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Acetylcholine (ACh) is a major neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that plays important roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and also in non-neuronal cells. In cholinergic neurons acetylcholine is synthetized from acetyl-CoA and choline by the choline O-acetyltransferase Chat. The glucose-derived pyruvate metabolism is the primary source of acetyl-CoA in the brain. Once synthesized, ACh is loaded into synaptic vesicles by the vesicular ACh tran

Pathway Diagram:

Elsevier Inc. cations ---> cation influx acetylcholine ---> released ACh muscle contraction cation influx Musk --+> NMJ nAChR glutamate presynaptic nAChRs --+> dopamine presynaptic nAChRs --+> glutamate presynaptic nAChRs --+> GABA presynaptic nAChRs --+> released ACh ACh hydrolysis, signal termination ---> choline Chat Ache Dok7 Musk postsynaptic nAChRs --+> post-synaptic modulation post-synaptic modulation cations ---> cation influx. cations cation influx. NMJ nAChR ---- Rapsn neurotransmitter release modulation Lrp4 ---- Musk Lrp4 dopaminergic neuron glutamatergic neuron GABAergic neuron cholinergic neuron choline ---> acetylcholine ACh hydrolysis, signal termination postsynaptic nAChRs ---- released ACh presynaptic nAChRs ---- released ACh Agrn ---- Lrp4 Agrn Dok7 ---- Musk Rapsn acetyl-CoA ---> acetylcholine NMJ nAChR ---- released ACh skeletal muscle fiber released ACh ---> ACh hydrolysis, signal termination Slc18a3 Slc5a7 NMJ nAChR postsynaptic nAChRs presynaptic nAChRs released ACh acetylcholine choline acetyl-CoA GABA dopamine NMJ nAChR --+> muscle contraction

Genes in Pathway:

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acetylcholine signaling pathway via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Ache acetylcholinesterase JBrowse link 12 22,472,358 22,477,052 RGD:8549506
G Agrn agrin JBrowse link 5 173,589,910 173,622,813 RGD:8549508
G Chat choline O-acetyltransferase JBrowse link 16 8,576,858 8,686,131 RGD:8549504
G Chrna1 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 1 subunit JBrowse link 3 60,445,657 60,460,724 RGD:8549508
G Chrna10 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 10 subunit JBrowse link 1 167,206,722 167,212,199 RGD:8549510
G Chrna2 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit JBrowse link 15 42,808,897 42,825,179 RGD:8549510
G Chrna3 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 3 subunit JBrowse link 8 59,594,007 59,607,122 RGD:8549510
G Chrna4 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 4 subunit JBrowse link 3 176,533,182 176,547,965 RGD:8549510
G Chrna5 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 5 subunit JBrowse link 8 59,561,817 59,590,172 RGD:8549510
G Chrna6 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 6 subunit JBrowse link 16 68,860,018 68,866,718 RGD:8549510
G Chrna7 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7 subunit JBrowse link 1 123,897,341 124,039,263 RGD:8549510
G Chrna9 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 9 subunit JBrowse link 14 43,883,450 43,890,171 RGD:8549510
G Chrnb1 cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 1 subunit JBrowse link 10 56,390,671 56,403,255 RGD:8549508
G Chrnb2 cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 2 subunit JBrowse link 2 189,088,570 189,096,785 RGD:8549510
G Chrnb3 cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 3 subunit JBrowse link 16 68,876,442 68,913,628 RGD:8549510
G Chrnb4 cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 4 subunit JBrowse link 8 59,610,489 59,629,073 RGD:8549510
G Chrnd cholinergic receptor nicotinic delta subunit JBrowse link 9 94,286,550 94,294,968 RGD:8549508
G Chrne cholinergic receptor nicotinic epsilon subunit JBrowse link 10 57,238,960 57,246,750 RGD:8549508
G Chrng cholinergic receptor nicotinic gamma subunit JBrowse link 9 94,302,218 94,308,591 RGD:8549508
G Dok7 docking protein 7 JBrowse link 14 80,925,409 80,963,454 RGD:8549508
G Lrp4 LDL receptor related protein 4 JBrowse link 3 80,362,643 80,416,684 RGD:8549508
G Musk muscle associated receptor tyrosine kinase JBrowse link 5 75,392,790 75,498,694 RGD:8549508
G Rapsn receptor-associated protein of the synapse JBrowse link 3 79,859,815 79,869,486 RGD:8549508
G Slc18a3 solute carrier family 18 member A3 JBrowse link 16 8,682,668 8,685,529 RGD:8549504
G Slc5a7 solute carrier family 5 member 7 JBrowse link 9 5,294,377 5,330,822 RGD:8549504

