Ano10 (anoctamin 10) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message



Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: Ano10 (anoctamin 10) Rattus norvegicus
Analyze
Symbol: Ano10
Name: anoctamin 10
RGD ID: 1308260
Description: Predicted to enable calcium-activated cation channel activity and intracellularly calcium-gated chloride channel activity. Predicted to be involved in chloride transmembrane transport. Predicted to be located in intracellular membrane-bounded organelle. Predicted to be active in plasma membrane. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 10. Orthologous to human ANO10 (anoctamin 10); INTERACTS WITH 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine; 6-propyl-2-thiouracil; aconitine.
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: MODEL
Previously known as: anoctamin-10; LOC301111; RGD1308260; similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10375; Tmem16k; transmembrane protein 16K
RGD Orthologs
Human
Mouse
Chinchilla
Bonobo
Dog
Squirrel
Pig
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Orthologs
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: mRatBN7.2 - mRatBN7.2 Assembly
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCr88130,719,177 - 130,838,243 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.28121,841,664 - 121,960,739 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8121,841,665 - 121,962,670 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
Rnor_6.08130,812,941 - 130,931,021 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl8130,813,214 - 130,930,990 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.08129,980,663 - 130,096,581 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.48121,978,317 - 122,095,649 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.18121,998,529 - 122,098,310 (-)NCBI
Celera8120,965,429 - 121,079,775 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8q32NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)
Model


Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(1->4)-beta-D-glucan  (ISO)
1,2-dimethylhydrazine  (ISO)
2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (EXP,ISO)
4-hydroxyphenyl retinamide  (ISO)
6-propyl-2-thiouracil  (EXP)
aconitine  (EXP)
aflatoxin B1  (ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (ISO)
alpha-Zearalanol  (EXP)
amitrole  (EXP)
amphetamine  (EXP)
aristolochic acid A  (ISO)
benzo[a]pyrene  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
Bisphenol B  (ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
bortezomib  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (EXP,ISO)
calcitriol  (ISO)
CGP 52608  (ISO)
choline  (ISO)
cisplatin  (ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
cyclosporin A  (ISO)
deguelin  (ISO)
dextran sulfate  (ISO)
Dibutyl phosphate  (ISO)
dibutyl phthalate  (ISO)
doxorubicin  (ISO)
ethanol  (ISO)
fenpyroximate  (ISO)
finasteride  (EXP)
fipronil  (EXP)
flutamide  (EXP)
folic acid  (ISO)
formaldehyde  (ISO)
gentamycin  (EXP)
isotretinoin  (ISO)
L-methionine  (ISO)
leflunomide  (EXP)
N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide  (EXP)
nefazodone  (EXP)
p-toluidine  (EXP)
paracetamol  (EXP)
PCB138  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (ISO)
perfluorooctanoic acid  (EXP)
permethrin  (EXP)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
picoxystrobin  (ISO)
propiconazole  (EXP)
rotenone  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (ISO)
sodium dichromate  (ISO)
sulfadimethoxine  (EXP)
testosterone  (ISO)
tetrachloromethane  (EXP)
thioacetamide  (EXP)
titanium dioxide  (ISO)
trichloroethene  (EXP)
triphenyl phosphate  (ISO)
triptonide  (ISO)
tunicamycin  (ISO)
urethane  (ISO)
valproic acid  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process

Cellular Component

References

References - curated
# Reference Title Reference Citation
1. Phylogenetic-based propagation of functional annotations within the Gene Ontology consortium. Gaudet P, etal., Brief Bioinform. 2011 Sep;12(5):449-62. doi: 10.1093/bib/bbr042. Epub 2011 Aug 27.
2. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
3. ClinVar Automated Import and Annotation Pipeline RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
4. Data Import for Chemical-Gene Interactions RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:19946888   PMID:20056604   PMID:21984732   PMID:22075693   PMID:22946059   PMID:23532839   PMID:27838374  


