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Glycogen - the storage form of glucose - is a ramified polysaccharide formed by alpha1-4 linked glucose units branching at alpha1-6 bonds. Upon uptake into the cell, glucose is rapidly phosphorylated to G6P, a key molecule at the intersection of several pathways of glucose metabolism. In the glycogen biosynthetic pathway, G6P is converted to G1P via the reversible reaction carried out by phosphoglucomutases (Pgm). UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Ugp2) catalyzes the formation of UDP-glucose

Pathway Diagram:

Ariadne Genomics Inc. Gsk3 Pp-1 complex phosphoglucomutases Pp-1 complex --+> Gys1 Gys1 Pp-1 complex --+> Gys2 Gys2 Gsk3 ---| Gys1 Gsk3 ---| Gys2 glucose-6-phosphate --+> Gys2 glycolysis pathway gluconeogenesis pathway glycogen degradation pathway Gbe1 Gyg1 Ugp2 glycogen (elongated, branched) ---> glucose-6-phosphate glucose-1-phosphate ---> UDP-glucose UDP-glucose ---> glycogen glucose-6-phosphate ---> glycolysis pathway gluconeogenesis pathway ---> glucose-6-phosphate UTP ---> UDP-glucose glucose-1-phosphate <--> glucose-6-phosphate glycogen ---> glycogen (elongated, branched) UDP-glucose ---> glycogen (elongated, branched) glucose-6-phosphate glucose-1-phosphate UTP UDP-glucose glycogen (elongated, branched) glycogen

Genes in Pathway:

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glycogen biosynthetic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Gbe1 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme 1 JBrowse link 11 7,210,169 7,485,895 RGD:1642743
G Gck glucokinase JBrowse link 14 86,149,146 86,191,589 RGD:1582633
G Gsk3a glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha JBrowse link 1 82,097,244 82,108,238 RGD:2306093
G Gsk3b glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta JBrowse link 11 65,060,884 65,208,842 RGD:2306093
G Gyg1 glycogenin 1 JBrowse link 2 104,916,734 104,958,219 RGD:2303736
G Gys1 glycogen synthase 1 JBrowse link 1 101,427,195 101,447,092 RGD:2304106
G Gys2 glycogen synthase 2 JBrowse link 4 176,638,632 176,679,805 RGD:1582633
G Pgm1 phosphoglucomutase 1 JBrowse link 5 118,743,632 118,803,055 RGD:2304188
G Pgm2 phosphoglucomutase 2 JBrowse link 14 45,829,440 45,863,883 RGD:2304188
G Pgm3 phosphoglucomutase 3 JBrowse link 8 94,225,513 94,243,230 RGD:2304188
G Ppp1ca protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha JBrowse link 1 219,439,953 219,443,570 RGD:2304325
G Ppp1cb protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit beta JBrowse link 6 23,548,507 23,581,136 RGD:2304325
G Ppp1cc protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma JBrowse link 12 39,864,302 39,882,030 RGD:2304325
G Ppp1r3a protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3A JBrowse link 4 41,171,486 41,212,116 RGD:2304325
G Ppp1r3b protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3B JBrowse link 16 60,415,192 60,427,498 RGD:2304325
G Ppp1r3c protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3C JBrowse link 1 255,371,830 255,376,833 RGD:2306167
G Ppp1r3d protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3D JBrowse link 3 173,950,613 173,953,684 RGD:2306167
G Ppp1r3e protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3E JBrowse link 15 33,535,986 33,537,146 RGD:2306166

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Functional Classphosphoglucomutasesmembers of the phosphoglucomutase family
ComplexPp-1 complexthe serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 complex
Small MoleculeUDP-glucoseuridine diphosphate glucose
Small MoleculeUTPuridine triphosphate