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Functional Classpresynaptic nAChRs
Functional ClassnAChR at the neuromuscular junction
Functional Classpostsynaptic nAChRs

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the acetylcholine signaling pathway via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Disease TermsGene Symbols
Abnormal ReflexesChrnb2
acute myeloid leukemiaAgrn
acute stress disorderAche
alcohol use disorderChrna3 , Chrna5
Alzheimer's diseaseAche , Chat , Chrna4 , Chrna7 , Chrnb2 , Slc18a3
amphetamine abuseAche
angle-closure glaucomaChat
anxiety disorderChrna5 , Chrnb2
asthmaChat , Slc18a3 , Slc5a7
attention deficit hyperactivity disorderChrna4 , Chrnb2
Auditory Perceptual DisordersChrna7
autism spectrum disorderChrna7
autistic disorderChrna4 , Chrna7 , Chrnb2
Autoimmune DiseasesRapsn
autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsyChrna2 , Chrna4 , Chrnb2
autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 1Chrna4
autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 3Chrnb2
autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 4Chrna2
bacterial meningitisAche
bladder diseaseSlc18a3
bone development diseaseChrng
Brain InjuriesChrna7 , Slc18a3
Breast NeoplasmsAche
Cell Transformation, NeoplasticChrna9
Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndromeLrp4
central sleep apneaChat
chromosome 15q13.3 microdeletion syndromeChrna7
congenital myasthenic syndromeAgrn , Chat , Chrna1 , Chrnb1 , Chrnd , Chrne , Chrng , Dok7 , Lrp4 , Musk , Rapsn , Slc18a3 , Slc5a7
congenital myasthenic syndrome 10Dok7
congenital myasthenic syndrome 11Rapsn
congenital myasthenic syndrome 17Lrp4
congenital myasthenic syndrome 1AChrna1
congenital myasthenic syndrome 1BChrna1 , Chrne
congenital myasthenic syndrome 20Slc5a7
congenital myasthenic syndrome 21Chat , Slc18a3
congenital myasthenic syndrome 2AChrnb1
congenital myasthenic syndrome 2CChrnb1
congenital myasthenic syndrome 3AChrnd
congenital myasthenic syndrome 3BChrnd
congenital myasthenic syndrome 3CChrnd
congenital myasthenic syndrome 4AChrne
congenital myasthenic syndrome 4BChrne
congenital myasthenic syndrome 4CChat , Chrnb1 , Chrne , Dok7 , Musk , Rapsn
congenital myasthenic syndrome 6Chat
congenital myasthenic syndrome 8Agrn
congenital myasthenic syndrome 9Musk
Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome, Fast-ChannelChrna1 , Chrnd , Chrne
Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome, with Facial Dysmorphism, associated with Acetylcholine Receptor DeficiencyChrnb1 , Chrnd , Musk , Rapsn
congestive heart failureChrna4
Developmental DisabilitiesChrna4
Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental Ache
Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy, Type VIIASlc5a7
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse ReactionsAche
dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditariaChrnb2
early infantile epileptic encephalopathyChrna4
early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 33Chrna4
EndotoxemiaAche , Slc18a3
epilepsyAche , Chrna1
Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia GravisChrna1 , Musk , Rapsn
Experimental Liver CirrhosisAche
frontal lobe epilepsyChrna4 , Chrnb2
Gait AtaxiaChat
Generalized EpilepsyChrna7
genetic diseaseChrna1 , Chrna4 , Chrnb2 , Chrng , Dok7 , Slc5a7
Growth DisordersAche
hereditary spastic paraplegia 11Chat
Hirschsprung's diseaseAche
Huntington's diseaseAche , Chat , Slc18a3
Hydrops FetalisChrna1
hypertrophic cardiomyopathyLrp4 , Rapsn
Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification 1Chrna6 , Chrnb3
InflammationChrna4 , Chrnb2
juvenile myoclonic epilepsyChrna1 , Chrna7
learning disabilityAche
Lewy body dementiaChrna4 , Chrna7
lung cancerChrna3 , Chrna5
Lung NeoplasmsChrna2 , Chrna3 , Chrna5 , Chrna7 , Chrnb4
Memory DisordersAche , Chrna7
movement diseaseAche
Multiple AbnormalitiesChrna4
multiple pterygium syndromeChrna1 , Chrnd , Chrng
Multiple Pterygium Syndrome, Lethal TypeChrna1 , Chrnd , Chrng
multiple sclerosisAche
Muscle RigidityChat
Muscle WeaknessChat , Chrnd
muscular diseaseRapsn
muscular dystrophyAche
myasthenia gravisAche , Musk
Myoclonic EpilepsiesChrna2
Neoplasm InvasivenessChrna7
Nerve DegenerationChrna7 , Chrnb2
nervous system diseaseAche , Chrna4
Neurobehavioral ManifestationsChrna7
nicotine dependenceChrna4
Organophosphate PoisoningAche
Parkinson's diseaseAche
