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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential coenzyme of enzyme-catalyzed reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions. Its discovery and mechanistic understanding span more than a century and brought four Nobel prizes. NAD+ and its reduced form NADH, and the phosphorylated NADP/NADPH forms, serve as hydride acceptors or donors in over 2,000 redox reactions. In addition to its known role as a cofactor in redox reactions, NAD+ serves as a substrate for several classes of enzymes that include

Pathway Diagram:

Elsevier Inc. NAD precursor, metabolite transport NADH shuttle Nnt Nadk2 Nadk NADH NADPH NADP+ NAD+ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide utilization pathway nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway NADH shuttle ---> NADH NAD precursor, metabolite transport ---> nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway NAD precursor, metabolite transport ---> NAD+ NAD+ ---> nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide utilization pathway NAD+ ---> NADP+ NADPH <--> NADP+ NAD+ <--> NADH NADP+ ---> NADPH NADH ---> NAD+ nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway ---> NAD+

Genes in Pathway:

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nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Gapdh glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase JBrowse link 4 157,676,336 157,680,322 RGD:10402751
G Got1 glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1 JBrowse link 1 263,246,248 263,269,762 RGD:5129954
G Got2 glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 JBrowse link 19 9,587,637 9,613,323 RGD:5129954
G Gpd1 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 JBrowse link 7 141,368,928 141,377,931 RGD:5129954
G Gpd2 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 JBrowse link 3 43,223,892 43,359,069 RGD:5129954
G Mdh1 malate dehydrogenase 1 JBrowse link 14 106,378,349 106,393,642 RGD:5129954
G Mdh2 malate dehydrogenase 2 JBrowse link 12 23,941,451 23,954,406 RGD:5129954
G Nadk NAD kinase JBrowse link 5 172,984,930 173,015,505 RGD:11250407
G Nadk2 NAD kinase 2, mitochondrial JBrowse link 2 58,462,588 58,504,735 RGD:11250407
G Nnt nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase JBrowse link 2 52,189,523 52,283,095 RGD:11099972
G Slc1a3 solute carrier family 1 member 3 JBrowse link 2 57,860,881 57,935,363 RGD:5129954
G Slc22a13 solute carrier family 22 member 13 JBrowse link 8 127,885,268 127,900,829 RGD:11251687
G Slc25a11 solute carrier family 25 member 11 JBrowse link 10 57,265,903 57,268,018 RGD:10402751
G Slc25a12 solute carrier family 25 member 12 JBrowse link 3 57,881,951 57,998,214 RGD:5129954
G Slc25a13 solute carrier family 25 member 13 JBrowse link 4 31,134,165 31,757,006 RGD:11251688
G Slc36a4 solute carrier family 36 member 4 JBrowse link 8 14,238,975 14,271,931 RGD:11251687
G Slc5a8 solute carrier family 5 member 8 JBrowse link 7 29,434,175 29,476,807 RGD:11251687
G Slc7a5 solute carrier family 7 member 5 JBrowse link 19 54,693,959 54,722,563 RGD:11251687
ADP-ribosylation pathway, cyclic ribosylation term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Bst1 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 JBrowse link 14 71,798,218 71,814,540 RGD:11250406
G Cd38 CD38 molecule JBrowse link 14 71,714,768 71,754,990 RGD:11250406
ADP-ribosylation pathway, mono and poly-ribosylation term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Aplf aprataxin and PNKP like factor JBrowse link 4 119,514,822 119,568,764 RGD:11100038
G Chfr checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains JBrowse link 12 52,562,594 52,596,162 RGD:11100038
G Macrod1 MACRO domain containing 1 JBrowse link 1 222,310,916 222,451,485 RGD:11100038
G Macrod2 MACRO domain containing 2 JBrowse link 3 135,729,839 136,422,082 RGD:11100038
G Oard1 O-acyl-ADP-ribose deacylase 1 JBrowse link 9 14,542,957 14,551,519 RGD:11100038
