TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATHWAY (PW:0000208)

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Description

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disease continue to be remarkably elusive. The importance and impact of environmental factors such as diet and lifestyle on the susceptibility of the disease only add additional challenges to the identification of genetic causes. While it is known that several pathways important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis are altered in T2D, less is known about the molecular mechanisms

Pathway Diagram:

Elsevier Inc. anti-diabetic drug pathway Abcc8 Kcnj11 type 2 diabetes mellitus diabetic complications other T2D candidate genes potential T2D miRNAs altered insulin secretion pathway Insr Akt2 altered insulin signaling pathway altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway altered insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathway metformin drug pathway other T2D candidate genes ---> insulin gene expression potential T2D miRNAs ---> insulin secretion potential T2D miRNAs ---> insulin gene expression beta-cell function insulin gene expression insulin secretion other T2D candidate genes ---> insulin secretion Islet development potential T2D miRNAs ---> Islet development other T2D candidate genes ---> beta-cell function insulin action potential T2D miRNAs ---> insulin action anti-diabetic drug pathway ---| altered insulin secretion pathway high blood glucose potential T2D miRNAs ---> diabetic complications potential T2D miRNAs ---> type 2 diabetes mellitus metformin drug pathway ---| diabetic complications metformin drug pathway ---| type 2 diabetes mellitus metformin drug pathway ---| high blood glucose Ins
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Genes in Pathway:

