Ins2 (insulin II) - Rat Genome Database

Send us a Message

Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   
Gene: Ins2 (insulin II) Mus musculus
Symbol: Ins2
Name: insulin II
RGD ID: 10812
Description: Predicted to enable identical protein binding activity; protease binding activity; and signaling receptor binding activity. Acts upstream of or within several processes, including cell surface receptor signaling pathway; intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress; and positive regulation of phosphorylation. Located in cytosol; nucleus; and secretory granule. Part of sno(s)RNA-containing ribonucleoprotein complex. Is expressed in several structures, including brain; extraembryonic component; gut; immune system; and testis. Used to study maturity-onset diabetes of the young; neonatal diabetes; permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus; type 1 diabetes mellitus; and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Human ortholog(s) of this gene implicated in diabetic retinopathy; glucose metabolism disease (multiple); insulinoma; and pancreatic cancer. Orthologous to several human genes including INS (insulin).
Type: protein-coding
RefSeq Status: REVIEWED
Also known as: AA986540; In; Ins-2; InsII; insulin-2; Mod; Mody; Mody4; proinsulin
RGD Orthologs
Green Monkey
Naked Mole-Rat
Alliance Genes
More Info more info ...
Latest Assembly: GRCm38 - Mouse Genome Assembly GRCm38
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm397142,232,393 - 142,233,463 (-)NCBIGRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl7142,232,393 - 142,297,118 (-)Ensembl
GRCm387142,678,656 - 142,679,726 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl7142,678,656 - 142,743,381 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,561 - 149,865,613 (-)NCBIGRCm37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv367142,488,051 - 142,489,098 (-)NCBImm8
Celera7142,434,985 - 142,436,037 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7F5NCBI
cM Map788.0NCBI
JBrowse: View Region in Genome Browser (JBrowse)

Disease Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
acute kidney failure  (ISO)
Acute Liver Failure  (ISO)
adenoma  (IEP)
Albuminuria  (EXP,ISO)
Alzheimer's disease  (ISO)
bipolar disorder  (ISO)
bladder disease  (ISO)
cardiac arrest  (ISO)
cognitive disorder  (ISO)
congestive heart failure  (ISO)
cystic kidney disease  (ISO)
developmental and epileptic encephalopathy  (ISO)
diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IAGP,ISO)
Diabetic Cardiomyopathies  (ISO)
diabetic ketoacidosis  (ISO)
Diabetic Nephropathies  (ISO)
diabetic retinopathy  (EXP,ISO)
disease of metabolism  (ISO)
early infantile epileptic encephalopathy  (ISO)
Edema  (ISO)
Experimental Liver Cirrhosis  (ISO)
fatty liver disease  (ISO)
gestational diabetes  (ISO)
glucose intolerance  (ISO)
hepatitis  (ISO)
hepatocellular carcinoma  (ISO)
hyperglycemia  (EXP,ISO)
hyperinsulinism  (ISO)
Hyperkalemia  (ISO)
Hyperproinsulinemia  (ISO)
hypertension  (ISO)
Hypertriglyceridemia  (ISO)
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  (ISO)
hyperuricemia  (ISO)
hypoglycemia  (ISO)
hypokalemia  (ISO)
Hypotension  (ISO)
immunodeficiency 39  (ISO)
Insulin Resistance  (ISO)
insulinoma  (ISO)
kidney failure  (ISO)
Lewy body dementia  (ISO)
liver disease  (ISO)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young  (IEA,ISO)
maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 10  (ISO)
Memory Disorders  (ISO)
Metabolic Syndrome  (ISO)
Micronuclei, Chromosome-Defective  (ISO)
MPTP Poisoning  (ISO)
muscular disease  (ISO)
neonatal diabetes  (IEA,ISO)
Neoplasm Invasiveness  (ISO)
neural tube defect  (ISO)
neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis  (ISO)
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  (ISO)
obesity  (ISO)
osteoarthritis  (ISO)
pancreatic cancer  (IDA,ISO)
pancreatic ductal carcinoma  (ISO)
pancreatitis  (ISO)
panic disorder  (ISO)
Paralysis  (ISO)
Paresthesia  (ISO)
Parkinson's disease  (ISO)
permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus  (IEA,ISO)
Permanent Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus 4  (ISO)
Phelan-McDermid syndrome  (ISO)
polycystic ovary syndrome  (ISO)
prostate cancer  (ISO)
Prostatic Neoplasms  (ISO)
Rhabdomyolysis  (ISO)
Segawa Syndrome, Autosomal Recessive  (ISO)
Tachycardia  (ISO)
transient neonatal diabetes mellitus  (ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus  (EXP,IMP,ISO)
type 1 diabetes mellitus 2  (IAGP,ISO)
type 2 diabetes mellitus  (IEA,ISO)
Ventricular Dysfunction, Left  (ISO)
Ventricular Fibrillation  (ISO)
Ventricular Outflow Obstruction  (ISO)
visual epilepsy  (ISO)
Weight Loss  (ISO)

Gene-Chemical Interaction Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View
(R)-adrenaline  (ISO)
(R)-lipoic acid  (ISO)
(S)-nicotine  (ISO)
1,2,3,4,6-pentakis-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose  (EXP)
15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2  (ISO)
17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone  (ISO)
17beta-estradiol  (EXP,ISO)
2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether  (ISO)
2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (ISO)
2,2'-Dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone  (ISO)
2,2,2-tetramine  (ISO)
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxine  (ISO)
2,4-dibromophenyl 2,4,5-tribromophenyl ether  (EXP)
2,6-dinitrotoluene  (ISO)
2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose  (ISO)
2-arachidonoylglycerol  (ISO)
2-deoxy-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
2-hydroxypropanoic acid  (ISO)
3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl  (EXP,ISO)
3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A  (EXP)
3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine  (EXP,ISO)
3,7-dihydropurine-6-thione  (ISO)
3-\{1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1H-indol-3-yl\}-4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione  (ISO)
3-aminobenzamide  (ISO)
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine  (EXP,ISO)
3-methylcholanthrene  (ISO)
4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol  (EXP,ISO)
4-phenylbutyric acid  (ISO)
5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine  (EXP)
5-fluorouracil  (EXP)
5-iodotubercidin  (ISO)
