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View Ontology Report


The melanocortin peptides - a collective term for the alpha-, beta- and gamma-melanocyte-stimulating hormones and the adenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) - are derived from the sequential processing of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene product. They bind to specific G-protein coupled melanocortin receptors (Mcr) to elicit a range of responses that include anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, regulation of energy homeostasis and feeding behavior and induction of melanogenesis. The fiv

Pathway Diagram:

Ariadne Genomics Inc. immunomodulation energy homeostasis cortisol biosynthetic pathway protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galphas family Mgrn1 HPA axis POMC processing enzymes MSH peptides stress conditions --+> corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway stress conditions Pomc ---> MSH peptides Atrn corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway MRAP2 Pomc ---> ACTH Agrp Pomc corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway --+> Pomc Gnas Mgrn1 ---| MC1R Mrap --+> Mc2r MC1R ---> melanogenesis melanogenesis steroidogenesis Asip ---| MC1R ACTH ---- Mc3r ACTH ---- MC1R ACTH ---- Mc5r ACTH Mc3r ---> immunomodulation Mc3r Mc3r ---> energy homeostasis Mc4r ---> energy homeostasis Asip ---- Atrn Agrp ---| Mc4r Agrp ---| Mc3r Agrp ---- Mc4r Agrp ---- Mc3r Gnas ---- Mc2r Gnas ---- MC1R Asip Mc2r Gnas ---- Mc3r Atrnl1 ---- Mc4r Mc4r Atrnl1 Mc5r Asip ---- MC1R Mc5r ---> immunomodulation Gnas ---- Mc4r cAMP --+> protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galphas family --+> cAMP cAMP Gnas ---- Mc5r ACTH ---- Mc2r MC1R ---- MSH peptides Mc3r ---- MSH peptides Mc4r ---- MSH peptides Mc5r ---- MSH peptides ACTH ---- Mc4r Mc2r --+> cortisol biosynthetic pathway MC1R Mrap

Genes in Pathway:

show annotations for term's descendants           Sort by:
melanocortin system pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G a nonagouti TAS RGD PMID:15189116 RGD:1357925 NCBI chr 2:154,792,519...154,892,932
Ensembl chr 2:154,633,322...154,892,932
JBrowse link
G Adcy2 adenylate cyclase 2 ISO SMPDB SMP:00310 NCBI chr13:68,768,162...69,147,719
Ensembl chr13:68,768,162...69,147,660
JBrowse link
G Agrp agouti related neuropeptide ISO RGD PMID:15189116 RGD:1357925 NCBI chr 8:106,293,327...106,306,477
Ensembl chr 8:106,293,330...106,364,025
JBrowse link
G Atrn attractin TAS RGD PMID:20654690 RGD:5144214 NCBI chr 2:130,734,363...130,872,249
Ensembl chr 2:130,748,415...130,872,253
JBrowse link
G Atrnl1 attractin like 1 TAS RGD PMID:20654690 RGD:5144214 NCBI chr19:57,599,248...58,121,775
Ensembl chr19:57,599,466...58,121,775
JBrowse link
G Cpe carboxypeptidase E ISO RGD PMID:11874690 RGD:1357926 NCBI chr 8:65,045,576...65,146,143
Ensembl chr 8:65,045,576...65,146,088
JBrowse link
G Gnas GNAS (guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha stimulating) complex locus ISO SMPDB
PMID:20852827 SMP:00310, RGD:5144213 NCBI chr 2:174,126,113...174,188,537
Ensembl chr 2:174,126,113...174,188,537
JBrowse link
G Gnb1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 1 ISO SMPDB SMP:00310 NCBI chr 4:155,575,757...155,643,726
Ensembl chr 4:155,575,818...155,643,726
JBrowse link
G Gng12 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 ISO SMPDB SMP:00310 NCBI chr 6:66,873,381...66,998,345
Ensembl chr 6:66,873,381...66,998,334
JBrowse link
G Mc1r melanocortin 1 receptor ISO RGD PMID:20852827 RGD:5144213 NCBI chr 8:124,133,839...124,137,483
Ensembl chr 8:124,133,846...124,137,483
JBrowse link
G Mc2r melanocortin 2 receptor ISO SMPDB
PMID:20852827 SMP:00310, RGD:5144213 NCBI chr18:68,539,970...68,562,391
Ensembl chr18:68,539,978...68,562,391
JBrowse link
G Mc3r melanocortin 3 receptor ISO RGD PMID:20852827 PMID:8415620 RGD:5144213, RGD:69884 NCBI chr 2:172,090,412...172,093,034
Ensembl chr 2:172,090,412...172,093,034
JBrowse link
G Mc4r melanocortin 4 receptor ISO RGD PMID:15189116 PMID:20852827 RGD:1357925, RGD:5144213 NCBI chr18:66,990,776...66,993,558
Ensembl chr18:66,990,775...66,993,577
JBrowse link
G Mc5r melanocortin 5 receptor IDA
RGD PMID:9512481 PMID:20852827 RGD:1626223, RGD:5144213 NCBI chr18:68,469,811...68,475,517
Ensembl chr18:68,470,575...68,475,517
JBrowse link
G Mgrn1 mahogunin, ring finger 1 TAS RGD PMID:20654690 RGD:5144214 NCBI chr16:4,703,964...4,756,160
Ensembl chr16:4,704,113...4,756,160
JBrowse link
G Mrap melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein ISO RGD PMID:20654690 RGD:5144214 NCBI chr16:90,535,095...90,546,673
Ensembl chr16:90,535,095...90,546,673
JBrowse link
G Mrap2 melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2 ISO RGD PMID:20654690 RGD:5144214 NCBI chr 9:87,026,293...87,066,104
Ensembl chr 9:87,026,359...87,066,098
JBrowse link
G Pam peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase ISO RGD PMID:11874690 RGD:1357926 NCBI chr 1:97,748,816...98,023,578
Ensembl chr 1:97,722,839...98,023,371
JBrowse link
G Pcsk1 proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 ISO RGD PMID:15189116 PMID:11874690 RGD:1357925, RGD:1357926 NCBI chr13:75,237,407...75,282,980
Ensembl chr13:75,237,945...75,282,980
JBrowse link
G Pcsk2 proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 ISO RGD PMID:11874690 RGD:1357926 NCBI chr 2:143,388,053...143,658,204
Ensembl chr 2:143,388,076...143,658,205
JBrowse link
G Pomc pro-opiomelanocortin-alpha ISO SMPDB
PMID:15189116 PMID:11874690 SMP:00310, RGD:1357925, RGD:1357926 NCBI chr12:4,004,945...4,010,643
Ensembl chr12:4,004,951...4,010,642
JBrowse link
G Prkacb protein kinase, cAMP dependent, catalytic, beta ISO SMPDB SMP:00310 NCBI chr 3:146,435,334...146,518,691
Ensembl chr 3:146,435,329...146,518,745
JBrowse link
G Sdc1 syndecan 1 TAS RGD PMID:15189116 RGD:1357925 NCBI chr12:8,821,396...8,843,716
Ensembl chr12:8,821,323...8,843,715
JBrowse link
G Sdc3 syndecan 3 ISO RGD PMID:15189116 RGD:1357925 NCBI chr 4:130,519,848...130,553,629
Ensembl chr 4:130,519,848...130,553,630
JBrowse link
altered melanocortin system pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Agrp agouti related neuropeptide ISO RGD PMID:15189116 RGD:1357925 NCBI chr 8:106,293,327...106,306,477
Ensembl chr 8:106,293,330...106,364,025
JBrowse link
G Mc4r melanocortin 4 receptor ISO RGD PMID:15189116 RGD:1357925 NCBI chr18:66,990,776...66,993,558
Ensembl chr18:66,990,775...66,993,577
JBrowse link
G Pcsk1 proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 ISO RGD PMID:15189116 PMID:11874690 RGD:1357925, RGD:1357926 NCBI chr13:75,237,407...75,282,980
Ensembl chr13:75,237,945...75,282,980
JBrowse link
G Pomc pro-opiomelanocortin-alpha ISO RGD PMID:15189116 PMID:11874690 RGD:1357925, RGD:1357926 NCBI chr12:4,004,945...4,010,643
Ensembl chr12:4,004,951...4,010,642
JBrowse link
G Sdc1 syndecan 1 TAS RGD PMID:15189116 RGD:1357925 NCBI chr12:8,821,396...8,843,716
Ensembl chr12:8,821,323...8,843,715
JBrowse link

Altered Pathway:

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Pathwaycorticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathwayActivation of HPA axis by various stresses leads to release of corticotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and initiation of its signaling pathway which leads to activation of POMC gene expression
PathwayG protein mediated signaling via Gaphas familyBased on sequence similarity, the Galpha genes have been grouped into four classes. Effectors of activated Galphas are adenylyl cyclases that catalyze the formation of cAMP
Small MoleculecAMPcAMP binding to the PKA complex leads to dissociation of the catalytic subunits
Pathwaycortisol biosynthetic pathwayCortisol, the main C21 glucocorticoid, is primarily synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland. Like all steroid hormones, glucocorticoids are derived from cholesterol; their biosynthesis is tightly regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The chronic steroidogenic response involves the change in the expression of steroidogenic genes while the acute response involves the quick delivery of cholesterol to the site of the first enzymatic reaction
Pathwayprotein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathwayProtein kinase A (PKA) signaling is a widely used intracellular pathway and the major route for channeling the second messenger cAMP signal

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the melanocortin system pathway
Disease TermsGene Symbols
ACTH Syndrome, EctopicPomc
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasiaGnas
ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 1Gnas
acute kidney failurePomc
acute kidney tubular necrosisPomc
Acute Liver FailurePomc
acute lymphoblastic leukemiaGnb1
Acute-Phase ReactionMc1r , Mc2r , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mc5r
adrenal cortex diseasePomc
adrenal cortical adenomaPrkacb
adrenal gland diseaseMrap
adrenal gland hyperfunctionGnas
Adrenal Gland NeoplasmsGnas
Adrenal InsufficiencyPomc
adrenocortical carcinomaGnas
Albright's hereditary osteodystrophyGnas
allergic contact dermatitisMc1r
Alzheimer's diseaseGnas
amnestic disorderPomc
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1Mrap
anxiety disorderGnb1 , Pam
atopic dermatitisMc1r
autism spectrum disorderGnb1
autistic disorderPomc
autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita 6Agrp
autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorderGnb1
autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder 42Gnb1
autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder 7Mrap
autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease 4Mc1r
B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaGnas
bacterial pneumoniaMc1r
basal cell carcinomaa , Mc1r
BDV SyndromeCpe
bilateral breast cancerMc1r
biliary tract benign neoplasmPrkacb
Binge-Eating DisorderMc4r
bipolar disorderAdcy2 , Pomc
Body WeightMc4r , Pcsk1 , Pomc
BradycardiaMc4r , Pomc
Brain HypoxiaPam
brain ischemiaPrkacb
breast cancerMc1r
Breast NeoplasmsGnas
Cafe-au-Lait SpotsGnas
Cardioacrofacial Dysplasia 2Prkacb
cataract 33Pcsk2
Cerebral HemorrhagePomc
cerebral palsyGnb1 , Pomc
cholangiocarcinomaGnas , Prkacb
chromosome 18p deletion syndromeMc2r , Mc5r
chromosome 18q deletion syndromeMc4r
chromosome 1p36 deletion syndromeGnb1
chronic kidney diseasePcsk2
cleft palateGnb1
Cocaine-Related DisordersPomc
Colorectal NeoplasmsGnas
cone-rod dystrophyMc4r
congenital myasthenic syndrome 8Gnb1
congestive heart failureGnb1 , Pomc
Cushing SyndromeGnas , Pomc , Prkacb
Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma, Susceptibility To, 1Mc1r
depressive disorderGnb1 , Pomc
Developmental DisabilitiesGnb1
diabetes insipidusPomc
diabetes mellitusa , Mc4r , Pomc
dilated cardiomyopathy 1LLGnb1
disease by infectious agentPomc
disease of cellular proliferationa , Gnas
disease of mental healthPomc
Edemaa , Pomc
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 2Gnb1
endocrine system diseaseCpe , Gnas , Pcsk1
EndotoxemiaMc4r , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2
epilepsyGnb1 , Mgrn1 , Pomc
epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizuresGnb1 , Pomc
Experimental ArthritisPam
Experimental Diabetes MellitusPcsk1 , Pcsk2
Experimental Liver CirrhosisAtrn , Pomc
Experimental MelanomaMc1r
eye diseasePomc
Eye PainPomc
facial paralysisPomc
Failure to Thrivea , Gnb1
familial adenomatous polyposis 1Pam , Pcsk1
familial hyperlipidemiaSdc1
familial Mediterranean feverPomc
familial melanomaMc1r
Fanconi anemiaMc1r
fatty liver diseaseMc4r , Pomc
Femur Head NecrosisPomc
focal epilepsyGnb1
gastric adenocarcinomaGnas
gastrointestinal system diseasePomc