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway
Disease TermsGene Symbols
abdominal aortic aneurysmGys1
Aberrant Crypt FociGsk3b
acute kidney failureGsk3b
acute myocardial infarctionGsk3b
Alzheimer's diseaseGsk3a , Gsk3b
amyotrophic lateral sclerosisGsk3a , Gsk3b
bipolar disorderGsk3a , Gsk3b
Brain InjuriesGsk3b
Cardiac ArrhythmiasGyg1
cardiovascular system diseaseGys1
Cell Transformation, NeoplasticGsk3b
cervical cancerPgm3
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver InjuryPgm1
cognitive disorderGsk3b
colon cancerGsk3b
Colonic NeoplasmsGsk3b
colorectal adenocarcinomaGsk3b
Colorectal NeoplasmsPgm1
congenital disorder of glycosylationPgm1
Congenital HyperinsulinismGck
congestive heart failureGsk3b , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cc
coronary artery diseaseGck
degenerative disc diseaseGsk3b
diabetes mellitusGck , Ppp1r3a
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental Gck , Gsk3a
diabetic encephalopathyGsk3b
Diabetic NephropathiesGsk3b
dilated cardiomyopathyGsk3a , Ppp1ca
Drug-Induced DyskinesiaGsk3b
endometrial cancerPgm1
endometrial carcinomaGsk3b
Endometrial NeoplasmsGsk3b
Experimental ArthritisGsk3b
Experimental Liver CirrhosisGck , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c
familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia 3Gck
fatty liver diseaseGck
genetic diseaseGbe1 , Gck , Gys2
gestational diabetesGck
glycogen storage diseaseGyg1 , Gys2
Glycogen Storage Disease 0, LiverGys2
Glycogen Storage Disease 0, MuscleGys1
glycogen storage disease IVGbe1
Glycogen Storage Disease XIVPgm1
glycogen storage disease XVGyg1
GSD IV, Classic HepaticGbe1
GSD IV, combined hepatic and myopathicGbe1
GSD IV, Neuromuscular Form, ChildhoodGbe1
GSD IV, Neuromuscular Form, CongenitalGbe1
Hearing Loss, Cisplatin-InducedGsk3b
heart diseaseGsk3b
hepatocellular carcinomaGys2
Hereditary Hyperferritinemia with Congenital CataractsGys1
hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemiaGck
hypertensionGck , Gsk3b
hypoglycemiaGck , Ppp1r3a
Immunodeficiency 23Pgm3
Insulin ResistanceGck , Gys1 , Ppp1r3a
Intestinal NeoplasmsGsk3b
Job's syndromePgm3
Left Ventricular HypertrophyGsk3a
Liver InjuryGck
Liver Reperfusion InjuryGsk3b
Mammary Neoplasms, ExperimentalGsk3b
mantle cell lymphomaGsk3b
maturity-onset diabetes of the youngGck
maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 2Gck
mental depressionGsk3a , Gsk3b
middle cerebral artery infarctionGsk3b
Multiple AbnormalitiesGsk3b
Muscle WeaknessGyg1
muscular atrophyGsk3b
myocardial infarctionGsk3b
Myocardial IschemiaGyg1 , Pgm1
Myocardial Reperfusion InjuryGsk3b
neonatal diabetes mellitusGck
neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 3Gys1
neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 6Gsk3b
Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder with Loose Anagen Hair 2Ppp1cb
Ovarian NeoplasmsGsk3b , Ppp1cc
Parkinson's diseaseGsk3b
Parkinsonian DisordersGsk3a
permanent neonatal diabetes mellitusGck
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaGck , Ppp1r3a
Polyglucosan Body Disease, Adult FormGbe1
prostate cancerPpp1r3c
Prostatic NeoplasmsGsk3b
schizophreniaGsk3a , Gsk3b
sciatic neuropathyGsk3b
Spinal Cord InjuriesPpp1cc
status epilepticusGsk3b
Subarachnoid HemorrhageGsk3b
substance-related disorderGsk3b
teratomaPgm1 , Pgm3
transient neonatal diabetes mellitusGck
type 2 diabetes mellitusGck , Gsk3b , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3c
vascular dementiaGsk3b
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathwayPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1r3d
Alzheimer's disease pathwayGsk3b
amino sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1 , Pgm3
B cell receptor signaling pathwayGsk3b
basal cell carcinoma pathwayGsk3b
Bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathwayGsk3b , Ppp1ca
butirosin and neomycin biosynthetic pathwayGck
calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase 2 signaling pathwayPpp1cc
cell cycle pathway, mitoticGsk3b
chemokine mediated signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
colorectal cancer pathwayGsk3b
congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
dopamine signaling pathwayPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc
endometrial cancer pathwayGsk3b
epidermal growth factor/neuregulin signaling pathwayGsk3b
follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathwayPpp1ca
forkhead class A signaling pathwayGck
french type sialuria pathwayPgm3
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency pathwayPgm1
galactokinase deficiency pathwayGck , Pgm1
galactose metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1
galactosemia pathwayGck , Pgm1
GALE deficiency pathwayGck , Pgm1
gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Pgm1
glycogen biosynthetic pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gsk3a , Gsk3b , Gyg1 , Gys1 , Gys2 , Pgm1 , Pgm2 , Pgm3 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d , Ppp1r3e
glycogen degradation pathwayPgm1 , Pgm2 , Pgm3 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d , Ppp1r3e
glycogen metabolic pathwayGck , Gys2
glycogen storage disease type Ia pathwayPgm1
glycogen storage disease type Ib pathwayPgm1
glycogen storage disease type III pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycogen storage disease type IV pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycogen storage disease type VI pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycolysis pathwayGck , Pgm1
glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Pgm1
Hedgehog signaling pathwayGsk3b
hepatitis C pathwayGsk3b
hexosamine biosynthetic pathwayPgm3
histamine signaling pathway, immunologicalPpp1ca
hypoxia inducible factor pathwayGck , Pgm1
influenza A pathwayGsk3b
insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwayGsk3b , Gys1 , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a
insulin secretion pathwayGck
insulin signaling pathwayGck , Gsk3b , Gys1 , Gys2 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d
long term depressionGsk3b
long term potentiationPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc
luteinizing hormone signaling pathwayPpp1ca
maturity-onset diabetes of the young pathwayGck
measles pathwayGsk3b
neurotrophic factor signaling pathwayGsk3b
nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
nucleotide sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1 , Pgm3
p53 signaling pathwayGsk3b
pentose phosphate pathwayPgm1
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency pathwayPgm1
prostate cancer pathwayGsk3b
purine metabolic pathwayPgm1
Reelin signaling pathwayGsk3b
ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayPgm1
serotonin signaling pathway via receptors engaging G alphas protein familyPpp1ca
sialic acid storage disease pathwayPgm3
starch and sucrose metabolic pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys1 , Gys2 , Pgm1
T cell receptor signaling pathwayGsk3b
Tay-Sachs disease pathwayPgm3
transaldolase deficiency pathwayPgm1
transforming growth factor-beta Smad dependent signaling pathwayPpp1ca
trehalose degradation pathwayGck
triosephosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayPgm1
type 2 diabetes mellitus pathwayGck
Wnt signaling pathwayGsk3b
Wnt signaling, canonical pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
Phenotype Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway

References Associated with the glycogen biosynthetic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

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