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ONTOLOGY REPORT - ANNOTATIONS


Term:cell-cell signaling involved in cardiac conduction
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Accession:GO:0086019 term browser browse the term
Definition:Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another and contributes to the heart process that regulates cardiac muscle contraction; beginning with the generation of an action potential in the sinoatrial node and ending with regulation of contraction of the myocardium.
Synonyms:exact_synonym: cell-cell signalling involved in cardiac conduction


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cell-cell signaling involved in cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G AABR07034767.1 involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537
G Pkp2 plakophilin 2 involved_in ISO (PMID:22889254) RGD PMID:22889254 NCBI chr11:84,661,783...84,727,730 JBrowse link
G Tbx5 T-box transcription factor 5 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
UniProtKB:Q9JJV9 (MGI:5449667|PMID:22728936)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:22728936 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:5449667 NCBI chr12:36,686,344...36,739,253
Ensembl chr12:36,688,014...36,734,885
JBrowse link
atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ank2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (PMID:17242276), (PMID:18832177), (PMID:21859974)
(MGI:5427070|PMID:21859974)
RGD PMID:17242276 PMID:18832177 PMID:21859974 MGI:5427070 NCBI chr 2:215,378,028...215,954,015
Ensembl chr 2:215,379,680...215,862,923
JBrowse link
G Kcna5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:19343045), (PMID:23264583) RGD PMID:19343045 PMID:23264583 NCBI chr 4:159,354,689...159,358,173
Ensembl chr 4:159,350,097...159,357,697
JBrowse link
G Kcne5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:18313602) RGD PMID:18313602 NCBI chr  X:105,930,398...105,931,013
Ensembl chr  X:105,930,398...105,931,013
JBrowse link
G Kcnq1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 involved_in ISO (PMID:12522251) RGD PMID:12522251 NCBI chr 1:198,291,711...198,624,683
Ensembl chr 1:198,291,766...198,624,669
JBrowse link
G Nup155 nucleoporin 155 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
MGI:3840086 (MGI:3839697|PMID:19070573)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:19070573 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:3839697 NCBI chr 2:57,201,310...57,252,918
Ensembl chr 2:57,201,272...57,254,148
JBrowse link
G Scn3b sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 3 involved_in ISO (PMID:21051419) RGD PMID:21051419 NCBI chr 8:40,630,372...40,652,869
Ensembl chr 8:40,630,455...40,652,868
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(PMID:18065446)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:18065446 GO_REF:0000024 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
AV node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cacna1g calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:16690884 GO_REF:0000024 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr10:79,354,998...79,422,960
Ensembl chr10:79,355,008...79,422,752
JBrowse link
G Scn10a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 10 involved_in ISO (PMID:24998131) RGD PMID:24998131 NCBI chr 8:119,350,723...119,462,882
Ensembl chr 8:119,350,724...119,462,614
JBrowse link
G Scn4b sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 4 involved_in ISO (PMID:17592081) RGD PMID:17592081 NCBI chr 8:45,446,580...45,462,294
Ensembl chr 8:45,446,215...45,462,292
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISS
IBA
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
PMID:21873635
(PMID:18616619)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:18616619 PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000024, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
AV node cell to bundle of His cell signaling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cacna1g calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:16690884 GO_REF:0000024 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr10:79,354,998...79,422,960
Ensembl chr10:79,355,008...79,422,752
JBrowse link
bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Scn10a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 10 involved_in ISO (PMID:24998131) RGD PMID:24998131 NCBI chr 8:119,350,723...119,462,882
Ensembl chr 8:119,350,724...119,462,614
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISO
ISS
(PMID:18065446)
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
BHF-UCL
PMID:18065446 GO_REF:0000024 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cacna1c calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C involved_in ISO
IEA
ISS
(PMID:17224476)
GO_REF:0000107
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
Ensembl
BHF-UCL
PMID:17224476 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:151,764,138...152,379,454
Ensembl chr 4:151,764,138...152,379,648
JBrowse link
G Cacnb2 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit beta 2 involved_in ISS
ISO
IEA
GO_REF:0000024
(PMID:17224476)
GO_REF:0000107
BHF-UCL
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:17224476 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:77,564,630...77,910,000
Ensembl chr17:77,564,460...77,909,106
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISO
IEA
(PMID:18065446)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:18065446 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during AV node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cacna1c calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C involved_in ISS
IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:26253506)
BHF-UCL
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:26253506 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:151,764,138...152,379,454
Ensembl chr 4:151,764,138...152,379,648
JBrowse link
G Cacna1g calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:16690884 GO_REF:0000024 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr10:79,354,998...79,422,960
Ensembl chr10:79,355,008...79,422,752
JBrowse link
G Cacnb2 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit beta 2 involved_in ISS
IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:17224476)
BHF-UCL
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:17224476 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:77,564,630...77,910,000
Ensembl chr17:77,564,460...77,909,106
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISO
IEA
ISS
(PMID:18616619)
GO_REF:0000107
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
Ensembl
BHF-UCL
PMID:18616619 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
G Trpm4 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 involved_in IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:27207958)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:27207958 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:95,781,805...95,812,095
Ensembl chr 1:95,782,000...95,812,532
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cacna2d1 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit alpha2delta 1 involved_in ISO
IEA
(PMID:21383000)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:21383000 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:18,950,611...19,374,969
Ensembl chr 4:18,951,002...19,374,969
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISO
IEA
ISS
(PMID:18065446)
GO_REF:0000107
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
Ensembl
BHF-UCL
PMID:18065446 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
G Trpm4 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 involved_in IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:27207958)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:27207958 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:95,781,805...95,812,095
Ensembl chr 1:95,782,000...95,812,532
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during Purkinje myocyte cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Scn1b sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 1 involved_in ISO (PMID:18464934) RGD PMID:18464934 NCBI chr 1:86,353,917...86,363,836
Ensembl chr 1:86,353,917...86,363,739
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISS
IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:22766342)
BHF-UCL
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:22766342 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
G Trpm4 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 involved_in IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:27207958)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:27207958 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:95,781,805...95,812,095
Ensembl chr 1:95,782,000...95,812,532
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cacna1d calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
ISO
IEA
(PMID:21131953)
GO_REF:0000107
MGI:2180141 (MGI:3583874|PMID:12700358)
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:12700358 PMID:21131953 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:3583874 NCBI chr16:5,227,157...5,521,163
Ensembl chr16:5,228,306...5,668,215
JBrowse link
G Cacna1g calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:16690884 GO_REF:0000024 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr10:79,354,998...79,422,960
Ensembl chr10:79,355,008...79,422,752
JBrowse link
G Hcn4 hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 involved_in IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:16407510)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:16407510 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 8:59,222,206...59,259,626
Ensembl chr 8:59,221,653...59,259,639
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISS
IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:18616619)
BHF-UCL
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:18616619 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
membrane repolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Kcna5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:19343045), (PMID:23264583) RGD PMID:19343045 PMID:23264583 NCBI chr 4:159,354,689...159,358,173
Ensembl chr 4:159,350,097...159,357,697
JBrowse link
G Kcnj5 potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:20560207) RGD PMID:20560207 NCBI chr 8:30,724,923...30,753,083
Ensembl chr 8:30,724,925...30,753,518
JBrowse link
G Kcnn2 potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:5292192|PMID:19139040) RGD PMID:19139040 MGI:5292192 NCBI chr18:37,817,966...38,258,347
Ensembl chr18:37,817,957...38,258,347
JBrowse link
G Kcnq1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 involved_in ISO
IEA
(PMID:12522251), (PMID:25786344)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:12522251 PMID:25786344 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:198,291,711...198,624,683
Ensembl chr 1:198,291,766...198,624,669
JBrowse link
membrane repolarization during bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Kcna5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:23264583) RGD PMID:23264583 NCBI chr 4:159,354,689...159,358,173
Ensembl chr 4:159,350,097...159,357,697
JBrowse link
membrane repolarization during SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Kcna5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:19343045) RGD PMID:19343045 NCBI chr 4:159,354,689...159,358,173
Ensembl chr 4:159,350,097...159,357,697
JBrowse link
positive regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Trpm4 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4 IMP RGD PMID:23954346 RGD:10003031 NCBI chr 1:95,781,805...95,812,095
Ensembl chr 1:95,782,000...95,812,532
JBrowse link
Purkinje myocyte to ventricular cardiac muscle cell signaling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ryr2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in IEA
ISO
GO_REF:0000107
(MGI:3820489|PMID:17872467)
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:17872467 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:3820489 NCBI chr17:58,389,925...58,975,641
Ensembl chr17:58,389,925...58,975,142
JBrowse link
regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ank2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (PMID:12571597)
(MGI:2449848|PMID:12571597)
RGD PMID:12571597 MGI:2449848 NCBI chr 2:215,378,028...215,954,015
Ensembl chr 2:215,379,680...215,862,923
JBrowse link
G Gja5 gap junction protein, alpha 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:23348765) RGD PMID:23348765 NCBI chr 2:184,602,407...184,621,952
Ensembl chr 2:184,564,475...184,621,952
JBrowse link
G Ryr2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in ISO
IEA
(PMID:17875969)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:17875969 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,389,925...58,975,641
Ensembl chr17:58,389,925...58,975,142
JBrowse link
regulation of AV node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ank2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:2449848|PMID:12571597) RGD PMID:12571597 MGI:2449848 NCBI chr 2:215,378,028...215,954,015
Ensembl chr 2:215,379,680...215,862,923
JBrowse link
G Cxadr CXADR, Ig-like cell adhesion molecule involved_in ISO (MGI:3814765|PMID:18636119) RGD PMID:18636119 MGI:3814765 NCBI chr11:16,982,752...17,030,078
Ensembl chr11:16,982,860...17,030,046
JBrowse link
G Gja5 gap junction protein, alpha 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:22247482)
(MGI:3696497|PMID:10515563)
RGD PMID:10515563 PMID:22247482 MGI:3696497 NCBI chr 2:184,602,407...184,621,952
Ensembl chr 2:184,564,475...184,621,952
JBrowse link
G Ryr2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in ISO
IEA
(PMID:17875969)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:17875969 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,389,925...58,975,641
Ensembl chr17:58,389,925...58,975,142
JBrowse link
regulation of bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gja5 gap junction protein, alpha 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:22247482)
(MGI:3696497|PMID:10515563)
RGD PMID:10515563 PMID:22247482 MGI:3696497 NCBI chr 2:184,602,407...184,621,952
Ensembl chr 2:184,564,475...184,621,952
JBrowse link
G Rangrf RAN guanine nucleotide release factor involved_in ISO (PMID:21621375) RGD PMID:21621375 NCBI chr10:53,677,467...53,678,880
Ensembl chr10:53,677,467...53,678,840
JBrowse link
regulation of Purkinje myocyte action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gja5 gap junction protein, alpha 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:22247482) RGD PMID:22247482 NCBI chr 2:184,602,407...184,621,952
Ensembl chr 2:184,564,475...184,621,952
JBrowse link
regulation of SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ank2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (PMID:12571597), (PMID:18832177)
(MGI:2449848|PMID:12571597)
RGD PMID:12571597 PMID:18832177 MGI:2449848 NCBI chr 2:215,378,028...215,954,015
Ensembl chr 2:215,379,680...215,862,923
JBrowse link
G Ryr2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in ISO
IEA
(PMID:17875969)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:17875969 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,389,925...58,975,641
Ensembl chr17:58,389,925...58,975,142
JBrowse link
G Tbx18 T-box transcription factor 18 acts_upstream_of ISO (PMID:23242162) RGD PMID:23242162 NCBI chr 8:88,652,054...88,680,081
Ensembl chr 8:88,652,054...88,680,058
JBrowse link
SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ank2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:5430886|PMID:18832177) RGD PMID:18832177 MGI:5430886 NCBI chr 2:215,378,028...215,954,015
Ensembl chr 2:215,379,680...215,862,923
JBrowse link
G Cacna1g calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:16690884 GO_REF:0000024 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr10:79,354,998...79,422,960
Ensembl chr10:79,355,008...79,422,752
JBrowse link
G Gja5 gap junction protein, alpha 5 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO MGI:2445466 (MGI:3664488|PMID:11046183) RGD PMID:11046183 MGI:3664488 NCBI chr 2:184,602,407...184,621,952
Ensembl chr 2:184,564,475...184,621,952
JBrowse link
G Hcn4 hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 involved_in ISO (PMID:12750403) RGD PMID:12750403 NCBI chr 8:59,222,206...59,259,626
Ensembl chr 8:59,221,653...59,259,639
JBrowse link
G Scn3b sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 3 involved_in ISO (MGI:5294533|PMID:19796257) RGD PMID:19796257 MGI:5294533 NCBI chr 8:40,630,372...40,652,869
Ensembl chr 8:40,630,455...40,652,868
JBrowse link
G Scn5a sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in ISO
ISS
(PMID:18616619)
GO_REF:0000024
RGD
BHF-UCL
PMID:18616619 GO_REF:0000024 NCBI chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,816
Ensembl chr 8:119,220,905...119,318,769
JBrowse link
SA node cell to atrial cardiac muscle cell signaling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cacna1g calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884)
BHF-UCL
RGD
PMID:16690884 GO_REF:0000024 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr10:79,354,998...79,422,960
Ensembl chr10:79,355,008...79,422,752
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 19492
    signaling 7460
      cell-cell signaling 1735
        cell-cell signaling involved in cardiac conduction 27
          AV node cell to bundle of His cell signaling + 11
          Purkinje myocyte to ventricular cardiac muscle cell signaling + 5
          SA node cell to atrial cardiac muscle cell signaling + 10
          atrial cardiac muscle cell to AV node cell signaling + 14
          bundle of His cell to Purkinje myocyte signaling + 7
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 19492
    multicellular organismal process 8824
      system process 3339
        circulatory system process 586
          blood circulation 557
            regulation of blood circulation 278
              regulation of heart contraction 204
                cardiac conduction 69
                  cell communication involved in cardiac conduction 43
                    cell-cell signaling involved in cardiac conduction 27
                      AV node cell to bundle of His cell signaling + 11
                      Purkinje myocyte to ventricular cardiac muscle cell signaling + 5
                      SA node cell to atrial cardiac muscle cell signaling + 10
                      atrial cardiac muscle cell to AV node cell signaling + 14
                      bundle of His cell to Purkinje myocyte signaling + 7
paths to the root