genetic diseasea , Adcy2 , Agrp , Atrn , Atrnl1 , Cpe , Gnas , Gnb1 , Mc1r , Mc2r , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mc5r , Mgrn1 , Mrap , Mrap2 , Pam , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2 , Pomc , Prkacb , Sdc1 , Sdc3
glucocorticoid deficiency 1Mc2r , Mrap
Glucocorticoid Deficiency 2Mrap
glucose intolerancePcsk1
Goldberg-Shprintzen syndromeGnb1
Gouty ArthritisPomc
Growth DisordersGnb1
growth hormone secreting pituitary adenomaGnas
head and neck squamous cell carcinomaGnas
hemorrhagic diseaseGnas
hepatic veno-occlusive diseasea
hepatocellular carcinomaGnas
Hereditary Neoplastic SyndromesPam , Pcsk1
hereditary spastic paraplegia 4Gnas
heroin dependencePomc
Heterotopic OssificationGnas
Hodgkin's lymphomaSdc1
Huntington's disease-like 1Atrn
HyperalgesiaMc1r , Mc4r
hyperglycemiaMgrn1 , Pcsk1 , Sdc1
hyperinsulinismMc4r , Mgrn1
HyperoxiaMc1r , Mc2r
HyperphagiaAgrp , Mc4r , Pomc
Hyperplasiaa , Pam
hypertensionGnas , Mc2r , Pomc
hypertrophic cardiomyopathyPomc
Hypoglossal Nerve InjuriesPrkacb
hypothyroidismGnb1 , Pam , Pcsk1
HypoxiaGnas , Pomc
idiopathic generalized epilepsyGnb1 , Mgrn1
immune system diseasePomc
immunodeficiency 12Mc4r
immunodeficiency 16Gnb1
immunodeficiency 38Gnb1
InflammationPcsk1 , Pcsk2 , Pomc , Sdc1
inflammatory bowel diseasePomc
Inosine Triphosphatase DeficiencyAtrn
Insulin ResistanceCpe , Gnas , Mc4r
intellectual disabilityGnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Mc2r , Mc5r
islet cell tumorPcsk1
isolated microphthalmia 3Mc4r
Joubert syndrome 25Gnb1
Kidney CalculiPomc
kidney diseasePomc
Kidney Reperfusion InjuryMc1r
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndromeMgrn1
Language Development DisordersGnb1
Liver Neoplasmsa
long QT syndromea , Pomc , Sdc1
lung adenocarcinomaGnas , Sdc1
Lung NeoplasmsCpe
Lymphoma, AIDS-RelatedSdc1
major depressive disorderMc1r
malignant mesotheliomaSdc1
McCune Albright syndromeGnas
melanomaa , Gnas , Mc1r , Pomc
Memory DisordersCpe
Metabolic Bone DiseasesGnas
Metabolic Brain Diseases, InbornMc2r
morbid obesityCpe , Mc4r , Pcsk1 , Pomc
multiple sclerosisPomc
Muscle HypotoniaGnb1
myasthenia gravisPomc
myelodysplastic syndromeGnb1
myocardial infarctionPcsk2 , Sdc1
Myocardial IschemiaPomc
Myoclonic EpilepsiesPomc
Nerve DegenerationAtrn
Neurodevelopmental DisordersGnb1 , Pam , Pcsk1
Neurogenic InflammationPomc
Nociceptive PainPomc
non-alcoholic steatohepatitisMc4r
obesitya , Agrp , Atrn , Cpe , Gnas , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mgrn1 , Mrap2 , Pcsk1 , Pomc , Sdc1 , Sdc3
oculocutaneous albinism type IIMc1r
Opsoclonus-Myoclonus SyndromePomc
Orthostatic HypotensionGnas
pancreas diseasePomc
pancreatic adenocarcinomaGnas
pancreatic cancerGnas
pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegenerationAtrn
Parasitic Liver DiseasesGnas
Parkinson's disease 20Mrap
pathologic nystagmusGnb1
penile diseasePomc
Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorder, Complementation Group 7Gnb1
pigmentation diseasea
pituitary adenoma 3Gnas
Pituitary NeoplasmsGnas
pituitary-dependent Cushing's diseasePomc
polycystic kidney diseaseGnas
polycystic ovary syndromeGnas
Postoperative ComplicationsPomc
Precocious PubertyGnas
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effectsa
primary ciliary dyskinesia 33Mc1r
primary hyperaldosteronismGnas
Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease, 1Gnas
progressive osseous heteroplasiaGnas
Proopiomelanocortin DeficiencyPomc
proprotein convertase 1/3 deficiencyPcsk1
prostate adenocarcinomaPam
Prostatic NeoplasmsMc2r , Prkacb
proteinuriaPomc , Sdc1
pseudohypoparathyroidism type IBGnas
Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type ICGnas
renal cell carcinomaPomc
Reperfusion InjuryMc1r , Pcsk2
Respiration DisordersGnas
restless legs syndromePomc
Rubinstein-Taybi syndromeMgrn1
schizophreniaGnas , Mc4r
sciatic neuropathyMc4r
Seasonal Allergic RhinitisMc1r
severe acute respiratory syndromePomc
sex cord-gonadal stromal tumorGnas
short-rib thoracic dysplasia 9 with or without polydactylyMgrn1
Shprintzen-Goldberg CraniosynostosisGnb1
sick sinus syndromePomc
skin melanomaGnas
Skin Neoplasmsa
Skin/Hair/Eye Pigmentation, Variation In, 9a
sleep disorderPomc
subvalvular aortic stenosisPomc
Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndromePomc
toxic shock syndromeMc2r
type 1 diabetes mellitusPcsk1
type 2 diabetes mellitusa , Agrp , Cpe , Pam , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2
urinary tract infectionPomc
Uterine Cervical NeoplasmsGnas
UV-Induced Skin DamageMc1r
visual epilepsyPcsk1
Weight GainPomc
Weight LossPomc
West syndromeMc2r , Pomc
withdrawal disorderGnas , Pomc
ZTTK SyndromeMrap
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the melanocortin system pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
adenosine signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
alfentanil pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
altered energy homeostasis pathwayMc4r , Pcsk1 , Pomc
altered melanocortin system pathwayAgrp , Mc4r , Pcsk1 , Pomc , Sdc1
apoptotic cell death pathwayPrkacb
bile acid transport pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Prkacb
bupivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
buprenorphine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
cell-extracellular matrix signaling pathwaySdc1 , Sdc3
Chagas disease pathwayGnas
chloroprocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
citalopram pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
cocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
codeine and morphine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathwayGnas
desipramine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
dilated cardiomyopathy pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Prkacb
diphenoxylate pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
dopamine signaling pathwayPrkacb
dopamine signaling pathway via D1 family of receptorsAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