Genomics

Comparative Map Data
Ano10
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCr88130,719,177 - 130,838,243 (-)NCBIGRCr8
mRatBN7.28121,841,664 - 121,960,739 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2mRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8121,841,665 - 121,962,670 (-)EnsemblmRatBN7.2 Ensembl
Rnor_6.08130,812,941 - 130,931,021 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl8130,813,214 - 130,930,990 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.08129,980,663 - 130,096,581 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.48121,978,317 - 122,095,649 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4RGSC_v3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.18121,998,529 - 122,098,310 (-)NCBI
Celera8120,965,429 - 121,079,775 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map8q32NCBI
ANO10
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCh38343,365,848 - 43,691,594 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38.p14 Ensembl343,354,859 - 43,691,594 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37343,407,340 - 43,733,086 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36343,382,822 - 43,638,564 (-)NCBINCBI36Build 36hg18NCBI36
Celera343,345,314 - 43,601,240 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map3p22.1-p21.33NCBI
HuRef343,450,609 - 43,706,740 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1343,357,824 - 43,613,711 (-)NCBICHM1_1
T2T-CHM13v2.0343,381,160 - 43,707,182 (-)NCBIT2T-CHM13v2.0
Ano10
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
GRCm399122,004,958 - 122,123,440 (-)NCBIGRCm39GRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl9122,004,940 - 122,123,489 (-)EnsemblGRCm39 Ensembl
GRCm389122,175,874 - 122,294,444 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl9122,175,874 - 122,294,423 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv379122,084,997 - 122,203,492 (-)NCBIGRCm37MGSCv37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv369122,024,577 - 122,143,072 (-)NCBIMGSCv36mm8
Celera9122,648,694 - 122,763,329 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map9F4NCBI
cM Map972.94NCBI
Ano10
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495542027,572,561 - 27,696,269 (+)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495542027,572,561 - 27,682,099 (+)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
ANO10
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
NHGRI_mPanPan1-v2243,312,920 - 43,638,518 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1-v2
NHGRI_mPanPan1343,317,672 - 43,643,283 (-)NCBINHGRI_mPanPan1
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0343,255,858 - 43,581,466 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0Mhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
PanPan1.1344,317,137 - 44,571,627 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl344,317,708 - 44,555,535 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
ANO10
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
CanFam3.1232,678,659 - 2,900,490 (+)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl232,678,615 - 2,902,431 (+)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha232,716,093 - 2,944,138 (+)NCBIDog10K_Boxer_Tasha
ROS_Cfam_1.02317,606 - 102,144 (-)NCBIROS_Cfam_1.0
UMICH_Zoey_3.1232,767,431 - 2,995,700 (+)NCBIUMICH_Zoey_3.1
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.0232,866,593 - 3,094,486 (+)NCBIUU_Cfam_GSD_1.0
Ano10
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HiC_Itri_2NW_024405118199,374,200 - 199,547,712 (+)NCBIHiC_Itri_2
SpeTri2.0 EnsemblNW_0049366951,726,141 - 1,900,040 (+)EnsemblSpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0 Ensembl
SpeTri2.0NW_0049366951,726,380 - 1,904,399 (+)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
ANO10
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl1326,734,107 - 27,006,539 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.11326,734,098 - 27,006,163 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa10.21329,629,839 - 29,834,049 (-)NCBISscrofa10.2Sscrofa10.2susScr3
ANO10
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
ChlSab1.1224,807,612 - 5,050,437 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1chlSab2
ChlSab1.1 Ensembl224,805,218 - 5,050,158 (-)EnsemblChlSab1.1ChlSab1.1 EnsemblchlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_023666041162,139,357 - 162,388,553 (+)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0Vero_WHO_p1.0
Ano10
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
JBrowseNCBIUCSCEnsembl
HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblNW_00462473076,500,179 - 76,638,500 (+)EnsemblHetGla_female_1.0HetGla_female_1.0 EnsemblhetGla2
HetGla 1.0NW_00462473076,500,200 - 76,650,802 (+)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0HetGla 1.0hetGla2