5-methyl-4-oxido-2-pyrazin-4-iumcarboxylic acid  (ISO)
5-oxo-L-proline  (EXP)
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide  (ISO)
9-cis-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
acetaminophen O-beta-D-glucosiduronic acid  (ISO)
acetic acid  (EXP)
acrolein  (EXP)
actinomycin D  (EXP)
albuterol  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
aldehydo-D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
all-trans-retinol  (EXP)
allethrin  (EXP)
amino acid  (EXP)
amiodarone  (EXP)
amlodipine  (ISO)
ammonium chloride  (ISO)
anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one  (EXP,ISO)
arachidonic acid  (ISO)
arotinoid acid  (ISO)
arsane  (EXP)
arsenic atom  (EXP)
arsenite(3-)  (EXP,ISO)
arsenous acid  (EXP)
aspartame  (EXP,ISO)
atenolol  (ISO)
atorvastatin calcium  (ISO)
atrazine  (ISO)
avobenzone  (ISO)
bafilomycin A1  (ISO)
baicalein  (ISO)
Bardoxolone methyl  (ISO)
benzene  (EXP)
benzo[a]pyrene  (EXP,ISO)
beta-D-glucosamine  (ISO)
bexarotene  (EXP,ISO)
bezafibrate  (ISO)
bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
bisoprolol  (ISO)
bisphenol A  (EXP,ISO)
bisphenol F  (ISO)
boric acid  (EXP)
bromochloroacetic acid  (EXP)
bromocriptine  (ISO)
butan-1-amine  (EXP)
Butylbenzyl phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
Butylparaben  (ISO)
cadmium atom  (ISO)
cadmium dichloride  (ISO)
caffeine  (ISO)
calcidiol  (ISO)
capsaicin  (ISO)
capsazepine  (ISO)
carbamic acid  (EXP)
carvedilol  (ISO)
chlorpropamide  (ISO)
chlorpyrifos  (ISO)
chlorzoxazone  (ISO)
cholesterol  (EXP)
chromium atom  (ISO)
chromium(3+) trichloride  (ISO)
ciprofibrate  (ISO)
clofibrate  (ISO)
clonidine  (ISO)
clonidine (amino form)  (ISO)
clonidine (imino form)  (ISO)
clozapine  (ISO)
co-trimoxazole  (ISO)
cobalt dichloride  (ISO)
cocaine  (ISO)
conjugated linoleic acid  (ISO)
copper atom  (ISO)
copper(0)  (ISO)
corticosterone  (ISO)
corticotropin  (ISO)
cortisol  (ISO)
curcumin  (EXP,ISO)
cycloheximide  (ISO)
cyproterone acetate  (ISO)
D-glucose  (EXP,ISO)
D-mannopyranose  (ISO)
decabromodiphenyl ether  (EXP)
demethoxycurcumin  (ISO)
desmosterol  (EXP)
dexamethasone  (EXP,ISO)
dexamethasone phosphate  (ISO)
diarsenic trioxide  (EXP)
diazinon  (ISO)
dibenziodolium  (ISO)
dicamba  (ISO)
Didymin  (ISO)
diethyl sulfate  (ISO)
diethylstilbestrol  (EXP)
digoxin  (ISO)
dimercaprol  (ISO)
diphosphoric acid  (EXP)
disodium selenite  (EXP,ISO)
dopamine  (ISO)
elemental selenium  (ISO)
enalaprilat dihydrate  (ISO)
equilin  (ISO)
ethanol  (EXP)
ethyl dihydrogen phosphate  (EXP)
ethylamine  (EXP)
farnesol  (ISO)
fenofibrate  (ISO)
fentin hydroxide  (EXP)
ferric ammonium citrate  (ISO)
fipronil  (ISO)
flavonoids  (ISO)
folic acid  (EXP,ISO)
fructose  (ISO)
fulvestrant  (EXP,ISO)
furan  (ISO)
gatifloxacin  (ISO)
gemcitabine  (ISO)
genistein  (EXP)
glimepiride  (ISO)
glucose  (EXP,ISO)
glutathione  (ISO)
glyburide  (ISO)
glycerol 2-phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
glycine  (EXP)
glycogen  (ISO)
glyoxylic acid  (EXP)
glyphosate  (ISO)
GW 7647  (EXP,ISO)
harmine  (ISO)
hemin  (ISO)
heptadecanoic acid  (EXP)
hexadecanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
hispidulin  (EXP)
hydrogen peroxide  (ISO)
indometacin  (EXP,ISO)
inositol  (EXP)
isoflavones  (ISO)
isoprenaline  (ISO)
isopropyl palmitate  (EXP)
kynurenic acid  (ISO)
L-ascorbic acid  (EXP,ISO)
L-cystathionine  (EXP)
lanthanum atom  (ISO)
lercanidipine  (ISO)
levonorgestrel  (ISO)
Licarin A  (EXP)
lipoic acid  (ISO)
lipopolysaccharide  (ISO)
lithocholic acid  (ISO)
lovastatin  (ISO)
LY294002  (EXP,ISO)
magnesium atom  (ISO)
magnesium oxide  (ISO)
Magnolol  (ISO)
manganese atom  (ISO)
manganese(0)  (ISO)
manganese(II) chloride  (ISO)
Melengestrol acetate  (ISO)
mercaptopurine  (ISO)
metformin  (ISO)
methadone  (ISO)
methotrexate  (ISO)
methyl dihydrogen phosphate  (EXP)
methylarsonite  (EXP)
methylglyoxal  (ISO)
metoclopramide  (ISO)
microcystin-LR  (ISO)
mifepristone  (ISO)
miquelianin  (ISO)
mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate  (EXP,ISO)
monosodium L-glutamate  (EXP)
Moxonidine  (ISO)
N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide  (ISO)
N-[2-(4-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]isoquinoline-5-sulfonamide  (EXP)
N-acetyl-L-cysteine  (ISO)
N-benzyloxycarbonyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-leucinal  (ISO)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea  (EXP)
N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium  (ISO)
nateglinide  (ISO)
neomycin  (ISO)
nicotinamide  (ISO)
nicotine  (ISO)
nitric oxide  (ISO)
norethisterone  (ISO)
norgestrel  (ISO)
NS-398  (ISO)
ochratoxin A  (ISO)
octadecanoic acid  (EXP,ISO)
octreotide  (ISO)
olanzapine  (ISO)
oleanolic acid  (ISO)
oleic acid  (EXP,ISO)
orlistat  (ISO)
orotic acid  (ISO)
oxybenzone  (ISO)
palmitoleic acid  (EXP)
paracetamol  (ISO)
paroxetine  (ISO)
Pentagastrin  (ISO)
pentolinium tartrate  (ISO)
perfluorooctane-1-sulfonic acid  (EXP)
permethrin  (ISO)
phenobarbital  (ISO)
phenylarsine oxide  (ISO)
phenylarsonous acid  (ISO)
phloretin  (ISO)
phosphoric acid  (EXP)
pioglitazone  (EXP,ISO)
potassium chloride  (ISO)
prallethrin  (EXP)
prednisone  (ISO)
progesterone  (ISO)
propranolol  (ISO)
Ptaquiloside  (EXP)
purine-6-thiol  (ISO)
pyridine  (ISO)
pyruvic acid  (ISO)
quercetin  (ISO)
quinoxyfen  (EXP)
rac-lactic acid  (ISO)
resveratrol  (EXP,ISO)
rifampicin  (ISO)
rimonabant  (EXP)
risperidone  (ISO)
ritodrine  (ISO)
Ro 41-5253  (EXP,ISO)
Rutamarin  (EXP)
ruthenium red  (ISO)
saquinavir  (ISO)
saroglitazar  (ISO)
SB 203580  (ISO)
sebacic acid  (EXP)
selenium atom  (ISO)
sertraline  (ISO)
sirolimus  (ISO)
SKF-96365 hydrochloride  (ISO)
sodium arsenite  (EXP,ISO)
sodium dichromate  (EXP)
Sodium oleate  (ISO)
Sodium salicylate  (ISO)
spironolactone  (ISO)
staurosporine  (ISO)
streptozocin  (EXP,ISO)
sucrose  (ISO)
sulforaphane  (ISO)
sulpiride  (ISO)
tacrolimus hydrate  (ISO)
tauroursodeoxycholic acid  (ISO)
telmisartan  (ISO)
terbutaline  (ISO)
testosterone  (ISO)
thapsigargin  (ISO)
Thiocarbohydrazide  (ISO)
tolbutamide  (ISO)
tolylfluanid  (ISO)
triamcinolone  (ISO)
tributylstannane  (EXP,ISO)
triciribine  (ISO)
triclosan  (ISO)
triflumizole  (ISO)
trimethyltin  (ISO)
triphenyl phosphate  (EXP,ISO)
troglitazone  (ISO)
undecane  (EXP)
valproic acid  (ISO)
vandetanib  (ISO)
vanillic acid  (ISO)
wortmannin  (ISO)