eicosanoid signaling pathwayGnb1
endothelin signaling pathwayAdcy2
Entamoebiasis pathwayGnas , Prkacb
epinephrine signaling pathway via adrenergic receptor betaGnas
escitalopram pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
ethylmorphine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
fentanyl pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
fluoxetine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galpha12/Galpha13 familyGnb1
G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galphas familyAdcy2 , Gnas , Mc1r , Mc2r , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mc5r
glucagon signaling pathwayGnas
glutamate signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Prkacb
granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathwayPrkacb
Hedgehog signaling pathwayGnb1 , Prkacb
heroin pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
histamine signaling pathway, immunologicalAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
hydrocodone pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
hydromorphone pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
imipramine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwaya
insulin signaling pathwayPrkacb
interleukin-3 signaling pathwayPrkacb
levacetylmethadol pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
levobupivacaine phgarmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
levorphanol pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
lidocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
long term depressionGnas
long term potentiationPrkacb
luteinizing hormone signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
malaria pathwaySdc1 , Sdc3
melanocortin system pathwaya , Adcy2 , Agrp , Atrn , Atrnl1 , Cpe , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Mc1r , Mc2r , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mc5r , Mgrn1 , Mrap , Mrap2 , Pam , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2 , Pomc , Prkacb , Sdc1 , Sdc3
mepivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
methadone pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathwayGng12 , Prkacb
nalbuphine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
naloxone pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
naltrexone pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
nicotine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
obesity pathwayAgrp , Mc4r , Pcsk1 , Pomc , Sdc1
orexin/hypocretin signaling pathwayPcsk1
oxybuprocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
oxycodone pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
oxymorphone pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
pentazocine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
prilocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
prion disease pathwayPrkacb
procaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
prostaglandin D2 signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
prostaglandin I2 signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathwayAdcy2 , Prkacb
purine metabolic pathwayAdcy2
remifentanil pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
ropivacaine pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
serotonin signaling pathway via receptors engaging G alphas protein familyAdcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
syndecan signaling pathwayAgrp , Mc4r , Pomc , Sdc1 , Sdc3
tramadol pharmacodynamics pathwayPcsk2 , Pomc
type 1 diabetes mellitus pathwayCpe
ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathwayMgrn1
vasopressin signaling pathwayGnas
vasopressin signaling pathway via receptor type 2Adcy2 , Gnas , Gnb1 , Gng12 , Prkacb
visual phototransduction pathwayGnb1
Wnt signaling pathwayPrkacb
Phenotype Annotations Associated with Genes in the melanocortin system pathway
Phenotype TermsGene Symbols
abnormal adipose tissue amountMc3r
abnormal adipose tissue developmentGnas
abnormal adipose tissue morphologyGnas
abnormal adrenal gland capsule morphologyMc2r , Mrap
abnormal adrenal gland developmentMrap
abnormal adrenal gland x-zone morphologya
abnormal adrenal gland zona fasciculata morphologyMc2r , Pomc
abnormal adrenaline levelMrap2
abnormal alcohol consumptionPomc
abnormal artery morphologyPam
abnormal auditory brainstem responseMgrn1
abnormal autopod morphologya
abnormal behaviorCpe , Pomc
abnormal behavioral response to addictive substancePomc
abnormal blood homeostasisAgrp , Gnas
abnormal body fat massMc3r
abnormal body sizeGnas
abnormal body weightGnas , Pomc
abnormal bone ossificationGnas
abnormal bone structureMgrn1 , Mrap2
abnormal brain morphologyAtrn , Gnb1 , Mc5r
abnormal brain white matter morphologyAtrn
abnormal bronchus epithelium morphologyPam
abnormal brown adipose tissue morphologyGnas
abnormal brown fat cell morphologyMc3r
abnormal carpal bone morphologya
abnormal cartilage developmentGnas
abnormal cell proliferationSdc1
abnormal cerebellar cortex morphologyGnas
abnormal cerebellum morphologyAtrn
abnormal cerebral cortex morphologya , Atrn
abnormal choroid melanin granule morphologya
abnormal choroid pigmentationa
abnormal circadian behavior phaseMc4r
abnormal circulating leptin levelMc3r
abnormal coat appearancea , Gnas
abnormal coat/ hair morphologyMc5r , Pcsk2
abnormal coat/hair pigmentationa , Atrn , Mc1r , Mgrn1
abnormal corneal wound healingSdc1
abnormal coronary sinus morphologyMgrn1
abnormal cortical ventricular zone morphologyGnb1
abnormal corticosterone levelPomc
abnormal craniofacial bone morphologyGnas
abnormal craniofacial morphologyGnas
abnormal cranium morphologyMgrn1
abnormal cued conditioning behaviorPrkacb
abnormal DNA methylationGnas
abnormal dorsal root ganglion morphologyPrkacb
abnormal dorsoventral coat patterninga
abnormal ear morphologyMgrn1
abnormal eating behaviora , Agrp , Gnas , Mc3r
abnormal embryo sizeMrap