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type 2 diabetes mellitus pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Abcc8 ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 8 JBrowse link 1 102,110,708 102,191,287 RGD:2313628
RGD:6907045
G Adipoq adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing JBrowse link 11 81,330,845 81,344,488 RGD:6907045
G Akt2 AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 JBrowse link 1 84,400,939 84,451,223 RGD:2313408
G Cacna1a calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 A JBrowse link 19 25,453,236 25,749,550 RGD:6907045
G Cacna1b calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 B JBrowse link 3 1,740,026 1,924,959 RGD:6907045
G Cacna1c calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C JBrowse link 4 150,635,808 151,270,790 RGD:6907045
G Cacna1d calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D JBrowse link 16 6,110,294 6,405,022 RGD:6907045
G Cacna1e calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 E JBrowse link 13 71,899,445 72,534,992 RGD:6907045
G Cacna1g calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G JBrowse link 10 82,129,071 82,197,828 RGD:6907045
G Gck glucokinase JBrowse link 14 86,149,146 86,191,589 RGD:6907045
G Hk1 hexokinase 1 JBrowse link 20 31,911,460 31,979,780 RGD:6907045
G Hk2 hexokinase 2 JBrowse link 4 113,559,396 113,609,897 RGD:6907045
G Hk3 hexokinase 3 JBrowse link 17 10,134,726 10,152,976 RGD:6907045
G Ikbkb inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta JBrowse link 16 74,177,233 74,230,809 RGD:6907045
G Ins1 insulin 1 JBrowse link 1 272,799,784 272,800,351 RGD:6907045
G Ins2 insulin 2 JBrowse link 1 215,856,967 215,858,034 RGD:2313694
RGD:6907045
G Insr insulin receptor JBrowse link 12 1,682,527 1,816,414 RGD:2313694
RGD:6907045
G Irs1 insulin receptor substrate 1 JBrowse link 9 88,033,668 88,086,488 RGD:6907045
G Irs2 insulin receptor substrate 2 JBrowse link 16 83,824,515 83,848,569 RGD:6907045
G Irs3 insulin receptor substrate 3 JBrowse link 12 22,120,305 22,125,103 RGD:6907045
G Irs4 insulin receptor substrate 4 JBrowse link X 113,003,824 113,018,088 RGD:6907045
G Kcnj11 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily J member 11 JBrowse link 1 102,103,093 102,107,134 RGD:2313610
RGD:6907045
RGD:2313628
G Mafa MAF bZIP transcription factor A JBrowse link 7 116,779,368 116,781,815 RGD:6907045
G Mapk1 mitogen activated protein kinase 1 JBrowse link 11 88,203,863 88,273,301 RGD:6907045
G Mapk10 mitogen activated protein kinase 10 JBrowse link 14 8,079,955 8,371,508 RGD:6907045
G Mapk3 mitogen activated protein kinase 3 JBrowse link 1 198,192,773 198,198,975 RGD:6907045
G Mapk8 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 JBrowse link 16 9,620,854 9,709,342 RGD:6907045
G Mapk9 mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 JBrowse link 10 35,333,859 35,374,364 RGD:6907045
G Mtor mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase JBrowse link 5 165,263,813 165,373,967 RGD:6907045
G Pdx1 pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 JBrowse link 12 9,496,044 9,501,211 RGD:6907045
G Pik3ca phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha JBrowse link 2 118,831,350 118,861,456 RGD:6907045
G Pik3cb phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit beta JBrowse link 8 107,275,849 107,381,088 RGD:6907045
G Pik3cd phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit delta JBrowse link 5 166,602,053 166,628,028 RGD:6907045
G Pik3r1 phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 JBrowse link 2 31,742,326 31,826,882 RGD:6907045
G Pik3r2 phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 JBrowse link 16 20,415,109 20,424,982 RGD:6907045
G Pik3r3 phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 JBrowse link 5 135,069,972 135,145,633 RGD:6907045
G Pik3r5 phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5 JBrowse link 10 55,013,686 55,078,986 RGD:6907045
G Pklr pyruvate kinase L/R JBrowse link 2 188,449,158 188,458,034 RGD:6907045
G Prkcd protein kinase C, delta JBrowse link 16 6,655,131 6,675,746 RGD:6907045
G Prkce protein kinase C, epsilon JBrowse link 6 9,483,400 9,973,396 RGD:6907045
G Prkcz protein kinase C, zeta JBrowse link 5 172,658,071 172,769,492 RGD:6907045
G Slc2a2 solute carrier family 2 member 2 JBrowse link 2 114,413,427 114,445,418 RGD:6907045
G Slc2a4 solute carrier family 2 member 4 JBrowse link 10 56,552,921 56,558,562 RGD:6907045
G Socs1 suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 JBrowse link 10 4,956,795 4,958,472 RGD:6907045
G Socs2 suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 JBrowse link 7 36,495,496 36,500,878 RGD:6907045
G Socs3 suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 JBrowse link 10 106,973,863 106,976,969 RGD:6907045
G Socs4 suppressor of cytokine signaling 4 JBrowse link 15 24,056,383 24,070,868 RGD:6907045
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor JBrowse link 20 5,189,382 5,192,000 RGD:6907045

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Gene GroupOther T2D candidate genesCandidate genes have been identified in linkage analyses and GWAS studies as potential susceptibility loci for T2D;
Gene GroupPotential T2D miRNAsSeveral microRNAs (miRNAs) with potential roles in beta-cell and insulin function as well as in diabetic complications [see for instance the references PMID: 18655850 or 19471090] have been identified in humans and animal models.

