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Kynurenine, the central component of the kynurenine metabolic pathway, is a product of tryptophan catabolism. Tryptophan also serves as the precursor for the production of serotonin, which in turn, serves as a precursor to melatonin. Most of tryptophan (~95%) is channeled into the kynurenine pathway. The incorporation of oxygen into the indole moiety of tryptophan in the first and rate-limiting step of kynurenine metabolism is catalyzed by three heme-containing enzymes in mammals: tryptophan-2,

Pathway Diagram:

Elsevier Inc. N-formyl-L-kynurenine ---> kynurenine Afmid 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde ---> 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid ---> 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde 3-hydroxykynurenine ---> 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid kynurenine ---> anthranilic acid 3-hydroxykynurenine ---> xanthurenic acid tryptophan ---> N-formyl-L-kynurenine Structures of KP enzymes picolinic acid quinolinic acid 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid cinnabarinic acid 3-hydroxykynurenine 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid ---> cinnabarinic acid xanthurenic acid anthranilic acid kynurenic acid kynurenine N-formyl-L-kynurenine tryptophan kynurenine ---> 3-hydroxykynurenine Kmo Kynu Ido1 Ido2 Tdo2 2-amino-3-carboxymuconic 6-semialdehyde ---> quinolinic acid quinolinic acid ---> de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde ---> picolinic acid de novo nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide biosynthetic pathway kynurenine aminotransferase Haao kynurenine ---> kynurenic acid Acmsd 2-aminomuconate 6-semialdehyde

Genes in Pathway:

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kynurenine metabolic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Aadat aminoadipate aminotransferase JBrowse link 16 32,832,001 32,868,680 RGD:11081066
G Acmsd aminocarboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase JBrowse link 13 44,424,689 44,468,734 RGD:11062165
G Afmid arylformamidase JBrowse link 10 106,828,963 106,844,314 RGD:11062165
G Got2 glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 JBrowse link 19 9,587,637 9,613,323 RGD:11081066
G Haao 3-hydroxyanthranilate 3,4-dioxygenase JBrowse link 6 7,045,145 7,059,227 RGD:11062165
G Ido1 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 JBrowse link 16 72,216,326 72,228,098 RGD:11062165
G Ido2 indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 JBrowse link 16 72,232,852 72,291,227 RGD:11062165
G Kmo kynurenine 3-monooxygenase JBrowse link 13 93,684,324 93,715,378 RGD:11062165
G Kyat1 kynurenine aminotransferase 1 JBrowse link 3 8,752,289 8,785,617 RGD:11081066
G Kyat3 kynurenine aminotransferase 3 JBrowse link 2 248,644,473 248,690,289 RGD:11081066
G Kynu kynureninase JBrowse link 3 28,416,926 28,566,939 RGD:11062165
G Tdo2 tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase JBrowse link 2 180,897,059 180,914,919 RGD:11062165

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Functional Classkynurenine aminotransferases
ProteinStructures of KP enzymesLinks to selected protein structures for enzymes in he kynurenine pathway

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the kynurenine metabolic pathway
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the kynurenine metabolic pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria pathwayAadat
2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria pathwayGot2
alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolic pathwayGot2
alkaptonuria pathwayHaao
arginine and proline metabolic pathwayGot2
argininosuccinic aciduria pathwayGot2
carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency pathwayGot2
citrullinemia pathwayGot2
cysteine and methionine metabolic pathwayGot2
disulfiram pharmacodynamics pathwayHaao
dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency pathwayHaao
gluconeogenesis pathwayGot2
glutamic acid/glutamate metabolic pathwayGot2
glutaric aciduria type I pathwayAadat
glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolic pathwayAfmid
hawkinsinuria pathwayHaao
homocarnosinosis pathwayGot2
hyperargininemia pathwayGot2
hyperlysinemia pathwayAadat
kynurenine metabolic pathwayAadat , Acmsd , Afmid , Got2 , Haao , Ido1 , Ido2 , Kmo , Kyat1 , Kyat3 , Kynu , Tdo2
lysine biosynthetic pathwayAadat
lysine degradation pathwayAadat
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide metabolic pathwayGot2
ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency pathwayGot2
phenylalanine metabolic pathwayGot2
phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthetic pathwayGot2
saccharopinuria pathwayAadat
selenoamino acid metabolic pathwayKyat1 , Kyat3
sleeping sickness pathwayIdo1 , Ido2
succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency pathwayGot2
tryptophan metabolic pathwayAadat , Acmsd , Afmid , Haao , Ido1 , Ido2 , Kmo , Kyat1 , Kyat3 , Kynu , Tdo2
tyrosine metabolic pathwayGot2 , Haao
tyrosinemia type I pathwayHaao
urea cycle pathwayGot2

References Associated with the kynurenine metabolic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

paths to the root

Import into Pathway Studio: