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The synthesis and release of catecholamines dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine are triggered by various but distinct conditions and stresses. Norepinephrine and epinephrine, also known as noradrenaline and adrenaline, act as neurotransmitters and hormones. They signal via various adrenergic receptors, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) which couple to distinct G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. Stresses such as cold and pain prompt the synthesis of norepinpehrine in sympathetic

Pathway Diagram:

Elsevier Inc. epineprhine signaling pathway via afrenergic receptor beta Pnmt Dbh Ddc Th Qdpr epinephrine --+> epineprhine signaling pathway via afrenergic receptor beta S-adenosylmethionine ---> epinephrine norepinephrine ---> epinephrine norepinephrine Slc18a2 ---> dopamine Slc18a2 Ddc ---- Slc18a2 Slc18a2 ---- Th dopamine L-DOPA diet L-Phe hydroxylation BH4 BH2 tyrosine BH4 ---> BH2 L-DOPA ---> dopamine tyrosine ---> L-DOPA diet ---> tyrosine L-Phe hydroxylation ---> tyrosine BH2 ---> BH4 dopamine ---> norepinephrine epinephrine S-adenosylmethionine

Genes in Pathway:

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epinephrine biosynthetic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Dbh dopamine beta-hydroxylase JBrowse link 3 5,709,236 5,731,895 RGD:4139904
G Ddc dopa decarboxylase JBrowse link 14 91,905,919 91,996,816 RGD:4139904
G Pnmt phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase JBrowse link 10 86,340,893 86,342,501 RGD:4139902
G Qdpr quinoid dihydropteridine reductase JBrowse link 14 70,164,682 70,178,284 RGD:4139904
G Slc18a2 solute carrier family 18 member A2 JBrowse link 1 280,397,831 280,457,968 RGD:5128868
G Th tyrosine hydroxylase JBrowse link 1 216,073,034 216,080,287 RGD:4139904

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Small MoleculeBH2dihydrobiopterin
Small MoleculeL-DOPALevodopa
Small MoleculeBH4tetrahydrobiopterin

Pathway Gene Annotations

Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the epinephrine biosynthetic pathway

References Associated with the epinephrine biosynthetic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

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