Pathway Gene Annotations

Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the type 2 diabetes mellitus pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
acebutolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
acute myeloid leukemia pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
adenosine signaling pathwayIkbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk8 , Pik3ca , Prkcz
adiponectin signaling pathwayAdipoq
adrenergic beta receptor agonist and beta-blocker pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
aldosterone signaling pathwayIns1 , Ins2 , Insr , Irs1 , Irs2 , Irs3 , Irs4 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
alfentanil pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
allograft rejection pathwayTnf
altered galactose metabolic pathwayHk2
altered insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwayAkt2
altered insulin secretion pathwayAbcc8 , Kcnj11
altered insulin signaling pathwayIns2 , Insr
altered leptin system pathwayInsr
altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathwayPik3ca
altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathwayAkt2 , Pik3ca
Alzheimer disease pathwayCacna1c , Cacna1d , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Tnf
amino sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3
amiodarone pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
amlodipine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease pathwayTnf
angiotensin II signaling pathwayPrkcz
antigen processing and presentation pathwayTnf
apoptotic cell death pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Tnf
arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy pathwayCacna1c , Cacna1d
asthma disease pathwayTnf
atenolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
autophagy pathwayIns1 , Ins2
B cell receptor signaling pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
betaxolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
bisoprolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
bladder cancer pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3
Bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathwayMapk1
bupivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
bupranolol drug pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
bupranolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
buprenorphine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
butirosin and neomycin biosynthetic pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3
c-Jun N-terminal kinases MAPK signaling pathwayMapk10 , Mapk8 , Mapk9
calcium transport pathwayCacna1a , Cacna1b , Cacna1c , Cacna1d , Cacna1e , Cacna1g
calcium/calcium-mediated signaling pathwayCacna1a , Cacna1b , Cacna1c , Cacna1d , Cacna1e , Cacna1g
calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase 2 signaling pathwayCacna1c
carvedilol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
ceramide signaling pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcd , Prkcz , Tnf
chemokine mediated signaling pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcd , Prkcz
chloroprocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
chronic myeloid leukemia pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
citalopram pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
cocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
codeine and morphine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
colorectal cancer pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
cytokine mediated signaling pathwayTnf
desipramine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
diabetes pathwayAbcc8
dilated cardiomyopathy pathwayCacna1c , Cacna1d , Tnf
diltiazem pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
diphenoxylate pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
disopyramide pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
dobutamine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
E-cadherin signaling pathwayAkt2 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1
eicosanoid signaling pathwayPik3r5 , Prkcd , Prkce , Prkcz
eicosanoid signaling pathway via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaAdipoq
endocytosis pathwayPrkcz
endometrial cancer pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated degradation pathwayMapk10 , Mapk8 , Mapk9
endothelin signaling pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Prkcd , Prkce
Entamoeba histolyca infection pathwayPik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Tnf
ephrin - ephrin receptor bidirectional signaling axisMapk1 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1 , Pik3r5
epidermal growth factor/neuregulin signaling pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcz
erythropoietin signaling pathwayIrs2 , Mapk8 , Pik3r1 , Socs3
escitalopram pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
esmolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
ethylmorphine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwaySlc2a2 , Slc2a4
fanconi syndrome pathwayHk2 , Pklr , Slc2a2
FasL mediated signaling pathwayIkbkb , Mapk10 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3
Fc epsilon receptor mediated signaling pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcd , Prkce , Tnf
Fc gamma receptor mediated signaling pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcd , Prkce
felodipine pharmacokinetics pathwayCacna1c
fentanyl pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
fibroblast growth factor signaling pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1
flecainde pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
fluoxetine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
forkhead class A signaling pathwayAbcc8 , Gck , Ins2 , Kcnj11 , Pdx1 , Pklr , Slc2a2
fosphenytoin pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
french type sialuria disease pathwayHk1
fructose and mannose metabolic pathwayHk1 , Hk2 , Hk3
