  (IAGP)
Tremor  (IAGP)
Visual hallucinations  (IAGP)
Weight loss  (IAGP)
References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Novel pathogenic LRRK2 p.Asn1437His substitution in familial Parkinson's disease. Aasly JO, etal., Mov Disord. 2010 Oct 15;25(13):2156-63.
2. Genes associated with Parkinson's disease: regulation of autophagy and beyond. Beilina A and Cookson MR, J Neurochem. 2015 Jul 30. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13266.
3. Clinical and brain imaging characteristics in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated PD and asymptomatic mutation carriers. Brockmann K, etal., Mov Disord. 2011 Oct 11. doi: 10.1002/mds.23991.
4. LRRK2 R1398H polymorphism is associated with decreased risk of Parkinson's disease in a Han Chinese population. Chen L, etal., Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011 May;17(4):291-2. Epub 2010 Dec 14.
5. Abrogation of a-synuclein-mediated dopaminergic neurodegeneration in LRRK2-deficient rats. Daher JP, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jun 24;111(25):9289-94. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1403215111. Epub 2014 Jun 9.
6. Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson's disease. Hunn BH, etal., Trends Neurosci. 2015 Mar;38(3):178-88. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2014.12.009. Epub 2015 Jan 29.
7. Inhibitors of leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 protect against models of Parkinson's disease. Lee BD, etal., Nat Med. 2010 Sep;16(9):998-1000. Epub 2010 Aug 22.
8. Lrrk2 S1647T and BDNF V66M interact with environmental factors to increase risk of Parkinson's disease. Lin CH, etal., Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2011 Feb;17(2):84-8. Epub 2010 Dec 16.
9. The kinase LRRK2 is a regulator of the transcription factor NFAT that modulates the severity of inflammatory bowel disease. Liu Z, etal., Nat Immunol. 2011 Oct 9. doi: 10.1038/ni.2113.
10. Lrrk2 and chronic inflammation are linked to pallido-ponto-nigral degeneration caused by the N279K tau mutation. Miklossy J, etal., Acta Neuropathol. 2007 Sep;114(3):243-54. Epub 2007 Jul 17.
11. Gait alterations in healthy carriers of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation. Mirelman A, etal., Ann Neurol. 2011 Jan;69(1):193-7. doi: 10.1002/ana.22165.
12. Isolation and expression profiling of genes upregulated in bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Nakamura N, etal., DNA Res. 2006 Aug 31;13(4):169-83.
13. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
14. KEGG Annotation Import Pipeline Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
15. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
16. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
17. RGD HPO Phenotype Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for human HPO-to-gene-to-disease annotations
18. Penetrance in Parkinson's disease related to the LRRK2 R1441G mutation in the Basque country (Spain). Ruiz-Martinez J, etal., Mov Disord. 2010 Oct 30;25(14):2340-5.
19. LRRK2 G2019S mutations are associated with an increased cancer risk in Parkinson disease. Saunders-Pullman R, etal., Mov Disord. 2010 Nov 15;25(15):2536-41.
20. Comprehensive mutational analysis of LRRK2 reveals variants supporting association with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. Seki N, etal., J Hum Genet. 2011 Sep;56(9):671-5. doi: 10.1038/jhg.2011.79. Epub 2011 Jul 28.
21. Differential gene expression in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Shtilbans A, etal., Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2011 Jul;12(4):250-6. Epub 2011 Mar 4.
22. High frequency and reduced penetrance of lRRK2 g2019S mutation among Parkinson's disease patients in Cantabria (Spain). Sierra M, etal., Mov Disord. 2011 Sep 27. doi: 10.1002/mds.23965.
23. LRRK2 G2019S mutation does not contribute to Parkinson's disease in South India. Vijayan B, etal., Neurol India. 2011 Mar-Apr;59(2):157-60.
24. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum in dopaminergic neurons and accumulates in the core of Lewy bodies in Parkinson disease. Vitte J, etal., J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010 Sep;69(9):959-72.