abnormal embryonic neuroepithelium morphologyGnb1 , Prkacb
abnormal energy expenditureAgrp , Cpe , Gnas , Sdc3
abnormal energy homeostasisMc3r
abnormal enzyme/coenzyme activityGnas
abnormal epidermal melanocyte morphologyMc1r
abnormal epigenetic regulation of gene expressiona
abnormal eye morphologyAtrn
abnormal eye pigmentationa
abnormal fat pad morphologyGnas
abnormal food intakea , Agrp , Mc3r , Mc4r , Sdc3
abnormal forelimb morphologya
abnormal freezing behaviorPcsk1
abnormal gaitAtrn , Cpe
abnormal gas homeostasisGnas
abnormal gland physiologyPcsk2
abnormal glomerular mesangium morphologya
abnormal gluconeogenesisMc2r
abnormal glucose homeostasisCpe , Gnas , Mc2r , Mc4r
abnormal glucose tolerancePcsk1
abnormal hair follicle melanin granule distributiona
abnormal hair follicle melanin granule morphologya
abnormal hair follicle melanin granule shapea
abnormal hair follicle melanocyte morphologya
abnormal hair follicle melanogenesisa , Mc1r
abnormal hair follicle pheomelanosome pheomelanin contenta , Mc1r , Pomc
abnormal hair growthSdc3
abnormal hair shaft melanin granule distributiona
abnormal hair shaft melanin granule morphologya
abnormal hair shaft morphologya
abnormal Harderian gland porphyrin secretionMc5r
abnormal heart and great artery attachmentMgrn1
abnormal heart sizeGnas
abnormal hindlimb morphologya
abnormal hormone levelCpe , Pcsk1
abnormal hyoid bone body morphologyGnas
abnormal hyoid bone morphologyGnas
abnormal hypodermis morphologyGnas
abnormal hypothalamus secretionCpe
abnormal imprintingGnas
abnormal incisor morphologyGnas
abnormal induced morbidity/mortalityAgrp
abnormal inflammatory responsea , Gnas
abnormal inguinal fat pad morphologyPcsk1
abnormal inhibitory postsynaptic currentsAgrp
abnormal intestinal absorptionMrap2
abnormal intestinal goblet cell morphologyPcsk1
abnormal iris pigmentationa
abnormal keratinocyte apoptosisMc1r
abnormal kidney morphologya , Gnas , Mc3r
abnormal kidney physiologya , Gnas
abnormal lacrimal gland physiologyMc5r
abnormal lateral geniculate nucleus morphologya
abnormal lateral ventricle morphologya
abnormal left subclavian artery morphologyMgrn1
abnormal left-right axis patterningMgrn1
abnormal lipid homeostasisa
abnormal liver physiologyAgrp
abnormal locomotor activationMc3r , Mc4r
abnormal locomotor behaviorCpe , Pcsk2
abnormal long bone epiphyseal plate morphologyGnas
abnormal long bone epiphyseal plate proliferative zoneGnas
abnormal long bone epiphysis morphologyGnas
abnormal mandible morphologyGnas
abnormal maxilla morphologyGnas
abnormal medulla oblongata morphologyAtrn
abnormal melanocyte morphologya
abnormal melanogenesisa , Mc1r
abnormal melanosome morphologya
abnormal metabolismPcsk1
abnormal motor capabilities/coordination/movementCpe , Gnas , Mc3r
abnormal motor coordination/balanceCpe
abnormal muscle physiologyAtrn , Cpe
abnormal myelinationAtrn
abnormal nasal septum cartilage morphologyGnas
abnormal nervous system electrophysiologyMc4r
abnormal nervous system physiologyPrkacb
abnormal neural plate morphologyGnb1
abnormal neural tube morphologyPrkacb
abnormal neuron differentiationGnb1
abnormal neuron morphologyAtrn
abnormal neuron physiologyPomc
abnormal neuron specificationPrkacb
abnormal neuronal precursor proliferationGnb1
abnormal noradrenaline levelMrap2
abnormal operant conditioning behaviorPomc
abnormal outer ear morphologyGnas
abnormal oxygen consumptionMc4r
abnormal pain thresholdMc1r
abnormal pancreas physiologyPcsk1
abnormal pancreatic alpha cell differentiationPcsk2
abnormal pancreatic alpha cell morphologyPcsk2
abnormal pancreatic beta cell differentiationPcsk2
abnormal pancreatic beta cell morphologyCpe
abnormal pancreatic islet morphologya , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2
abnormal pancreatic somatostatin secretionPcsk2
abnormal patella morphologya
abnormal percent body fat/body weightCpe
abnormal peritoneal macrophage morphologyPcsk1
abnormal physical strengthCpe
abnormal pinna hair pigmentationa , Mc1r
abnormal pituitary gland physiologyPcsk1
abnormal placing responseCpe
abnormal postnatal growth/weight/body sizeAgrp
abnormal postureGnas
abnormal premaxilla morphologyGnas
abnormal pulmonary alveolus morphologyGnas
abnormal radius morphologya
abnormal red blood cell deformabilitya
abnormal renal glomerulus morphologya
abnormal renal tubule morphologya
abnormal renin activityGnas
abnormal respiratory quotientMc3r
abnormal response to new environmentGnas
abnormal response/metabolism to endogenous compoundsGnas , Pomc
abnormal retina blood vessel morphologyMrap , Pcsk1
abnormal retina ganglion cell morphologya
abnormal retina melanin granule morphologya
abnormal retina outer nuclear layer morphologyGnb1
abnormal retina vasculature morphologyMrap , Pcsk1
abnormal sebaceous lipid secretionMc5r
abnormal skeleton morphologya
abnormal skin colorationMgrn1
abnormal skin morphologya , Gnas , Mc1r , Mc3r , Mrap
abnormal skin pigmentationa , Mc1r
abnormal spinal cord white matter morphologyAtrn
abnormal spine curvaturePrkacb
abnormal spleen marginal zone morphologyPcsk1
abnormal spleen morphologyMc5r , Pomc
abnormal spleen white pulp morphologyPcsk1
abnormal sternum morphologyMrap
abnormal suckling behaviorGnas , Gnb1
abnormal sympathetic ganglion morphologyGnas
abnormal T-helper 1 cell differentiationPcsk1
abnormal tail hair pigmentationa , Mc1r
abnormal tail pigmentationa
abnormal tarsal bone morphologya
abnormal testis morphologyAtrn , Mc3r , Mc5r
abnormal thalamus morphologyAtrn
abnormal thyroid cartilage morphologyGnas
abnormal tibia morphologyGnas
abnormal tongue morphologyGnas
abnormal touch/ nociceptionMc1r , Pomc
abnormal tympanic ring morphologyGnas
abnormal ulna morphologya
abnormal urine catecholamine levelGnas
abnormal urine homeostasisGnas
abnormal ventral coat pigmentationa
abnormal vertebral arch morphologyPrkacb
abnormal vertebral column morphologyPrkacb
abnormal vitelline vasculature morphologyPam