Variants

.
Variants in Ano10
283 total Variants
miRNA Target Status

Predicted Target Of
Summary Value
Count of predictions:88
Count of miRNA genes:81
Interacting mature miRNAs:85
Transcripts:ENSRNOT00000035371
Prediction methods:Microtar, Miranda, Rnahybrid, Targetscan
Result types:miRGate_prediction

The detailed report is available here: Full Report CSV TAB Printer

miRNA Target Status data imported from miRGate (http://mirgate.bioinfo.cnio.es/).
For more information about miRGate, see PMID:25858286 or access the full paper here.


QTLs in Region (mRatBN7.2)
The following QTLs overlap with this region.    Full Report CSV TAB Printer Gviewer
RGD IDSymbolNameLODP ValueTraitSub TraitChrStartStopSpecies
738011Anxrr9Anxiety related response QTL 96.1exploratory behavior trait (VT:0010471)number of entries into a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000960)893535351123900184Rat
1358903Bp252Blood pressure QTL 25270.0001arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)893965141123900184Rat
738014Anxrr15Anxiety related response QTL 153.60.005locomotor behavior trait (VT:0001392)amount of experiment time spent in a discrete space in an experimental apparatus (CMO:0000958)895718998123900184Rat
2300182Bmd56Bone mineral density QTL 565.4femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)895718998123900184Rat
1554321Bmd3Bone mineral density QTL 37.90.0001femur mineral mass (VT:0010011)volumetric bone mineral density (CMO:0001553)840952565123900184Rat
1358893Bp263Blood pressure QTL 2635.01arterial blood pressure trait (VT:2000000)mean arterial blood pressure (CMO:0000009)893965141123900184Rat
61437Cia6Collagen induced arthritis QTL 6joint integrity trait (VT:0010548)joint inflammation composite score (CMO:0000919)882460758122812818Rat

Markers in Region
RH132478  
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
mRatBN7.28121,841,670 - 121,841,865 (+)MAPPERmRatBN7.2
Rnor_6.08130,812,948 - 130,813,142NCBIRnor6.0
Rnor_5.08129,980,670 - 129,980,864UniSTSRnor5.0
RGSC_v3.48121,978,328 - 121,978,522UniSTSRGSC3.4
Celera8120,965,436 - 120,965,630UniSTS
RH 3.4 Map81263.7UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map8q32UniSTS


Expression


RNA-SEQ Expression
High: > 1000 TPM value   Medium: Between 11 and 1000 TPM
Low: Between 0.5 and 10 TPM   Below Cutoff: < 0.5 TPM

alimentary part of gastrointestinal system circulatory system endocrine system exocrine system hemolymphoid system hepatobiliary system integumental system musculoskeletal system nervous system renal system reproductive system respiratory system appendage
High
Medium 3 43 41 25 19 25 8 11 72 35 41 11 8
Low 16 16 16 2
Below cutoff