fructose intolerance pathwayHk1
fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency pathwayHk2 , Slc2a2
fructosuria disease pathwayHk1
galactose metabolic pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3
GALE deficiency pathwayGck
GALK deficiency pathwayGck
GALT deficiency pathwayGck , Hk1
gliclazide pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1a , Ins2 , Slc2a2
glioma pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3 , Pklr , Slc2a2
glutamate signaling pathwayCacna1a , Cacna1c , Cacna1d , Mapk1 , Mapk3
glyburide pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1a , Ins2 , Slc2a2
glycogen biosynthetic pathwayGck
glycogen metabolic pathwayGck
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IAHk2 , Slc2a2
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IBHk2 , Slc2a2
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IIIGck , Hk2
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IV.Gck , Hk2
glycogen storage disease pathway, type VIGck , Hk2
glycogen storage disease pathway, type VIIHk2 , Pklr , Slc2a2
glycolysis pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3 , Pklr , Slc2a2
glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3 , Pklr
glypican signaling pathwayMapk8 , Mapk9
gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathwayCacna1c , Cacna1d , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Prkcd
graft-versus-host disease pathwayTnf
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathwayIkbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1
Hedgehog signaling pathwayPik3ca , Pik3r1 , Prkcd
hepatitis C virus infection pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Socs3 , Tnf
heroin pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
hydrocodone pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
hydromorphone pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy pathwayCacna1c , Cacna1d , Tnf
hypoxia inducible factor pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2
ibutilide pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
imipramine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
inflammatory response pathwayMapk8
influenza A virus infection pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Socs3 , Tnf
inositol metabolic pathwayPik3ca
inositol phosphate metabolic pathwayPik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd
insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwayAkt2 , Ins2 , Insr , Prkcz , Slc2a4
insulin secretion pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1a , Cacna1c , Cacna1d , Gck , Kcnj11 , Slc2a2
insulin signaling pathwayAkt2 , Gck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3 , Ikbkb , Ins1 , Ins2 , Insr , Irs1 , Irs2 , Irs3 , Irs4 , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Pklr , Prkcz , Slc2a4 , Socs1 , Socs2 , Socs3 , Socs4
insulin-like growth factor signaling pathwayIrs1 , Irs2 , Irs4 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1 , Prkcd , Prkcz
interleukin-1 signaling pathwayIkbkb , Mapk8 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1 , Prkcz
interleukin-12 signaling pathwayMtor , Socs1
interleukin-2 signaling pathwayIrs1 , Irs2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1 , Prkce , Socs1 , Socs2 , Socs3
interleukin-23 signaling pathwayPik3ca , Pik3r1 , Socs3 , Tnf
interleukin-27 signaling pathwayTnf
interleukin-3 signaling pathwayPik3ca , Pik3r1
interleukin-4 signaling pathwayIrs1 , Irs2 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3r1 , Socs1 , Socs3
interleukin-5 signaling pathwayPik3ca , Pik3r1
interleukin-6 signaling pathwayPik3ca , Pik3r1 , Prkcd , Socs3
isoprenaline pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
isradipine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
Jak-Stat signaling pathwayAkt2 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Socs1 , Socs2 , Socs3 , Socs4
lactose degradation pathwaySlc2a2
Leigh syndrome pathwayPklr
Leishmania infection pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3 , Tnf
leptin system pathwayIrs1 , Irs2 , Socs3
levacetylmethadol pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
levobunolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
levobupivacaine phgarmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
levorphanol pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
lidocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1a , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
long term depressionCacna1a , Mapk1 , Mapk3
long term potentiationCacna1c , Mapk1 , Mapk3
maturity onset diabetes of the young pathwayGck , Ins1 , Ins2 , Mafa , Pdx1 , Pklr , Slc2a2
measles infection pathwayAkt2 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
melanoma pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
mepivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
methadone pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
metoprolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
mexiletine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathwayAkt2 , Cacna1a , Cacna1b , Cacna1c , Cacna1d , Cacna1e , Cacna1g , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Tnf
mTOR signaling pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Ins1 , Ins2 , Irs1 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Tnf
N-cadherin signaling pathwayMapk8 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1
nadolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
nalbuphine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
naloxone pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
naltrexone pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
nebivolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
neurotrophic factor signaling pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Irs1 , Irs2 , Irs3 , Irs4 , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcd
nicotine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
nifedipine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