zinc atom  (ISO)
zinc(0)  (ISO)

Gene Ontology Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Biological Process
activation of protein kinase B activity  (ISO)
acute-phase response  (ISO)
alpha-beta T cell activation  (ISO)
canonical Wnt signaling pathway  (IGI)
carbohydrate metabolic process  (IEA)
ER overload response  (IMP)
fatty acid homeostasis  (ISO)
G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
glucose homeostasis  (IBA,IMP)
glucose metabolic process  (IMP)
glucose transmembrane transport  (TAS)
glycoprotein biosynthetic process  (ISO)
insulin receptor signaling pathway  (IDA,ISO)
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress  (IMP)
lactate biosynthetic process  (ISO)
lipid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
lipid catabolic process  (IDA)
lipoprotein biosynthetic process  (ISO)
myoblast fusion  (IGI)
myotube differentiation  (IGI)
negative regulation of acute inflammatory response  (ISO)
negative regulation of fatty acid metabolic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of feeding behavior  (ISO)
negative regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
negative regulation of gluconeogenesis  (ISO)
negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of lipid catabolic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of NAD(P)H oxidase activity  (ISO)
negative regulation of protein catabolic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of protein secretion  (ISO)
negative regulation of proteolysis  (ISO)
negative regulation of reactive oxygen species biosynthetic process  (ISO)
negative regulation of respiratory burst involved in inflammatory response  (ISO)
negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II  (IDA)
neuron projection maintenance  (ISO)
nitric oxide-cGMP-mediated signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell migration  (ISO)
positive regulation of cell population proliferation  (ISO)
positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of cytokine production  (ISO)
positive regulation of dendritic spine maintenance  (ISO)
positive regulation of DNA replication  (ISO)
positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade  (IDA)
positive regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of gene expression  (ISO)
positive regulation of glucose import  (ISO)
positive regulation of glucose metabolic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of glycogen biosynthetic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of glycolytic process  (ISO)
positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway  (ISO)
positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity  (ISO)
positive regulation of MAPK cascade  (ISO)
positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division  (ISO)
positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor activity  (ISO)
positive regulation of nitric oxide mediated signal transduction  (ISO)
positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation  (IDA,ISO)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity  (IDA)
positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein autophosphorylation  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein localization to nucleus  (ISO)
positive regulation of protein secretion  (IBA)
positive regulation of respiratory burst  (ISO)
protein hexamerization  (ISO)
regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process  (ISO)
regulation of gene expression  (IDA)
regulation of phosphorylation  (IDA)
regulation of protein binding  (IDA)
regulation of protein localization  (ISO)
regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane  (ISO)
regulation of protein secretion  (ISO)
regulation of transmembrane transporter activity  (ISO)
vasodilation  (ISO)
wound healing  (ISO)

Cellular Component

Molecular Function

Phenotype Annotations     Click to see Annotation Detail View

Mammalian Phenotype
abnormal astrocyte morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal cardiac muscle contractility  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating glucose level  (IAGP)
abnormal circulating insulin level  (IAGP)
abnormal glomerular capillary morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal glomerular mesangium morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal glucose homeostasis  (IAGP)
abnormal heart left ventricle morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal heart morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal homeostasis  (IAGP)
abnormal immune system physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal interferon-gamma secretion  (IAGP)
abnormal intestinal epithelium morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal kidney interstitium morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal Leydig cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal microglial cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal mitochondrial chromosome morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal mitochondrial morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreas physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic alpha cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic beta cell mass  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic beta cell morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic beta cell physiology  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic islet cell apoptosis  (IAGP)
abnormal pancreatic islet morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal response to transplant  (IAGP)
abnormal retinal ganglion layer morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal retinal neuronal layer morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal retinal vasculature morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal seminiferous tubule morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal spermatogonia morphology  (IAGP)
abnormal T cell physiology  (IAGP)
absent mature B cells  (IAGP)
absent pancreatic beta cells  (IAGP)
absent T cells  (IAGP)
acidosis  (IAGP)
akinesia  (IAGP)
albuminuria  (IAGP)
alopecia  (IAGP)
autoimmune response  (IAGP)
decreased adipocyte glucose uptake  (IAGP)
decreased anti-insulin autoantibody level  (IAGP)
decreased birth weight  (IAGP)
decreased body fat mass  (IAGP)
decreased body size  (IAGP)