G Parg poly (ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase JBrowse link 16 8,350,168 8,457,999 RGD:11100038
G Parp1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 JBrowse link 13 98,857,255 98,889,444 RGD:11100038
G Parp10 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 10 JBrowse link 7 117,291,592 117,300,878 RGD:11100038
G Parp11 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 11 JBrowse link 4 160,013,968 160,059,981 RGD:11100038
G Parp12 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 12 JBrowse link 4 66,835,647 66,900,324 RGD:11100038
G Parp14 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 14 JBrowse link 11 68,105,442 68,137,509 RGD:11100038
G Parp16 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 16 JBrowse link 8 70,712,393 70,731,212 RGD:11100038
G Parp2 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 2 JBrowse link 15 27,739,416 27,749,650 RGD:11100038
G Parp3 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 3 JBrowse link 8 115,173,440 115,179,543 RGD:11100038
G Parp4 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 4 JBrowse link 15 36,809,362 36,911,167 RGD:11100038
G Parp6 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 6 JBrowse link 8 64,439,933 64,472,443 RGD:11100038
G Parp8 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 8 JBrowse link 2 49,086,949 49,455,848 RGD:11100038
G Parp9 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 9 JBrowse link 11 67,724,071 67,758,027 RGD:11100038
G Rnf146 ring finger protein 146 JBrowse link 1 30,856,923 30,873,814 RGD:11100038
G Tiparp TCDD-inducible poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase JBrowse link 2 157,316,293 157,342,979 RGD:11100038
G Tnks tankyrase JBrowse link 16 60,925,093 61,067,192 RGD:11100038
G Tnks2 tankyrase 2 RGD:11100038
G Zc3hav1 zinc finger CCCH-type containing, antiviral 1 JBrowse link 4 66,012,111 66,062,160 RGD:11100038
de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Nadsyn1 NAD synthetase 1 JBrowse link 1 216,985,710 217,013,743 RGD:11099972
G Nmnat1 nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 JBrowse link 5 166,409,460 166,430,291 RGD:11099972
G Nmnat2 nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 JBrowse link 13 70,379,346 70,559,311 RGD:11099972
G Nmnat3 nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 3 JBrowse link 8 106,317,038 106,429,535 RGD:11099972
G Qprt quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase JBrowse link 1 198,544,262 198,559,556 RGD:11099972
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthesis, the salvage pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Nadsyn1 NAD synthetase 1 JBrowse link 1 216,985,710 217,013,743 RGD:11099972
G Nampt nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase JBrowse link 6 52,122,085 52,156,473 RGD:11099972
G Naprt nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase JBrowse link 7 116,922,979 116,926,436 RGD:11099972
G Nmnat1 nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 JBrowse link 5 166,409,460 166,430,291 RGD:11099972
G Nmnat2 nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 2 JBrowse link 13 70,379,346 70,559,311 RGD:11099972
G Nmnat3 nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase 3 JBrowse link 8 106,317,038 106,429,535 RGD:11099972
G Nmrk1 nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 JBrowse link 1 234,721,992 234,749,452 RGD:11099972
G Nmrk2 nicotinamide riboside kinase 2 JBrowse link 7 11,382,966 11,386,170 RGD:11099972
Sirtuin mediated pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Sirt1 sirtuin 1 JBrowse link 20 26,831,971 26,851,587 RGD:11100032
G Sirt2 sirtuin 2 JBrowse link 1 86,948,866 86,971,954 RGD:11100032
G Sirt3 sirtuin 3 JBrowse link 1 213,613,502 213,636,061 RGD:11100032
G Sirt4 sirtuin 4 JBrowse link 12 46,862,358 46,876,593 RGD:11100032
G Sirt5 sirtuin 5 JBrowse link 17 23,986,710 24,013,854 RGD:11100032
G Sirt6 sirtuin 6 JBrowse link 7 10,937,622 10,943,048 RGD:11100032
G Sirt7 sirtuin 7 JBrowse link 10 109,796,046 109,802,821 RGD:11100032

