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RGD ID: 1304738
Species: Rattus norvegicus
RGD Object: Gene
Symbol: Ube4b
Name: ubiquitination factor E4B
Acc ID: CHEBI:77850
Term: toxaphene
Definition: A highly complex mixture of several hundred polychlorinated compounds obtained by chlorination of camphene to an overall chlorine content of 67-69% by weight and having an overall empirical formula of C10H10Cl8 (including optical isomers, it could theoretically contain over 32,000 congeners). Toxaphene was used from the mid-1940s as an agricultural insecticide (mostly in the USA, particularly on corn and soybeans). Use increased with the phasing out of DDT in the 1970s (it became the most heavily manufactured pesticide in the US) but it is now banned due to concerns about toxicity and carcinogenicity. Total production since its first use is estimated at around 500,000 tons. In the environment, most of the components of toxaphene get metabolised, but from 10 to >100 resist biodegradation, depending on the medium and the specialisation of the enzyme system. Breathing, drinking or eating high levels of toxaphene can damage the lungs, kidneys, and nervous system.
Chemical ID: MESH:D014112
Note: Use of the qualifier "multiple interactions" designates that the annotated interaction is comprised of a complex set of reactions and/or regulatory events, possibly involving additional chemicals and/or gene products.
Object SymbolQualifierEvidenceWithReferenceSourceNotesOriginal Reference(s)
Ube4bincreases expressionEXP 6480464CTDToxaphene results in increased expression of UBE4B mRNA

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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.