decreased body weight  (IAGP)
decreased bone mineral density  (IAGP)
decreased circulating insulin level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating leptin level  (IAGP)
decreased circulating triglyceride level  (IAGP)
decreased fetal weight  (IAGP)
decreased insulin secretion  (IAGP)
decreased liver triglyceride level  (IAGP)
decreased muscle cell glucose uptake  (IAGP)
decreased pancreatic alpha cell number  (IAGP)
decreased pancreatic beta cell mass  (IAGP)
decreased pancreatic beta cell number  (IAGP)
decreased pancreatic beta cell proliferation  (IAGP)
decreased pancreatic islet cell apoptosis  (IAGP)
decreased respiratory quotient  (IAGP)
decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue amount  (IAGP)
decreased susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes  (IAGP)
decreased triglyceride level  (IAGP)
degranulated pancreatic beta cells  (IAGP)
dehydration  (IAGP)
disorganized pancreatic islets  (IAGP)
embryonic growth retardation  (IAGP)
enlarged liver  (IAGP)
enlarged pancreatic islets  (IAGP)
expanded mesangial matrix  (IAGP)
glomerulosclerosis  (IAGP)
heart left ventricle hypertrophy  (IAGP)
hematoma  (IAGP)
hepatic steatosis  (IAGP)
hydronephrosis  (IAGP)
hyperglycemia  (IAGP)
hypoactivity  (IAGP)
impaired glucose tolerance  (IAGP)
increased adipocyte glucose uptake  (IAGP)
increased anti-insulin autoantibody level  (IAGP)
increased anxiety-related response  (IAGP)
increased body weight  (IAGP)
increased carbon dioxide production  (IAGP)
increased circulating cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased circulating glucose level  (IAGP)
increased circulating HDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased circulating insulin level  (IAGP)
increased circulating ketone body level  (IAGP)
increased circulating LDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased circulating triglyceride level  (IAGP)
increased circulating VLDL cholesterol level  (IAGP)
increased energy expenditure  (IAGP)
increased erythrocyte cell number  (IAGP)
increased fluid intake  (IAGP)
increased food intake  (IAGP)
increased granulocyte number  (IAGP)
increased insulin secretion  (IAGP)
increased insulin sensitivity  (IAGP)
increased leukocyte cell number  (IAGP)
increased macrophage cell number  (IAGP)
increased monocyte cell number  (IAGP)
increased oxygen consumption  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic alpha cell mass  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic alpha cell number  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic alpha cell proliferation  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic beta cell apoptosis  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic beta cell mass  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic beta cell number  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic beta cell proliferation  (IAGP)
increased pancreatic islet cell apoptosis  (IAGP)
increased renal glomerular filtration rate  (IAGP)
increased renal glomerulus basement membrane thickness  (IAGP)
increased retinal apoptosis  (IAGP)
increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis  (IAGP)
increased susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes  (IAGP)
increased urine glucose level  (IAGP)
increased vascular permeability  (IAGP)
insulin resistance  (IAGP)
insulitis  (IAGP)
kyphosis  (IAGP)
mesangiolysis  (IAGP)
no abnormal phenotype detected  (IAGP)
pancreas inflammation  (IAGP)
polydipsia  (IAGP)
polyphagia  (IAGP)
polyuria  (IAGP)
postnatal growth retardation  (IAGP)
postnatal lethality  (IAGP)
postnatal lethality, complete penetrance  (IAGP)
premature death  (IAGP)
renal glomerular protein deposits  (IAGP)
salivary gland inflammation  (IAGP)
small pancreatic islets  (IAGP)
thick interventricular septum  (IAGP)

References - curated
1. Adamson KA, etal., Int J Immunogenet. 2007 Feb;34(1):17-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-313X.2006.00643.x.
2. Arias AE, etal., J Cell Sci. 2000 Jun;113 ( Pt 11):2075-83.
3. Brands MW, etal., Hypertension. 1997 Apr;29(4):1014-9.
4. Cade WT, etal., Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2011 Dec 8;10:111. doi: 10.1186/1475-2840-10-111.
5. Carter JE, etal., Mol Biotechnol. 2006 Jan;32(1):1-15. doi: 10.1385/MB:32:1:001.
6. Collinet M, etal., Eur J Pediatr. 1998 Jun;157(6):456-60.
7. Colombo C, etal., J Clin Invest. 2008 Jun;118(6):2148-56.
8. Crabtree JS, etal., Mol Cell Biol. 2003 Sep;23(17):6075-85.
9. Currie CJ, etal., Diabetologia. 2009 Sep;52(9):1766-77. Epub 2009 Jul 2.
10. Dayyani F, etal., BMC Cancer. 2016 Sep 6;16:721. doi: 10.1186/s12885-016-2723-1.
11. Denes B, etal., J Immunother. 2005 Sep-Oct;28(5):438-48. doi: 10.1097/01.cji.0000171315.82997.9a.
12. Denko CW, etal., J Rheumatol. 1990 Sep;17(9):1217-21.
13. Devendra D, etal., J Autoimmun. 2004 Aug;23(1):17-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2004.03.008.
14. Dénes B, etal., Mol Biotechnol. 2006 Nov;34(3):317-27. doi: 10.1385/MB:34:3:317.
15. Fang D, etal., Endocr J. 2012;59(1):81-90. Epub 2011 Nov 9.
16. Fort PE, etal., PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26498. Epub 2011 Oct 26.
17. Gastinger MJ, etal., Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jul;47(7):3143-50.
18. Grunblatt E, etal., J Neurochem. 2007 May;101(3):757-70.
19. Holmkvist J, etal., PLoS One. 2009 Jun 11;4(6):e5872.
20. Hompesch M, etal., Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009 May;11(5):307-13.
21. Hong EG, etal., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Dec;293(6):E1687-96. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00256.2007. Epub 2007 Oct 2.
22. Hunter SJ and Garvey WT, Am J Med. 1998 Oct;105(4):331-45.
23. Jehle PM, etal., Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1995;103 Suppl 2:31-6.
24. Kao PC, etal., J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 May;78(5):1048-51.
25. Kolb A, etal., Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Aug;8(16):1527-33. Epub 2009 Aug 13.
26. Krechler T, etal., Neoplasma. 2009;56(1):26-32.
27. Le Stunff C, etal., Nat Genet. 2000 Dec;26(4):444-6.
28. Li D, etal., Gastroenterology. 2009 Aug;137(2):482-8. Epub 2009 Apr 16.
29. Liu B, etal., PLoS One. 2016 Jan 19;11(1):e0147260. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147260. eCollection 2016.