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathway
Disease TermsGene Symbols
16Q24.3 Microdeletion SyndromeSlc7a5
2,4-Dienoyl-CoA Reductase DeficiencyNadk2
Acute Coronary SyndromeGapdh
acute kidney failureGot2
Acute Lung InjuryGot1
adult respiratory distress syndromeMdh1 , Slc25a11
Adult-Onset Citrullinemia Type 2Slc25a13
allergic contact dermatitisSlc7a5
Alzheimer's diseaseGapdh
amyotrophic lateral sclerosisGot1
Animal Disease ModelsGapdh
Animal Mammary NeoplasmsMdh2
Asperger syndromeSlc25a12
autism spectrum disorderGpd2 , Slc25a12
autistic disorderSlc1a3 , Slc25a12 , Slc7a5
Bardet-Biedl syndromeMdh1
Bone FracturesSlc25a13
brain diseaseMdh2
brain gliomaGapdh
brain ischemiaMdh2
Brugada syndromeSlc22a13
Chemical and Drug Induced Liver InjuryGot1 , Gpd1 , Mdh1
Colonic NeoplasmsSlc5a8
Colorectal NeoplasmsGapdh
congestive heart failureMdh2
Developmental DisabilitiesSlc1a3
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental Gapdh , Gpd2
diabetic retinopathyGapdh
early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 39Slc25a12
early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 51Mdh2
epilepsyGapdh , Slc1a3
episodic ataxiaSlc1a3
episodic ataxia type 6Slc1a3
Esophageal NeoplasmsGapdh
Experimental Liver CirrhosisGot1 , Mdh1 , Slc25a13
Febrile SeizuresGot1 , Got2
genetic diseaseGpd1
Glucocorticoid Deficiency 4Nnt
Head Injuries, ClosedGot1
hepatocellular carcinomaGapdh
Huntington's diseaseGapdh
Hypertriglyceridemia, Transient InfantileGpd1
idiopathic generalized epilepsyNadk
Liver InjuryMdh1
low tension glaucomaSlc1a3
Lung NeoplasmsSlc7a5
Mammary Neoplasms, ExperimentalMdh2
methylmalonic acidemiaGpd2
middle cerebral artery infarctionGapdh
Mouth NeoplasmsGapdh
myocardial infarctionMdh2
Myocardial Reperfusion InjuryGapdh
Neonatal-Onset Citrullinemia Type 2Slc25a13
neurodegenerative diseaseGot2
obesityGapdh , Got2 , Nnt
oral squamous cell carcinomaGapdh
osteoporosisGapdh , Gpd2
pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomaGot1
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaMdh2 , Slc25a13
Pregnancy in DiabeticsGapdh
Pulmonary Hypertension, Hypoxia-Induced Got1 , Got2
rheumatic heart diseaseGapdh
rheumatoid arthritisSlc25a12
Spinal Cord InjuriesGapdh , Got2
Spinal Cord Reperfusion InjuryGapdh
squamous cell carcinomaGapdh
transient cerebral ischemiaGot1
Transplant RejectionGot2
type 2 diabetes mellitusGapdh , Gpd2
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria pathwayGot2
AGAT deficiency pathwayGot1
alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolic pathwayGot1 , Got2
alkaptonuria pathwayGot1
Alzheimer's disease pathwayGapdh
amiloride pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
arginine and proline metabolic pathwayGot1 , Got2
argininosuccinic aciduria pathwayGot2 , Slc25a12
bendroflumethiazide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
bumetanide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency pathwayGot2 , Slc25a12
chlorothiazide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
chlorthalidone pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
citric acid cycle pathwayMdh1 , Mdh2
citrullinemia pathwayGot2 , Slc25a12
cysteine and methionine metabolic pathwayGot1 , Got2
cysteine metabolic pathwayGot1
cystinuria pathwaySlc7a5
D-glycericacidemia pathwayGpd1 , Gpd2
disulfiram pharmacodynamics pathwayGot1
dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency pathwayGot1
electron transport chain pathwayGapdh , Gpd1 , Gpd2
eplerenone pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
etacrynic acid pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency pathwayGpd1 , Gpd2
Fanconi syndrome pathwayGapdh
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency pathwayGapdh , Mdh2 , Slc25a11
fumaric aciduria pathwayMdh2
furosemide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
gluconeogenesis pathwayGapdh , Got1 , Got2 , Mdh2 , Slc25a11
glutamate signaling pathwaySlc1a3
glutamic acid/glutamate metabolic pathwayGot2
glycerol kinase deficiency pathwayGpd1 , Gpd2
glycerolipid metabolic pathwayGpd1 , Gpd2
glycerophospholipid metabolic pathwayGpd1 , Gpd2
glycogen storage disease type Ia pathwayGapdh , Mdh2 , Slc25a11
glycogen storage disease type Ib pathwayGapdh , Mdh2 , Slc25a11
glycogen storage disease type VII pathwayGapdh
glycolysis pathwayGapdh
glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathwayGapdh
glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolic pathwayMdh1 , Mdh2
guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency pathwayGot1
gyrate atrophy pathwayGot1
Hartnup disease pathwaySlc7a5
hawkinsinuria pathwayGot1
homocarnosinosis pathwayGot2
hydrochlorothiazide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
hydroflumethiazide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
hyperargininemia pathwayGot2 , Slc25a12
hyperprolinemia type I pathwayGot1
hyperprolinemia type II pathwayGot1
iminoglycinuria pathwaySlc7a5
kynurenine metabolic pathwayGot2
Leigh disease pathwayMdh1
lysinuric protein intolerance pathwaySlc7a5
mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfiduria pathwayGot1
metolazone pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
mitochondrial complex II deficiency pathwayMdh2
monoterpenoid biosynthetic pathwayNadk , Nnt
niacin metabolic pathwayNadk , Nnt
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathwayGapdh , Got1 , Got2 , Gpd1 , Gpd2 , Mdh1 , Mdh2 , Nadk , Nadk2 , Nnt , Slc1a3 , Slc22a13 , Slc25a11 , Slc25a12 , Slc25a13 , Slc36a4 , Slc5a8 , Slc7a5
ocular nonnephropathic cystinosis pathwayGot1
ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency pathwayGot2 , Slc25a12
ornithine translocase deficiency pathwayGot1
phenylalanine metabolic pathwayGot1 , Got2
phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthetic pathwayGot1 , Got2
phenylketonuria pathwayGot1
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency pathwayGapdh , Mdh2 , Slc25a11
primary hyperoxaluria type 2 pathwayMdh1
prolidase deficiency pathwayGot1
pyruvate decarboxylase deficiency pathwayMdh1
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 deficiency pathwayMdh1
pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency pathwayMdh2
pyruvate dehydrogenase E3 deficiency pathwayMdh2
pyruvate kinase deficiency of red cells pathwayMdh1
pyruvate metabolic pathwayMdh1 , Mdh2
spironolactone pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency pathwayGot2
torasemide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
triamterene pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
trichlormethiazide pharmacodynamics pathwaySlc7a5
triosephosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayGapdh , Mdh2 , Slc25a11
tyrosine metabolic pathwayGot1 , Got2
tyrosinemia type I pathwayGot1
tyrosinemia type II pathwayGot1
tyrosinemia type III pathwayGot1
urea cycle pathwayGot2 , Slc25a12

References Associated with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

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