abnormal vitreous body morphologyMc5r , Pcsk1
abnormal white adipose tissue physiologyGnas
absent adrenal glandPomc
absent choroid plexusa
absent coat pigmentationa
absent eye pigmentationa
absent fibulaa
absent gastric milk in neonatesGnas , Mrap
absent long term depressionPrkacb
absent mandibular angleGnas
absent mandibular condyloid processGnas
absent mandibular coronoid processGnas
absent nasal capsuleGnas
absent olfactory bulba
adipose tissue inflammationMc4r
adrenal cortical hyperplasiaMc2r
adrenal gland hypoplasiaMc2r
analgesiaMc1r , Pcsk2
aorta stenosisCpe
astrocytosisAtrn , Mgrn1
atherosclerotic lesionsa
atrial septal defectMgrn1
brain vacuolesAtrn , Atrnl1 , Mgrn1
broad nasal bridgea
cardiomyopathyAtrn , Atrnl1
cataractMc5r , Mrap
chronic diarrheaPcsk1
complete cleft palateGnas
congestive heart failureMgrn1
corneal opacitySdc1
curly vibrissaeMgrn1
darkened coat colora , Atrn , Mc1r , Mgrn1
decreased adrenocorticotropin levelPcsk1 , Pomc
decreased aggression towards male miceMc5r
decreased alcohol consumptionGnas
decreased anxiety-related responseGnb1
decreased birth body sizeGnas
decreased birth weightGnas
decreased body fat massGnas
decreased body lengthCpe , Gnas , Mc3r
decreased body mass indexGnas , Mc4r , Sdc3
decreased body sizea , Gnas , Mc1r , Pcsk1
decreased body temperatureAgrp
decreased body weighta , Agrp , Gnas , Mc4r , Pcsk1
decreased bone mineral contentMc3r , Mgrn1 , Mrap2 , Sdc3
decreased bone mineral densityGnas , Mc3r
decreased brain sizeGnb1
decreased brown adipose tissue amountGnas
decreased brown fat cell numberMc3r
decreased brown fat lipid droplet numberMc2r
decreased cell proliferationGnb1
decreased cholesterol levelAgrp
decreased circulating adiponectin levela , Mc4r
decreased circulating adrenaline levelMc2r , Pomc
decreased circulating adrenocorticotropin levelCpe , Pomc
decreased circulating aldosterone levelGnas , Mc2r , Pomc
decreased circulating calcium levelGnas
decreased circulating chloride levelCpe
decreased circulating cholesterol levelGnas
decreased circulating corticosterone levelMc2r , Mrap , Pomc
decreased circulating free fatty acids levelGnas
decreased circulating fructosamine levelPam
decreased circulating gastrin levelCpe
decreased circulating glucagon levelGnas , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2
decreased circulating glucose levela , Gnas , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2
decreased circulating growth hormone levelPcsk1
decreased circulating insulin levelCpe , Gnas , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2 , Sdc3
decreased circulating ketone body levelAgrp
decreased circulating leptin levelAgrp , Gnas
decreased circulating parathyroid hormone levelGnas
decreased circulating phosphate levelGnas
decreased circulating pituitary hormone levela
decreased circulating renin levelGnas
decreased circulating thyroxine levelPomc
decreased circulating triglyceride levelGnas , Mc3r
decreased circulating VLDL triglyceride levelAgrp
decreased compensatory feeding amountMc3r , Pomc
decreased digestive secretionCpe
decreased ear pigmentationa , Mc1r
decreased energy expenditureMc3r
decreased enteroendocrine cell numberPcsk1
decreased epididymal fat pad weightGnas
decreased exploration in new environmentCpe
decreased eye pigmentationa
decreased follicular dendritic cell numberPcsk1
decreased food intakeAgrp , Cpe , Pomc
decreased glucagon secretionPcsk2
decreased gonadal fat pad weighta
decreased grip strengthAtrn , Cpe
decreased heart rateMc2r
decreased heart weightGnas , Mc3r
decreased IgG1 levelSdc1
decreased incidence of induced tumorsa
decreased inguinal fat pad weightGnas
decreased insulin secretionPcsk2
decreased interleukin-10 secretionSdc1
decreased interleukin-13 secretionSdc1
decreased interscapular fat pad weightGnas
decreased lean body massAgrp , Gnas , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mrap2
decreased litter sizeMgrn1
decreased liver glycogen levelMrap
decreased liver triglyceride levelAgrp , Gnas
decreased liver weighta
decreased locomotor activitya , Cpe , Gnas , Mc3r , Pcsk1 , Pomc
decreased lymphocyte cell numberMgrn1
decreased mean systemic arterial blood pressureGnas , Pcsk1
decreased mesenteric fat pad weightGnas
decreased neuron numberAgrp
decreased NK T cell numberPcsk1
decreased osteoclast cell numberMc4r
decreased oxygen consumptionGnas , Mc4r , Pomc
decreased pancreatic beta cell numberPcsk2
decreased percent body fat/body weightGnas , Mc2r , Sdc3
decreased pituitary hormone levelPcsk2
decreased platelet ADP levela
decreased platelet ATP levela
decreased platelet dense granule numbera
decreased platelet serotonin levela
decreased renal fat pad weightGnas
decreased renal glomerular filtration rateGnas
decreased respiratory quotientAgrp , Mc3r
decreased serotonin levelAgrp
decreased skeletal muscle massPcsk1
decreased skeletal muscle triglyceride levelGnas
decreased skin pigmentationa
decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue amountGnas
decreased survivor rateGnas
decreased susceptibility to atherosclerosisa
decreased susceptibility to bacterial infectionSdc1
decreased susceptibility to bacterial infection induced morbidity/mortalitySdc1
decreased susceptibility to diet-induced obesityAgrp , Gnas , Sdc3
decreased synaptic depressionPrkacb
decreased T cell numberPcsk1
decreased tail pigmentationa , Mc1r
decreased testis weightPcsk1
decreased total body fat amountAgrp , Atrn , Gnas , Mc2r
decreased total retina thicknessGnb1
decreased tumor incidenceSdc1
decreased urine noradrenaline levelGnas
decreased urine osmolalityGnas
decreased vertical activityCpe
decreased vitamin D levelGnas
decreased white adipose tissue amountGnas
decreased white fat cell sizeGnas
degranulated pancreatic beta cellsa , Cpe
delayed kidney developmentGnas
delayed wound healingSdc1
dilated renal tubulea , Pcsk2
dilated uretera
diluted coat colora , Mc1r , Pomc