30. Lu H, etal., J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Feb;24(2):228-32. Epub 2008 Aug 17.
31. Meng Q, etal., Clin Dev Immunol. 2011;2011:831704. doi: 10.1155/2011/831704. Epub 2011 Jun 6.
32. MGD and Homologene mouse data transfer
33. MGD data from the GO Consortium
35. Navaneethan SD and Beddhu S, Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Apr;24(4):1260-6. Epub 2008 Nov 25.
36. Olansky L, etal., J Clin Invest. 1992 May;89(5):1596-602.
37. OMIM Disease Annotation Pipeline
38. Paquette J, etal., Genes Immun. 2010 Oct;11(7):590-7. doi: 10.1038/gene.2010.33. Epub 2010 Jun 10.
39. Park SY, etal., Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Jan 15;391(3):1449-54. Epub 2009 Dec 23.
40. Pipeline to import KEGG annotations from KEGG into RGD
41. Pipeline to import Pathway Interaction Database annotations from NCI into RGD
42. Pipeline to import SMPDB annotations from SMPDB into RGD
43. RGD automated import pipeline
44. RGD automated import pipeline for ClinVar variants, variant-to-disease annotations and gene-to-disease annotations
45. RGD automated import pipeline for gene-chemical interactions
46. Roth J, etal., Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol. 1989;56(5):287-92.
47. Schliess F, etal., J Biol Chem. 2004 May 14;279(20):21294-301. Epub 2004 Feb 24.
48. Skyler JS, etal., Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Nov;82(2):238-46. Epub 2008 Sep 27.
49. Soares MB, etal., Mol Cell Biol 1985 Aug;5(8):2090-103.
50. Stoy J, etal., Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Sep 18;104(38):15040-4. Epub 2007 Sep 12.
51. Turunen JA, etal., Immunogenetics. 2006 Jun;58(5-6):331-8. doi: 10.1007/s00251-006-0088-3. Epub 2006 Mar 22.
52. Ward WK, etal., Diabetologia. 1987 Sep;30(9):698-702.
53. Warden CH, etal., J Clin Invest 1995 Apr;95(4):1545-52.
54. Yilmaz O, etal., J Diabetes Complications. 2009 Mar 6.
55. Youngren JF Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Apr;64(7-8):873-91.
56. Zyromski NJ, etal., Surgery. 2009 Aug;146(2):258-63.
Additional References at PubMed
PMID:1303252   PMID:1317321   PMID:1346376   PMID:1358794   PMID:1371010   PMID:1460423   PMID:1701096   PMID:1702294   PMID:1811941   PMID:1981054   PMID:2181401   PMID:2397023  
PMID:2608062   PMID:3104603   PMID:5063718   PMID:6690234   PMID:7031649   PMID:7493641   PMID:7534338   PMID:7544754   PMID:7590978   PMID:7600975   PMID:7613026   PMID:7663515  
PMID:7729600   PMID:7773285   PMID:7822777   PMID:7867492   PMID:7901001   PMID:7911222   PMID:7935793   PMID:8012378   PMID:8012396   PMID:8043949   PMID:8075499   PMID:8148038  
PMID:8393762   PMID:8421685   PMID:8549854   PMID:8625795   PMID:8625829   PMID:8631275   PMID:8681804   PMID:8787762   PMID:8835532   PMID:8861960   PMID:8863190   PMID:8887328  
PMID:8938454   PMID:8963443   PMID:9039503   PMID:9121556   PMID:9133560   PMID:9144203   PMID:9166597   PMID:9177785   PMID:9224716   PMID:9260520   PMID:9291463   PMID:9337391  
PMID:9368764   PMID:9384608   PMID:9441664   PMID:9465295   PMID:9467008   PMID:9507006   PMID:9584121   PMID:9584186   PMID:9593767   PMID:9618174   PMID:9689059   PMID:9774514  
PMID:9851981   PMID:9884331   PMID:9914469   PMID:9922458   PMID:9988214   PMID:10036981   PMID:10049364   PMID:10078553   PMID:10079507   PMID:10102687   PMID:10349636   PMID:10471495  
PMID:10471502   PMID:10567552   PMID:10691133   PMID:10725233   PMID:10725249   PMID:10769089   PMID:10842072   PMID:10851133   PMID:10868931   PMID:10903178   PMID:10950922   PMID:11042159  
PMID:11044404   PMID:11062007   PMID:11063728   PMID:11076772   PMID:11076855   PMID:11076861   PMID:11159375   PMID:11217851   PMID:11272179   PMID:11371557   PMID:11375348   PMID:11430820  
PMID:11448939   PMID:11577200   PMID:11606464   PMID:11668390   PMID:11685688   PMID:11748146   PMID:11784060   PMID:11834725   PMID:11854314   PMID:11854325   PMID:11897712   PMID:11912494  
PMID:11981430   PMID:12038757   PMID:12049785   PMID:12059784   PMID:12101187   PMID:12189445   PMID:12297296   PMID:12399441   PMID:12410230   PMID:12412008   PMID:12466851   PMID:12473685  
PMID:12475795   PMID:12477932   PMID:12488434   PMID:12540615   PMID:12559489   PMID:12630555   PMID:12639991   PMID:12666204   PMID:12681500   PMID:12702762   PMID:12745665   PMID:12805218  
PMID:12815626   PMID:12917290   PMID:12917627   PMID:12921743   PMID:12925730   PMID:14517990   PMID:14561778   PMID:14610273   PMID:14641329   PMID:14651921   PMID:14660441   PMID:14673160  
PMID:14688305   PMID:14702043   PMID:14706695   PMID:14729487   PMID:14736742   PMID:14970313   PMID:15005713   PMID:15012626   PMID:15033933   PMID:15124020   PMID:15163367   PMID:15178709  
PMID:15226261   PMID:15277382   PMID:15282315   PMID:15282335   PMID:15286800   PMID:15297605   PMID:15326315   PMID:15467835   PMID:15494444   PMID:15525682   PMID:15548585   PMID:15550470  
PMID:15567729   PMID:15587270   PMID:15617768   PMID:15680365   PMID:15705807   PMID:15718275   PMID:15731364   PMID:15734845   PMID:15739225   PMID:15747579   PMID:15788565   PMID:15793245  
PMID:15823575   PMID:15888377   PMID:15889095   PMID:15914643   PMID:15930104   PMID:15944193   PMID:15972000   PMID:15980866   PMID:16000322   PMID:16039605   PMID:16118394   PMID:16141072  
PMID:16141073   PMID:16169491   PMID:16186384   PMID:16192304   PMID:16246260   PMID:16283623   PMID:16289958   PMID:16306355   PMID:16330324   PMID:16399505   PMID:16401696   PMID:16418487  
PMID:16423820   PMID:16435884   PMID:16443760   PMID:16456855   PMID:16498401   PMID:16511571   PMID:16518820   PMID:16537919   PMID:16542650   PMID:16556734   PMID:16580660   PMID:16602821  
PMID:16604193   PMID:16611688   PMID:16612590   PMID:16627579   PMID:16750430   PMID:16785498   PMID:16804066   PMID:16847318   PMID:16887115   PMID:16894357   PMID:16912273   PMID:16920096  
PMID:16923392   PMID:16936198   PMID:16951258   PMID:16954344   PMID:16962573   PMID:16964447   PMID:16964608   PMID:17001468   PMID:17049510   PMID:17065330   PMID:17065333   PMID:17082643  
PMID:17141632   PMID:17151334   PMID:17185046   PMID:17192470   PMID:17202186   PMID:17222338   PMID:17267606   PMID:17303660   PMID:17303807   PMID:17334640   PMID:17339028   PMID:17355878  
PMID:17360442   PMID:17360472   PMID:17366624   PMID:17400205   PMID:17416457   PMID:17418116   PMID:17459508   PMID:17533574   PMID:17537793   PMID:17585110   PMID:17595213   PMID:17596282  
PMID:17599412   PMID:17600118   PMID:17607359   PMID:17647009   PMID:17666471   PMID:17693256   PMID:17786244   PMID:17804764   PMID:17849440   PMID:17855428   PMID:17928203   PMID:17936263  
PMID:17988662   PMID:17996499   PMID:18006238   PMID:18039841   PMID:18056790   PMID:18058910   PMID:18077505   PMID:18155690   PMID:18184911   PMID:18186922   PMID:18192873   PMID:18199433  
