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The Basic subset of the UBERON integrated, cross-species anatomy ontology is downloaded weekly from For more information about this ontology see the "About" page on the UBERON website at

Term:endocrine system
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Accession:UBERON:0000949 term browser browse the term
Definition:Anatomical system that consists of the glands and parts of glands that produce endocrine secretions and help to integrate and control bodily metabolic activity.
Comment:[homology-note] "Multicellular organisms have complex endocrine systems, allowing responses to environmental stimuli, regulation of development, reproduction, and homeostasis. Nuclear receptors (NRs), a metazoan-specific family of ligand-activated transcription factors, play central roles in endocrine responses, as intermediates between signaling molecules and target genes. The NR family includes ligand-bound and orphan receptors, that is, receptors with no known ligand or for which there is no ligand Pocket. Understanding NR evolution has been further improved by comparison of several completed genomes, particularly those of deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. In contrast, evolution of NR ligands is still much debated. One hypothesis proposes that several independent gains and losses of ligand-binding ability in NRs occurred in protostomes and deuterostomes. A second hypothesis, pertaining to the NR3 subfamily (vertebrate steroid hormone receptors and estrogen related receptor), proposes that before the divergence of protostomes and deuterostomes, there was an ancestral steroid receptor (AncSR) that was ligand-activated and that orphan receptors secondarily lost the ability to bind a ligand. (...) Our analysis reveals that steroidogenesis has been independently elaborated in the 3 main bilaterian lineages (...).[well established][VHOG]" xsd:string {date_retrieved="2012-09-17", external_class="VHOG:0000098", ontology="VHOG", source="DOI:10.1073/pnas.0812138106 Markov GV, Tavares R, Dauphin-Villemant C, Demeneix BA, Baker ME, Laudet V, Independent elaboration of steroid hormone signaling pathways in metazoans. PNAS (2009)", source=""}
Synonyms:exact_synonym: endocrine glandular system;   systema endocrinum
 xref: AAO:0010279;   CALOHA:TS-1301;   EFO:0002969;   EHDAA2:0002224;   EMAPA:35306;   EV:0100128;   FBbt:00005068;   FMA:9668;   GAID:439;   MA:0000012;   MESH:D004703;   NCI:C12705;   SCTID:278876000;   TAO:0001158;   UMLS:C0014136;   VHOG:0000098;   Wikipedia:Endocrine_system;   XAO:0000158;   ZFA:0001158
 relational_adjective: endocrine

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  UBERON ontology 0
    anatomical entity 0
      material anatomical entity 0
        disconnected anatomical group 0
          non-connected functional system 0
            glandular system 0
              endocrine system 0
                chromaffin system + 0
                endocrine gland + 0
                endocrine pancreas + 0
                endostyle + 0
                head kidney + 0
                hypothalamo-hypophyseal system 0
                hypothalamus-pituitary axis 0
                pancreatic system 0
                renin-angiotensin system 0
                thyroid primordium + 0
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