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The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) is downloaded weekly from The file downloaded is considered the "last stable build" available for the ontology. For more about the HPO, view their website at

Term:Impaired mastication
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Accession:HP:0005216 term browser browse the term
Definition:An abnormal reduction in the ability to masticate (chew), i.e., in the ability to crush and ground food in preparation for swallowing.
Comment:Chewing and swallowing are interrelated. The act of chewing plays a fundamental role in the process of swallowing food. Mastication prepares food for swallowing by breaking it into small particles. Accordingly, loss of teeth has been associated with swallowing difficulties. Chewing difficulties may be caused by loss of teeth, partial dentures, or by tooth pain. Swallowing difficulties, in contrast, are often characterized by difficulties swallowing liquids, reflux, throat spasms, choking on dry food, or dysphagia.
Synonyms:exact_synonym: Chewing difficulties;   Chewing difficulty
 xref: SNOMEDCT_US:162020001;   UMLS:C0239043

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  Human phenotype 0
    Phenotypic abnormality 0
      Abnormality of head or neck 0
        Abnormality of the head 0
          Abnormality of the face 0
            Abnormality of the mouth 0
              Abnormal oral physiology 0
                Impaired mastication 0
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