PMID:18219478   PMID:18227155   PMID:18245324   PMID:18256360   PMID:18286202   PMID:18294628   PMID:18297134   PMID:18316032   PMID:18421434   PMID:18439911   PMID:18443355   PMID:18452912  
PMID:18460333   PMID:18469181   PMID:18471525   PMID:18498355   PMID:18506029   PMID:18515593   PMID:18519800   PMID:18554416   PMID:18558660   PMID:18559662   PMID:18560595   PMID:18563383  
PMID:18591390   PMID:18591393   PMID:18599523   PMID:18599526   PMID:18635610   PMID:18678617   PMID:18715949   PMID:18723011   PMID:18772165   PMID:18776938   PMID:18778483   PMID:18788099  
PMID:19022256   PMID:19092805   PMID:19111542   PMID:19120291   PMID:19126201   PMID:19131512   PMID:19141476   PMID:19148298   PMID:19213844   PMID:19223466   PMID:19293336   PMID:19364508  
PMID:19423844   PMID:19470681   PMID:19487660   PMID:19501159   PMID:19502415   PMID:19542200   PMID:19542201   PMID:19583950   PMID:19619492   PMID:19628478   PMID:19635472   PMID:19644667  
PMID:19680229   PMID:19684026   PMID:19723764   PMID:19759004   PMID:19766716   PMID:19773578   PMID:19778534   PMID:19793886   PMID:19801494   PMID:19805515   PMID:19874548   PMID:19880509  
PMID:19882138   PMID:19914171   PMID:19934006   PMID:19955657   PMID:19966211   PMID:20009088   PMID:20025861   PMID:20040487   PMID:20042456   PMID:20043456   PMID:20098959   PMID:20130530  
PMID:20138042   PMID:20148032   PMID:20153322   PMID:20170518   PMID:20185815   PMID:20308425   PMID:20364088   PMID:20377894   PMID:20377917   PMID:20413507   PMID:20413509   PMID:20440000  
PMID:20448145   PMID:20478304   PMID:20479236   PMID:20501666   PMID:20520806   PMID:20530744   PMID:20533404   PMID:20534694   PMID:20547975   PMID:20558340   PMID:20570944   PMID:20606719  
PMID:20614471   PMID:20622165   PMID:20627083   PMID:20627934   PMID:20678473   PMID:20724579   PMID:20811050   PMID:20811152   PMID:20825366   PMID:20829433   PMID:20836991   PMID:20857084  
PMID:20869363   PMID:20947821   PMID:20948967   PMID:20955341   PMID:21068007   PMID:21081123   PMID:21113154   PMID:21139688   PMID:21173230   PMID:21193740   PMID:21209947   PMID:21212173  
PMID:21245338   PMID:21258336   PMID:21266327   PMID:21266405   PMID:21267068   PMID:21270265   PMID:21281624   PMID:21287656   PMID:21293061   PMID:21305342   PMID:21335550   PMID:21343540  
PMID:21388963   PMID:21429093   PMID:21447785   PMID:21467180   PMID:21490060   PMID:21551953   PMID:21555558   PMID:21555585   PMID:21559376   PMID:21576366   PMID:21593201   PMID:21606463  
PMID:21636301   PMID:21641382   PMID:21677281   PMID:21677750   PMID:21723250   PMID:21750032   PMID:21774670   PMID:21786021   PMID:21817126   PMID:21828183   PMID:21828338   PMID:21829703  
PMID:21840999   PMID:21841312   PMID:21852533   PMID:21856296   PMID:21857924   PMID:21867776   PMID:21872588   PMID:21873635   PMID:21876171   PMID:21880149   PMID:21880831   PMID:21888903  
PMID:21909240   PMID:21911471   PMID:21913313   PMID:21926276   PMID:21926540   PMID:21926555   PMID:21940783   PMID:21947380   PMID:21953612   PMID:21963766   PMID:21965615   PMID:22013016  
PMID:22015457   PMID:22065673   PMID:22095234   PMID:22114024   PMID:22114719   PMID:22120711   PMID:22129529   PMID:22178591   PMID:22187431   PMID:22205225   PMID:22240097   PMID:22297234  
PMID:22297487   PMID:22297672   PMID:22387028   PMID:22406641   PMID:22426149   PMID:22427377   PMID:22427566   PMID:22434868   PMID:22440813   PMID:22442384   PMID:22449801   PMID:22461559  
PMID:22474255   PMID:22496773   PMID:22505190   PMID:22509386   PMID:22522616   PMID:22529374   PMID:22539496   PMID:22547676   PMID:22554507   PMID:22566534   PMID:22586581   PMID:22610174  
PMID:22653270   PMID:22664958   PMID:22675211   PMID:22745161   PMID:22764048   PMID:22842467   PMID:22865702   PMID:22874919   PMID:22883233   PMID:22886636   PMID:22896043   PMID:22915034  
PMID:22980982   PMID:23006325   PMID:23006330   PMID:23019230   PMID:23056534   PMID:23071096   PMID:23077100   PMID:23093780   PMID:23099119   PMID:23139813   PMID:23152292   PMID:23175628  
PMID:23177622   PMID:23186339   PMID:23193182   PMID:23204275   PMID:23209676   PMID:23217255   PMID:23221078   PMID:23228931   PMID:23243209   PMID:23251343   PMID:23251699   PMID:23260145  
PMID:23271347   PMID:23274896   PMID:23287790   PMID:23307960   PMID:23316230   PMID:23349479   PMID:23354125   PMID:23382704   PMID:23391566   PMID:23404117   PMID:23408910   PMID:23410753  
PMID:23412636   PMID:23416061   PMID:23431054   PMID:23449223   PMID:23454691   PMID:23471965   PMID:23494546   PMID:23531619   PMID:23552863   PMID:23603491   PMID:23610061   PMID:23649519  
PMID:23661372   PMID:23663738   PMID:23722904   PMID:23734074   PMID:23747309   PMID:23775071   PMID:23775122   PMID:23789962   PMID:23798316   PMID:23801577   PMID:23820623   PMID:23823474  
PMID:23825921   PMID:23852538   PMID:23852729   PMID:23863477   PMID:23884891   PMID:23894189   PMID:23903190   PMID:23929935   PMID:23940571   PMID:23946427   PMID:23951058   PMID:23973805  
PMID:23977133   PMID:23977269   PMID:23996959   PMID:24003152   PMID:24009262   PMID:24064341   PMID:24114270   PMID:24127484   PMID:24129189   PMID:24135141   PMID:24163078   PMID:24163148  
PMID:24166718   PMID:24226524   PMID:24236044   PMID:24247978   PMID:24248465   PMID:24258027   PMID:24324549   PMID:24370601   PMID:24385342   PMID:24387268   PMID:24395790   PMID:24449844  
PMID:24452639   PMID:24458356   PMID:24463424   PMID:24477974   PMID:24487024   PMID:24491571   PMID:24574008   PMID:24583012   PMID:24677271   PMID:24703908   PMID:24721715   PMID:24726366  
PMID:24740573   PMID:24743240   PMID:24812425   PMID:24820416   PMID:24840347   PMID:24848070   PMID:24848689   PMID:24966386   PMID:25053427   PMID:25063451   PMID:25107471   PMID:25126760  
PMID:25133424   PMID:25176043   PMID:25186293   PMID:25187372   PMID:25207540   PMID:25233132   PMID:25249504   PMID:25274988   PMID:25343275   PMID:25367577   PMID:25404734   PMID:25428125  
PMID:25428948   PMID:25500700   PMID:25523391   PMID:25536533   PMID:25576928   PMID:25613939   PMID:25652387   PMID:25652452   PMID:25695968   PMID:25715394   PMID:25715395   PMID:25784544  
PMID:25789863   PMID:25902541   PMID:25912690   PMID:25918232   PMID:25944670   PMID:25957229   PMID:25987249   PMID:26015547   PMID:26021489   PMID:26029927   PMID:26041444   PMID:26075820  
PMID:26122048   PMID:26155745   PMID:26156633   PMID:26169832   PMID:26203118   PMID:26214584   PMID:26232095   PMID:26235979   PMID:26251404   PMID:26334030   PMID:26340930   PMID:26361146  
PMID:26378466   PMID:26389675   PMID:26395740   PMID:26411367   PMID:26450967   PMID:26470785   PMID:26494286   PMID:26494792   PMID:26518685   PMID:26534984   PMID:26552047   PMID:26554594  
PMID:26595448   PMID:26597883   PMID:26626461   PMID:26631740   PMID:26683376   PMID:26696124   PMID:26747235   PMID:26752640   PMID:26771085   PMID:26784909   PMID:26830324   PMID:26858454  