Pena Shokeir Syndrome, Type 1Dok7 , Musk , Rapsn
peripheral nervous system diseaseChrng
pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomaAche
Prenatal InjuriesAche
prostate cancerSlc5a7
Prostatic NeoplasmsAche
renal cell carcinomaAche
Reperfusion InjuryChat
respiratory failureMusk
retinal diseaseChat
schizophreniaChat , Chrna7 , Slc18a3
sclerosteosis 2Lrp4
sleep disorderChrna4 , Chrnb2
Spina Bifida CysticaChrna7
spinal muscular atrophySlc5a7
status epilepticusSlc18a3
substance-related disorderChrna5
sudden infant death syndromeChrna7 , Chrnb2
Tobacco Addiction, Susceptibility ToChrna3 , Chrna4 , Chrna5 , Chrna6 , Chrnb3
Tobacco Use DisorderChrna3 , Chrna4 , Chrna5 , Chrna7
Tooth AbnormalitiesLrp4
Transplant RejectionSlc5a7
type 1 diabetes mellitusAche
umbilical herniaChrna7
urinary bladder cancerAche
visual epilepsyAche , Chat , Chrna1 , Chrna2 , Chrna3 , Chrna4 , Chrna5 , Chrna7 , Chrnb2 , Chrnb4
Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndromeChrnb1
withdrawal disorderChrna5 , Chrna6 , Chrna7 , Chrnb2 , Chrnb4
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the acetylcholine signaling pathway via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
acetylcholine metabolic pathwayAche , Chat
acetylcholine signaling pathway via muscarinic acetylcholine receptorAche , Chat , Slc18a3 , Slc5a7
acetylcholine signaling pathway via nicotinic acetylcholine receptorAche , Agrn , Chat , Chrna1 , Chrna10 , Chrna2 , Chrna3 , Chrna4 , Chrna5 , Chrna6 , Chrna7 , Chrna9 , Chrnb1 , Chrnb2 , Chrnb3 , Chrnb4 , Chrnd , Chrne , Chrng , Dok7 , Lrp4 , Musk , Rapsn , Slc18a3 , Slc5a7
alfentanil pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
bupivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
buprenorphine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
calcium/calcium-mediated signaling pathwayChrna7
cell-extracellular matrix signaling pathwayAgrn
chloroprocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
citalopram pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
cocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
codeine and morphine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
desipramine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
diphenoxylate pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
escitalopram pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
ethylmorphine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
fentanyl pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
fluoxetine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
glycerophospholipid metabolic pathwayAche , Chat
heroin pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
hydrocodone pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
hydromorphone pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
imipramine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
levacetylmethadol pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
levobupivacaine phgarmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
levorphanol pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
lidocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
mepivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
methadone pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
nalbuphine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
naloxone pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
naltrexone pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
nicotine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna3 , Chrna4 , Chrnb2
nicotine pharmacokinetics pathwayChrna3 , Chrna4 , Chrnb2
organophosphate response pathwayAche
oxybuprocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
oxycodone pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
oxymorphone pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
pentazocine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
prilocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
procaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
remifentanil pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
ropivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2
tramadol pharmacodynamics pathwayChrna4 , Chrnb2

References Associated with the acetylcholine signaling pathway via nicotinic acetylcholine receptor:

Ontology Path Diagram:

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