disorganized dorsal root ganglionPrkacb
domed craniumGnas
double outlet right ventricleMgrn1
ectopic boneGnas
edemaGnas , Pam
embryonic growth retardationa
embryonic lethalitya
embryonic lethality at implantation, complete penetrancea
embryonic lethality before implantation, complete penetrancePcsk1
embryonic lethality between implantation and placentation, complete penetrancea
embryonic lethality between somite formation and embryo turning, complete penetrancePrkacb
embryonic lethality, complete penetrancePrkacb
enhanced fertilityAgrp
enlarged adrenal glandsPomc
enlarged hair follicle melanin granulesa
enlarged pancreatic isletsPcsk2
enlarged spleenMc5r , Pcsk1 , Pomc
enlarged testisMc5r
exencephalya , Gnb1 , Prkacb
expanded mesangial matrixa
extended life spanAgrp
facial cleftGnb1
fused carpal bonesa
fused tarsal bonesa
genetic imprintinga , Gnas
hepatic steatosisMc4r , Mrap2 , Pomc
hydrops fetalisGnas
hyperactivityAgrp , Cpe , Gnas , Gnb1
hyperactivity elicited by ethanol administrationPomc
hyperglycemiaa , Cpe , Mc4r
hypoglycemiaCpe , Gnas , Mc2r , Pcsk1
hyporesponsive to tactile stimuliCpe , Pcsk2
impaired adaptive thermogenesisAgrp , Cpe , Gnas , Mc5r
impaired balanceGnas
impaired conditioned place preference behaviorPomc
impaired glucose tolerancea , Cpe , Gnas , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pam , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2 , Pomc
impaired lung alveolus developmentMrap
impaired righting responseGnas
improved glucose tolerancea , Agrp , Gnas , Pcsk2 , Sdc1 , Sdc3
incomplete rostral neuropore closurea
increased abdominal fat pad weightMc4r
increased adrenocorticotropin levelMrap
increased aggression towards micePomc
increased alcohol consumptionPomc
increased anxiety-related responseMc2r
increased basal metabolismGnas
increased birth body sizeGnas
increased birth weightGnas
increased bleeding timea
increased body fat massPomc
increased body lengtha , Cpe , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pomc
increased body mass indexGnas , Mc4r
increased body sizeMc4r
increased body weighta , Agrp , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pcsk1 , Pomc
increased bone massMc4r
increased bone mineral contentAtrn , Gnb1
increased brain sizeMc5r
increased brown adipose tissue amounta , Gnas , Mrap2
increased brown fat cell lipid droplet sizeGnas
increased carbon dioxide productionGnas
increased cellular sensitivity to ionizing radiationMc1r
increased circulating adrenocorticotropin levelMc2r , Pomc
increased circulating alanine transaminase levelCpe , Mc4r , Pcsk2 , Prkacb
increased circulating alkaline phosphatase levelCpe , Mgrn1 , Mrap2
increased circulating amylase levelPcsk2
increased circulating aspartate transaminase levelCpe , Mc4r
increased circulating bilirubin levelMgrn1
increased circulating calcium levelCpe , Mrap2
increased circulating chloride levelMc2r
increased circulating cholesterol levela , Cpe , Mc4r , Pcsk2 , Sdc1
increased circulating corticosterone levelGnas , Pomc
increased circulating creatinine levelSdc1
increased circulating erythropoietin levela
increased circulating free fatty acids levelMc4r
increased circulating ghrelin levelGnas
increased circulating glucagon levelGnas
increased circulating glucose levelCpe , Gnas , Pomc
increased circulating growth hormone levelCpe
increased circulating HDL cholesterol levelAdcy2 , Cpe , Pcsk2 , Sdc1
increased circulating insulin levela , Cpe , Gnas , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2 , Pomc
increased circulating interferon-gamma levelPcsk1
increased circulating interleukin-1 beta levelPcsk1
increased circulating interleukin-10 levelPcsk1
increased circulating interleukin-12 levelPcsk1
increased circulating interleukin-6 levelMc4r , Pcsk1 , Pomc
increased circulating iron levelPcsk2
increased circulating LDL cholesterol levelCpe
increased circulating leptin levela , Cpe , Gnas , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pcsk1 , Pomc
increased circulating parathyroid hormone levelGnas
increased circulating phosphate levelGnas
increased circulating pituitary hormone levelCpe
increased circulating potassium levelMc2r
increased circulating thyroxine levelAgrp
increased circulating triglyceride levela , Cpe , Gnas
increased circulating triiodothyronine levelAgrp , Cpe
increased circulating tumor necrosis factor levelPcsk1
increased circulating VLDL cholesterol levelCpe
increased compensatory feeding amountMrap2
increased core body temperatureAgrp
increased dopamine levelPomc
increased energy expenditureGnas , Mc4r
increased epididymal fat pad weightAgrp
increased fasting circulating glucose levelCpe , Mrap2
increased fat cell sizePomc
increased fatty acid oxidationGnas
increased food intakea , Agrp , Gnas , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pomc
increased glucagonoma incidencePcsk2
increased gonadal fat pad weighta , Pomc
increased growth hormone levelCpe
increased heart weightMgrn1
increased hematocrita , Cpe
increased hepatocellular carcinoma incidenceMc4r
increased hydroxyproline levelMc4r
increased inflammatory responseMc3r , Sdc1
increased inguinal fat pad weighta , Pomc
increased insulin sensitivityGnas
increased interleukin-1 beta secretionPcsk1
increased interleukin-6 secretionPomc
increased interscapular fat pad weightGnas
increased lean body massGnas , Mc4r , Pomc
increased leukocyte cell numberCpe
increased liver glycogen levelGnas
increased liver triglyceride levelMc4r
increased liver weighta , Gnas , Mc4r , Pomc
increased locomotor activitya , Agrp , Atrn , Gnas , Mc2r
increased lymphocyte cell numberMgrn1 , Pcsk1
increased mean corpuscular hemoglobinMgrn1
increased mean corpuscular volumea , Cpe , Pcsk2
increased mean platelet volumeSdc1
increased mesenteric fat pad weightAgrp
increased monocyte cell numbera
increased muscle cell glucose uptakeGnas
increased neural tube apoptosisPrkacb