PMID:26887806   PMID:26901059   PMID:26944677   PMID:26953160   PMID:26956881   PMID:26968895   PMID:27052164   PMID:27055260   PMID:27130279   PMID:27133129   PMID:27145011   PMID:27159053  
PMID:27206247   PMID:27270601   PMID:27283743   PMID:27292642   PMID:27297878   PMID:27335233   PMID:27340827   PMID:27349930   PMID:27382987   PMID:27482904   PMID:27495224   PMID:27528615  
PMID:27572106   PMID:27581061   PMID:27585521   PMID:27620487   PMID:27656411   PMID:27658750   PMID:27706190   PMID:27736991   PMID:27740873   PMID:27802520   PMID:27813676   PMID:27820699  
PMID:27855634   PMID:27864307   PMID:27892540   PMID:27899487   PMID:27936229   PMID:27993987   PMID:28017717   PMID:28069641   PMID:28071588   PMID:28071719   PMID:28100774   PMID:28102311  
PMID:28118981   PMID:28154187   PMID:28193997   PMID:28214591   PMID:28248965   PMID:28259677   PMID:28322199   PMID:28324005   PMID:28424212   PMID:28457793   PMID:28490532   PMID:28493939  
PMID:28535269   PMID:28576773   PMID:28580283   PMID:28624504   PMID:28630133   PMID:28700945   PMID:28705881   PMID:28793255   PMID:28837672   PMID:28883608   PMID:28893946   PMID:28922976  
PMID:29029025   PMID:29058721   PMID:29061652   PMID:29074590   PMID:29079704   PMID:29122848   PMID:29133483   PMID:29180572   PMID:29203863   PMID:29207116   PMID:29211719   PMID:29211853  
PMID:29231167   PMID:29272356   PMID:29304075   PMID:29330353   PMID:29348399   PMID:29348593   PMID:29371604   PMID:29373286   PMID:29420703   PMID:29434227   PMID:29434323   PMID:29439088  
PMID:29507125   PMID:29590218   PMID:29632144   PMID:29654303   PMID:29675273   PMID:29761600   PMID:29851956   PMID:29875100   PMID:29891593   PMID:29910119   PMID:29913163   PMID:29972779  
PMID:29975570   PMID:29995913   PMID:30019207   PMID:30022165   PMID:30065034   PMID:30065074   PMID:30135482   PMID:30168649   PMID:30207172   PMID:30293775   PMID:30305368   PMID:30361701  
PMID:30412050   PMID:30420428   PMID:30425063   PMID:30425286   PMID:30463601   PMID:30480744   PMID:30487608   PMID:30488085   PMID:30498224   PMID:30504829   PMID:30532991   PMID:30576241  
PMID:30590051   PMID:30620636   PMID:30620902   PMID:30665571   PMID:30733468   PMID:30773020   PMID:30796028   PMID:30853440   PMID:30862678   PMID:30886059   PMID:30899071   PMID:30914477  
PMID:30978208   PMID:31039005   PMID:31040360   PMID:31069235   PMID:31091127   PMID:31116975   PMID:31160417   PMID:31160421   PMID:31166707   PMID:31185088   PMID:31186351   PMID:31187215  
PMID:31201281   PMID:31208980   PMID:31217360   PMID:31311313   PMID:31323030   PMID:31345937   PMID:31380462   PMID:31412250   PMID:31506549   PMID:31509011   PMID:31509750   PMID:31519700  
PMID:31604927   PMID:31610731   PMID:31624141   PMID:31682591   PMID:31726870   PMID:31806622   PMID:31806625   PMID:31836691   PMID:31875961   PMID:31882119   PMID:31914588   PMID:31923647  
PMID:31974143   PMID:32059775   PMID:32060653   PMID:32072744   PMID:32165492   PMID:32169892   PMID:32183843   PMID:32198206   PMID:32241676   PMID:32245798   PMID:32313051   PMID:32321760  
PMID:32332156   PMID:32332159   PMID:32350257   PMID:32375022   PMID:32404350   PMID:32439763   PMID:32467243   PMID:32546815   PMID:32640216   PMID:32644973   PMID:32699230   PMID:32708537  
PMID:32715748   PMID:32857951   PMID:32913274   PMID:32994272   PMID:33028844   PMID:33057429   PMID:33060607   PMID:33069809   PMID:33485967   PMID:33505018   PMID:33527355   PMID:33567267  
PMID:33606210   PMID:33658226   PMID:33662611   PMID:33667344   PMID:33810480   PMID:33811703   PMID:33852861   PMID:33859429   PMID:33932339   PMID:34071003   PMID:34086738   PMID:34446743  


Comparative Map Data
(Mus musculus - house mouse)
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCm397142,232,393 - 142,233,463 (-)NCBIGRCm39mm39
GRCm39 Ensembl7142,232,393 - 142,297,118 (-)Ensembl
GRCm387142,678,656 - 142,679,726 (-)NCBIGRCm38GRCm38mm10GRCm38
GRCm38.p6 Ensembl7142,678,656 - 142,743,381 (-)EnsemblGRCm38mm10GRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,561 - 149,865,613 (-)NCBIGRCm37mm9NCBIm37
MGSCv367142,488,051 - 142,489,098 (-)NCBImm8
Celera7142,434,985 - 142,436,037 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map7F5NCBI
cM Map788.0NCBI
(Homo sapiens - human)
Human AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
GRCh38.p13 Ensembl112,159,779 - 2,161,221 (-)EnsemblGRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh38112,159,779 - 2,161,209 (-)NCBIGRCh38GRCh38hg38GRCh38
GRCh37112,181,009 - 2,182,439 (-)NCBIGRCh37GRCh37hg19GRCh37
Build 36112,137,585 - 2,139,015 (-)NCBINCBI36hg18NCBI36
Build 34112,137,584 - 2,139,000NCBI
Celera112,217,516 - 2,218,946 (-)NCBI
Cytogenetic Map11p15.5NCBI
HuRef111,971,272 - 1,972,702 (-)NCBIHuRef
CHM1_1112,179,957 - 2,181,387 (-)NCBICHM1_1
(Rattus norvegicus - Norway rat)
Rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
mRatBN7.21197,843,277 - 197,992,522 (-)NCBImRatBN7.2
mRatBN7.2 Ensembl1197,843,281 - 197,864,775 (-)Ensembl
Rnor_6.01215,856,967 - 215,858,034 (-)NCBIRnor6.0Rnor_6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_6.0 Ensembl1215,856,971 - 215,858,034 (-)EnsemblRnor6.0rn6Rnor6.0
Rnor_5.01222,751,786 - 222,756,821 (-)NCBIRnor5.0Rnor_5.0rn5Rnor5.0
RGSC_v3.41202,935,548 - 202,936,379 (-)NCBIRGSC3.4rn4RGSC3.4
RGSC_v3.11203,123,613 - 203,124,445 (-)NCBI
Celera1195,461,309 - 195,462,376 (-)NCBICelera
Cytogenetic Map1q41NCBI
(Chinchilla lanigera - long-tailed chinchilla)
Chinchilla AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChiLan1.0 EnsemblNW_00495542213,909,407 - 13,910,419 (-)EnsemblChiLan1.0
ChiLan1.0NW_00495542213,909,408 - 13,910,419 (-)NCBIChiLan1.0ChiLan1.0
(Pan paniscus - bonobo/pygmy chimpanzee)
Bonobo AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
PanPan1.1112,230,309 - 2,231,666 (-)NCBIpanpan1.1PanPan1.1panPan2
PanPan1.1 Ensembl112,218,117 - 2,231,666 (-)Ensemblpanpan1.1panPan2
Mhudiblu_PPA_v0112,200,785 - 2,202,579 (-)NCBIMhudiblu_PPA_v0panPan3
(Canis lupus familiaris - dog)
Dog AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
CanFam3.11846,324,047 - 46,324,933 (-)NCBICanFam3.1CanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
CanFam3.1 Ensembl1846,324,041 - 46,325,122 (-)EnsemblCanFam3.1canFam3CanFam3.1
Dog10K_Boxer_Tasha1844,933,843 - 44,934,720 (-)NCBI
ROS_Cfam_1.01847,003,520 - 47,004,406 (-)NCBI
UMICH_Zoey_3.11846,452,280 - 46,453,156 (-)NCBI
UNSW_CanFamBas_1.01846,032,597 - 46,033,483 (-)NCBI
UU_Cfam_GSD_1.01846,779,045 - 46,779,926 (-)NCBI
(Ictidomys tridecemlineatus - thirteen-lined ground squirrel)
Squirrel AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HiC_Itri_2NW_0244049471,748,017 - 1,749,237 (-)NCBI
SpeTri2.0NW_0049368161,002,137 - 1,003,357 (-)NCBISpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0SpeTri2.0