25. Mitochondrial dysfunction driven by the LRRK2-mediated pathway is associated with loss of Purkinje cells and motor coordination deficits in diabetic rat model. Yang S, etal., Cell Death Dis. 2014 May 8;5:e1217. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2014.184.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:11891824   PMID:12213963   PMID:12477932   PMID:14691730   PMID:14702039   PMID:15146197   PMID:15541308   PMID:15541309   PMID:15680455   PMID:15680456   PMID:15680457   PMID:15726496  
PMID:15732108   PMID:15811454   PMID:15852371   PMID:15880653   PMID:15884041   PMID:15925109   PMID:15929036   PMID:15955578   PMID:15955629   PMID:16001413   PMID:16081470   PMID:16087219  
PMID:16102903   PMID:16102999   PMID:16115731   PMID:16145815   PMID:16149095   PMID:16157901   PMID:16157908   PMID:16157909   PMID:16172858   PMID:16240353   PMID:16247070   PMID:16250030  
PMID:16251215   PMID:16254973   PMID:16269443   PMID:16269541   PMID:16272164   PMID:16272257   PMID:16275903   PMID:16298482   PMID:16321986   PMID:16333314   PMID:16352719   PMID:16436781  
PMID:16436782   PMID:16437559   PMID:16467219   PMID:16511860   PMID:16532471   PMID:16533964   PMID:16602113   PMID:16614029   PMID:16616379   PMID:16622854   PMID:16622859   PMID:16632201  
PMID:16633828   PMID:16643318   PMID:16671078   PMID:16728648   PMID:16750377   PMID:16750929   PMID:16758483   PMID:16781064   PMID:16817197   PMID:16822348   PMID:16865326   PMID:16928343  
PMID:16939701   PMID:16966498   PMID:16966501   PMID:16966502   PMID:16966681   PMID:16980962   PMID:16991141   PMID:17017533   PMID:17017534   PMID:17019612   PMID:17020475   PMID:17044089  
PMID:17050822   PMID:17052850   PMID:17060595   PMID:17078063   PMID:17080443   PMID:17083102   PMID:17095157   PMID:17097110   PMID:17114044   PMID:17115391   PMID:17116211   PMID:17120249  
PMID:17149721   PMID:17151837   PMID:17160203   PMID:17179858   PMID:17187665   PMID:17200152   PMID:17215492   PMID:17216639   PMID:17222106   PMID:17222580   PMID:17225181   PMID:17230458  
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PMID:17394548   PMID:17395370   PMID:17400507   PMID:17409193   PMID:17419834   PMID:17427941   PMID:17433753   PMID:17440812   PMID:17442267   PMID:17447891   PMID:17469194   PMID:17470139  
PMID:17482357   PMID:17512502   PMID:17523199   PMID:17540608   PMID:17584768   PMID:17596714   PMID:17611037   PMID:17614198   PMID:17622782   PMID:17625107   PMID:17659642   PMID:17706965  
PMID:17720280   PMID:17803032   PMID:17803033   PMID:17804834   PMID:17846883   PMID:17868389   PMID:17880562   PMID:17914064   PMID:17938369   PMID:17960808   PMID:17971075   PMID:17978862  
PMID:17999435   PMID:18045479   PMID:18097165   PMID:18097693   PMID:18098275   PMID:18182054   PMID:18197194   PMID:18201193   PMID:18201824   PMID:18211709   PMID:18213618   PMID:18214993  
PMID:18230735   PMID:18265005   PMID:18272292   PMID:18316234   PMID:18322385   PMID:18322396   PMID:18337586   PMID:18338801   PMID:18353371   PMID:18367605   PMID:18378882   PMID:18379513  
PMID:18397888   PMID:18412265   PMID:18434642   PMID:18435766   PMID:18445495   PMID:18450497   PMID:18464276   PMID:18484993   PMID:18486522   PMID:18523722   PMID:18523869   PMID:18539534  
PMID:18539535   PMID:18541113   PMID:18544747   PMID:18556235   PMID:18587394   PMID:18602856   PMID:18617409   PMID:18621566   PMID:18634852   PMID:18644660   PMID:18665323   PMID:18666856  
PMID:18675914   PMID:18701920   PMID:18704525   PMID:18716801   PMID:18718805   PMID:18752982   PMID:18781329   PMID:18804399   PMID:18805725   PMID:18809839   PMID:18848304   PMID:18923807  
PMID:18927607   PMID:18936941   PMID:18952485   PMID:18973254   PMID:18973807   PMID:18980856   PMID:18981379   PMID:18986508   PMID:19001729   PMID:19006185   PMID:19020907   PMID:19021752  
PMID:19025767   PMID:19029519   PMID:19041274   PMID:19056867   PMID:19065525   PMID:19076219   PMID:19172321   PMID:19176810   PMID:19196961   PMID:19204172   PMID:19205068   PMID:19224617  
PMID:19283415   PMID:19302196   PMID:19308469   PMID:19330201   PMID:19343804   PMID:19353692   PMID:19357115   PMID:19397894   PMID:19405094   PMID:19412725   PMID:19458969   PMID:19472409  
PMID:19473361   PMID:19489756   PMID:19513331   PMID:19527940   PMID:19535993   PMID:19536328   PMID:19538213   PMID:19545277   PMID:19559761   PMID:19570025   PMID:19576176   PMID:19625296  
PMID:19625511   PMID:19640773   PMID:19640926   PMID:19672984   PMID:19680143   PMID:19692353   PMID:19699188   PMID:19712061   PMID:19714762   PMID:19726410   PMID:19733152   PMID:19735093  
PMID:19741132   PMID:19756366   PMID:19760754   PMID:19769964   PMID:19770575   PMID:19800393   PMID:19804413   PMID:19822953   PMID:19824698   PMID:19826009   PMID:19833102   PMID:19847307  
PMID:19854095   PMID:19878656   PMID:19879329   PMID:19890007   PMID:19912990   PMID:19915575   PMID:19915576   PMID:19945904   PMID:20001906   PMID:20004703   PMID:20008657   PMID:20018409  
PMID:20018961   PMID:20041156   PMID:20067578   PMID:20074637   PMID:20090955   PMID:20096956   PMID:20108944   PMID:20144646   PMID:20173330   PMID:20182943   PMID:20186690   PMID:20197411  
PMID:20197701   PMID:20232069   PMID:20301387   PMID:20301402   PMID:20379614   PMID:20382224   PMID:20386743   PMID:20413974   PMID:20443975   PMID:20473834   PMID:20483373   PMID:20506312  
PMID:20515039   PMID:20544233   PMID:20571044   PMID:20595391   PMID:20626563   PMID:20629711   PMID:20642453   PMID:20659558   PMID:20669299   PMID:20671708   PMID:20673920   PMID:20697102  
PMID:20711177   PMID:20721910   PMID:20721913   PMID:20722494   PMID:20727385   PMID:20818658   PMID:20850369   PMID:20876399   PMID:20881132   PMID:20921534   PMID:20933457   PMID:20939082  
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