increased neutrophil cell numberMgrn1
increased noradrenaline levelAgrp
increased oxygen consumptionAgrp , Gnas
increased pancreas tumor incidencePcsk2
increased pancreas weightGnas
increased pancreatic alpha cell massPcsk2
increased pancreatic alpha cell numberPcsk2
increased pancreatic alpha cell proliferationPcsk2
increased pancreatic delta cell numberPcsk2
increased pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma incidencePcsk2
increased pancreatic islet cell adenoma incidencePcsk2
increased pancreatic islet numberCpe
increased percent body fat/body weighta , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mrap2
increased physiological sensitivity to xenobioticPomc
increased pituitary adenoma incidencePomc
increased pituitary hormone levelCpe
increased red blood cell distribution widthMrap2
increased renal fat pad weightAgrp , Pomc
increased renal glomerulus basement membrane thicknessa
increased respiratory quotientCpe
increased retroperitoneal fat pad weighta , Pomc
increased sensitivity to induced morbidity/mortalityAgrp
increased sensitivity to xenobiotic induced morbidity/mortalityPcsk1
increased skeletal muscle massPcsk1
increased spleen weightMc2r , Mgrn1
increased splenocyte proliferationPomc
increased squamous cell carcinoma incidenceMc1r
increased startle reflexCpe
increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesityMc3r , Mc4r , Pcsk1 , Pomc
increased susceptibility to endotoxin shockPcsk1
increased susceptibility to parasitic infectionSdc1
increased susceptibility to pharmacologically induced seizuresMc2r
increased susceptibility to weight gaina , Cpe , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pomc
increased susceptibility to weight lossAgrp
increased systemic arterial blood pressurePcsk2
increased systemic arterial systolic blood pressurePomc
increased thermal nociceptive thresholdPcsk2
increased thigmotaxisCpe
increased thymus weightMc2r
increased thyroid tumor incidenceGnas
increased total body fat amounta , Agrp , Cpe , Gnas , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pam , Pomc
increased tumor incidencea , Mc1r
increased tumor necrosis factor secretionPomc
increased urine adrenaline levelPomc
increased urine dopamine levelGnas
increased urine glucose levela
increased urine noradrenaline levelGnas
increased urine prostaglandin levelGnas
increased vertical activitya , Gnb1
increased white adipose tissue amountGnas , Pcsk1
increased white fat cell sizeMc3r , Mrap2
insensitivity to parathyroid hormoneGnas
insulin resistancea , Cpe , Gnas , Pcsk1 , Pomc
intermingled spleen red and white pulpPcsk1
irregular coat pigmentationa
large mandiblea
left pulmonary isomerismMgrn1
lethality throughout fetal growth and development, complete penetrancePam
lethality throughout fetal growth and development, incomplete penetranceGnb1
lethargyCpe , Mc2r
limb graspingPcsk2
liver fibrosisMc4r
liver inflammationMc4r
lowered ear positiona
lung situs inversusMgrn1
male infertilityCpe
mammary gland hyperplasiaSdc1
mandible hypoplasiaGnas
maternal effecta
maternal imprintinga , Gnas
maxilla hypoplasiaGnas
microvesicular hepatic steatosisMc4r
mottled coata
muscle weaknessMgrn1
narrow eye openinga
neonatal lethality, complete penetranceGnas
neonatal lethality, incomplete penetranceGnas , Mrap
no abnormal phenotype detectedAgrp , Gnas , Mc4r
no spontaneous movementGnas
obesea , Agrp , Cpe , Gnas , Mc3r , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pcsk1 , Pomc
ocular hypertelorisma , Gnas
palatal shelves fail to meet at midlineGnas
palate bone hypoplasiaGnas
pancreatic islet hyperplasiaCpe , Gnas , Pcsk2
paternal imprintingGnas
pericardial effusionMgrn1
perinatal lethality, incomplete penetranceGnb1 , Mgrn1 , Pomc
persistence of hyaloid vascular systemPcsk1
phenotypic reversiona
pleural effusionMgrn1
polyphagiaa , Cpe , Mc4r , Mrap2 , Pcsk1 , Pomc , Sdc3
postnatal growth retardationAtrn , Gnas , Pcsk1
postnatal lethalityGnas , Prkacb
postnatal lethality, complete penetranceGnas
postnatal lethality, incomplete penetranceGnas , Mc2r , Mgrn1 , Mrap , Pcsk1
premature bone ossificationGnas
premature deathAtrn , Gnas , Mgrn1 , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2
premature metopic suture closureGnas
prenatal lethalitya , Gnas , Mgrn1
prenatal lethality, complete penetranceGnas , Mgrn1
prenatal lethality, incomplete penetranceGnas , Mgrn1 , Pcsk1 , Pomc
preweaning lethality, complete penetranceAtrnl1 , Gnb1 , Mrap , Pam
preweaning lethality, incomplete penetranceMgrn1 , Pcsk1 , Pcsk2 , Pomc , Prkacb
primary atelectasisMrap
protruding tongueGnas
radius hypoplasiaa
reduced female fertilityPcsk2
reduced fertilityCpe , Mc4r , Pcsk1
reduced hair shaft melanin granule numbera
reduced long term potentiationPrkacb
renal casta
renal hypoplasiaa
respiratory distressGnas
respiratory failureGnb1
right aortic archMgrn1
round faceGnas
short femurGnas , Mc3r
short haira
short limbsGnas
short mandibleGnas
short maxillaGnas
short snoutGnas
shortened heada
shortened QRS complex durationMgrn1
single kidneya
situs inversusMgrn1
skin edemaGnas
skin lesionsGnas , Mc1r
slow postnatal weight gainGnas , Pcsk1
small adrenal glandsMrap , Pomc
small dorsal root ganglionGnas
small heartGnas
small kidneya , Mc3r
small testisMc3r
spina bifidaPrkacb
spongiform encephalopathyAtrn , Mgrn1
thick epidermisMc1r
thin cerebral cortexGnb1
thin myocardiumMgrn1
thymus cortex atrophyGnas
transmission ratio distortionPcsk1
tremorsAtrn , Cpe , Gnas
umbilical vein stenosisPam
variable body spottinga
variegated coat colora
variegated eye pigmentation patterna
ventricular septal defectMgrn1
weight lossAgrp , Mc1r
white spottinga , Mc1r
yellow coat colora , Mc1r , Pomc

References Associated with the melanocortin system pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

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paths to the root

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