(Sus scrofa - pig)
Pig AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
Sscrofa11.1 Ensembl21,496,842 - 1,497,841 (-)EnsemblSscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
Sscrofa11.121,496,842 - 1,498,052 (-)NCBISscrofa11.1Sscrofa11.1susScr11Sscrofa11.1
(Chlorocebus sabaeus - green monkey)
Green Monkey AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
ChlSab1.111,965,128 - 1,969,090 (-)NCBIChlSab1.1chlSab2
Vero_WHO_p1.0NW_02366603899,163,059 - 99,164,540 (-)NCBIVero_WHO_p1.0
(Heterocephalus glaber - naked mole-rat)
Naked Mole-rat AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceGenome Browsers
HetGla 1.0NW_00462476714,999,088 - 15,000,035 (-)NCBIHetGla_female_1.0hetGla2

Position Markers
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,677 - 142,678,816UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,582 - 149,864,721UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,006 - 142,435,145UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm381952,264,613 - 52,264,906UniSTSGRCm38
GRCm387142,678,757 - 142,679,544UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,662 - 149,865,449UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv371952,339,103 - 52,339,396UniSTSGRCm37
Celera1954,451,782 - 54,452,075UniSTS
Celera7142,435,086 - 142,435,873UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map19D2UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
cM Map1949.0UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
MGSCv371952,339,299 - 52,339,477UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,639 - 149,865,426UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,621 - 149,865,362UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,663 - 149,865,612UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,611 - 149,864,734UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,525 - 149,864,804UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,581 - 149,864,765UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,625 - 149,865,400UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,035 - 142,435,158UniSTS
Celera7142,435,045 - 142,435,786UniSTS
Celera7142,435,087 - 142,436,036UniSTS
Celera1954,451,978 - 54,452,156UniSTS
Celera7142,435,049 - 142,435,824UniSTS
Celera7142,435,063 - 142,435,850UniSTS
Celera7142,435,005 - 142,435,189UniSTS
Celera7142,434,949 - 142,435,228UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
cM Map1949.0UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,510 - 142,679,366UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,415 - 149,865,271UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,434,839 - 142,435,695UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,803 - 142,679,497UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,708 - 149,865,402UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,132 - 142,435,826UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,714 - 142,679,533UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,619 - 149,865,438UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,043 - 142,435,862UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,808 - 142,679,508UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,713 - 149,865,413UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,137 - 142,435,837UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,737 - 142,679,525UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,642 - 149,865,430UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,066 - 142,435,854UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm381952,264,685 - 52,264,903UniSTSGRCm38
GRCm387142,678,760 - 142,679,472UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,665 - 149,865,377UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv371952,339,175 - 52,339,393UniSTSGRCm37
Celera1954,451,854 - 54,452,072UniSTS
Celera7142,435,089 - 142,435,801UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map19D2UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
cM Map1949.0UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,751 - 142,679,709UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,656 - 149,865,614UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,080 - 142,436,038UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,679,716 - 142,679,941UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,865,621 - 149,865,846UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,436,045 - 142,436,270UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,716 - 142,679,457UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,621 - 149,865,362UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,045 - 142,435,786UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,706 - 142,678,829UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,611 - 149,864,734UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,035 - 142,435,158UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,720 - 142,679,495UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,625 - 149,865,400UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,049 - 142,435,824UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm381952,264,809 - 52,264,987UniSTSGRCm38
GRCm387142,678,676 - 142,678,860UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv371952,339,299 - 52,339,477UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,581 - 149,864,765UniSTSGRCm37
Celera1954,451,978 - 54,452,156UniSTS
Celera7142,435,005 - 142,435,189UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map19D2UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,620 - 142,678,899UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,525 - 149,864,804UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,434,949 - 142,435,228UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
cM Map769.1UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,733 - 142,679,522UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,638 - 149,865,427UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,062 - 142,435,851UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map19D2UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm381952,264,643 - 52,264,948UniSTSGRCm38
GRCm387142,678,715 - 142,679,514UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv371952,339,133 - 52,339,438UniSTSGRCm37
MGSCv377149,864,620 - 149,865,419UniSTSGRCm37
Celera1954,451,812 - 54,452,117UniSTS
Celera7142,435,044 - 142,435,843UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map19D2UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
GRCm387142,678,758 - 142,679,707UniSTSGRCm38
MGSCv377149,864,663 - 149,865,612UniSTSGRCm37
Celera7142,435,087 - 142,436,036UniSTS
Cytogenetic Map7F5UniSTS
Mouse AssemblyChrPosition (strand)SourceJBrowse
Cytogenetic Map19D2