Sequence


RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000035371   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000029074
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8121,841,665 - 121,958,071 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl8130,813,214 - 130,930,990 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000101819   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000084152
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8121,934,252 - 121,962,670 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000102632   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000084553
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8121,909,971 - 121,958,105 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000110539   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000082654
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8121,841,665 - 121,960,767 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOT00000119627   ⟹   ENSRNOP00000087856
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl8121,841,665 - 121,958,071 (-)Ensembl
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_017596162   ⟹   XP_017451651
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr88130,719,177 - 130,838,237 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.28121,841,664 - 121,960,735 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.08130,812,941 - 130,913,884 (-)NCBI
Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_039082772   ⟹   XP_038938700
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr88130,719,177 - 130,838,234 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.28121,841,664 - 121,960,732 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063266493   ⟹   XP_063122563
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr88130,719,826 - 130,838,239 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_063266494   ⟹   XP_063122564
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr88130,719,177 - 130,835,609 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XM_236774   ⟹   XP_236774
Type: CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr88130,719,177 - 130,835,608 (-)NCBI
mRatBN7.28121,841,664 - 121,958,148 (-)NCBI
Rnor_6.08130,812,941 - 130,931,021 (-)NCBI
Rnor_5.08129,980,663 - 130,096,581 (-)NCBI
RGSC_v3.48121,978,317 - 122,095,649 (-)RGD
Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XR_010054536
Type: NON-CODING
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
GRCr88130,744,279 - 130,838,243 (-)NCBI
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_236774   ⟸   XM_236774
- Peptide Label: isoform X5
- UniProtKB: D3ZF54 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A6I475 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I5ZY82 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_017451651   ⟸   XM_017596162
- Peptide Label: isoform X2
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5ZY82 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
- Sequence:
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000029074   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000035371
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_038938700   ⟸   XM_039082772
- Peptide Label: isoform X1
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5ZUI2 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I5ZY82 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000084152   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000101819
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000084553   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000102632
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000087856   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000119627
RefSeq Acc Id: ENSRNOP00000082654   ⟸   ENSRNOT00000110539
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063122564   ⟸   XM_063266494
- Peptide Label: isoform X4
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5ZY82 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL),   A0A8I6A4Y6 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
RefSeq Acc Id: XP_063122563   ⟸   XM_063266493
- Peptide Label: isoform X3
- UniProtKB: A0A8I5ZY82 (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)
Protein Domains
Anoctamin transmembrane

Protein Structures
Name Modeler Protein Id AA Range Protein Structure
AF-D3ZF54-F1-model_v2 AlphaFold D3ZF54 1-688 view protein structure

Transcriptome

eQTL   View at Phenogen
WGCNA   View at Phenogen
Tissue/Strain Expression   View at Phenogen

Promoters
RGD ID:13696413
Promoter ID:EPDNEW_R6920
Type:multiple initiation site
Name:Ano10_1
Description:anoctamin 10
SO ACC ID:SO:0000170
Source:EPDNEW (Eukaryotic Promoter Database, http://epd.vital-it.ch/)
Experiment Methods:Single-end sequencing.
Position:
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)Source
Rnor_6.08130,930,951 - 130,931,011EPDNEW

Additional Information

Database Acc Id Source(s)
AGR Gene RGD:1308260 AgrOrtholog
BioCyc Gene G2FUF-28662 BioCyc
Ensembl Genes ENSRNOG00000000219 Ensembl, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Ensembl Transcript ENSRNOT00000035371.7 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000101819.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000102632.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000110539.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  ENSRNOT00000119627.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
InterPro Anoctamin_TM UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  DUF590 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
KEGG Report rno:301111 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
NCBI Gene 301111 ENTREZGENE
PANTHER DUF590 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  PTHR12308:SF40 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
Pfam DUF590 UniProtKB/TrEMBL
PhenoGen Ano10 PhenoGen
RatGTEx ENSRNOG00000000219 RatGTEx
UniProt A0A8I5ZUI2 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A0A8I5ZY82 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A0A8I5ZYV6_RAT UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A0A8I6A4Y6 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  A6I475 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL
  D3ZF54 ENTREZGENE, UniProtKB/TrEMBL


Nomenclature History
Date Current Symbol Current Name Previous Symbol Previous Name Description Reference Status
2008-09-25 Ano10  anoctamin 10  Tmem16k  transmembrane protein 16K  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2008-02-26 Tmem16k  transmembrane protein 16K  RGD1308260_predicted  similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10375 (predicted)  Nomenclature updated to reflect human and mouse nomenclature 1299863 APPROVED
2005-01-20 RGD1308260_predicted  similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10375 (predicted)  LOC301111_predicted    Symbol and Name status set to approved 1331353 APPROVED
2005-01-12 LOC301111_predicted  similar to hypothetical protein FLJ10375 (predicted)      Symbol and Name status set to provisional 70820 PROVISIONAL