nimodipine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
nisoldipine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
nitrendipine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
NOD-like receptor signaling pathwayIkbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Tnf
non-small cell lung cancer pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathwayIkbkb , Pik3ca , Pik3r1 , Tnf
nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 signaling pathwayIkbkb
nucleotide sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3
oxybuprocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
oxycodone pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
oxymorphone pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
p53 signaling pathwayMapk8 , Mapk9 , Prkcd
pancreatic cancer pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
penbutolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
pentazocine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
phenytoin pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I signaling pathwayPik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathwayPik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathwayAkt2 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Slc2a4
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency pathwayHk2 , Slc2a2
phosphoinositide metabolic pathwayPik3ca , Pik3cd , Pik3r1
pindolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
Plasmodium infection pathwayTnf
platelet-derived growth factor signaling pathwayMapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcd , Prkce
potassium channel inhibitors pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1a , Ins2 , Slc2a2
prilocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
primary hyperoxaluria type 2 disease pathwayPklr
prion diseases pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3
procainamide pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
procaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
propranolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
prostate cancer pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Ins1 , Ins2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathwayPrkcd , Prkce , Prkcz
purine metabolic pathwayPklr
pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency pathwayPklr
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 deficiency pathwayPklr
pyruvate kinase deficiency pathwayPklr
pyruvate metabolic pathwayPklr
quinidine pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
Reelin signaling pathwayMapk8 , Pik3ca , Pik3r1
remifentanil pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
renal cell cancer pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
Retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG) I-like receptor signaling pathwayIkbkb , Mapk10 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Tnf
rheumatoid arthritis disease pathwayTnf
Rho/Rac/Cdc42 mediated signaling pathwayMapk8
ropivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor signaling pathwayPik3r1
sialic acid storage disease pathwayHk1
small cell lung cancer pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5
sotalol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
sphingosine 1-phosphate signaling pathwayIrs1 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mapk8
starch and sucrose metabolic pathwayGck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency pathwayGck , Hk2
syndecan signaling pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Prkcd
systemic lupus erythematosus pathwayTnf
T cell receptor signaling pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Tnf
Tay-Sachs disease pathwayHk1
the extracellular signal-regulated Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3 , Prkcd
thyroid cancer pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3
timolol pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
Toll-like receptor signaling pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Tnf
Toxoplasma gondii infection pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Socs1 , Tnf
Trail mediated signaling pathwayIkbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3
tramadol pharmacodynamics pathwayCacna1a
transforming growth factor-beta superfamily mediated signaling pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3 , Tnf
trehalose degradation pathwayGck , Slc2a2
triosephosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayHk2 , Slc2a2
Trypanosoma brucei infection pathwayTnf
Trypanosoma cruzi infection pathwayAkt2 , Ikbkb , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Tnf
tumor necrosis factor mediated signaling pathwayIkbkb , Prkcz , Tnf
type 1 diabetes mellitus pathwayIns1 , Ins2 , Tnf
type 2 diabetes mellitus pathwayAbcc8 , Adipoq , Akt2 , Cacna1a , Cacna1b , Cacna1c , Cacna1d , Cacna1e , Cacna1g , Gck , Hk1 , Hk2 , Hk3 , Ikbkb , Ins1 , Ins2 , Insr , Irs1 , Irs2 , Irs3 , Irs4 , Kcnj11 , Mafa , Mapk1 , Mapk10 , Mapk3 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Mtor , Pdx1 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Pklr , Prkcd , Prkce , Prkcz , Slc2a2 , Slc2a4 , Socs1 , Socs2 , Socs3 , Socs4 , Tnf
type II interferon signaling pathwayMapk1 , Mapk3 , Mtor , Pik3ca , Pik3r1 , Prkcd , Socs1
ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathwaySocs1 , Socs3
vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathwayAkt2 , Mapk1 , Mapk3 , Pik3ca , Pik3cb , Pik3cd , Pik3r1 , Pik3r2 , Pik3r3 , Pik3r5 , Prkcd , Prkcz
verapamil pharmacodynamics pathwayAbcc8 , Cacna1c , Cacna1g , Kcnj11
Wnt signaling pathwayMapk10 , Mapk8 , Mapk9
Wnt signaling, non-canonical pathwayMapk10 , Mapk8 , Mapk9 , Prkcz
Phenotype Annotations Associated with Genes in the type 2 diabetes mellitus pathway

References Associated with the type 2 diabetes mellitus pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

paths to the root

Import into Pathway Studio: