Send us a Message



Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   

ONTOLOGY REPORT - ANNOTATIONS


Term:cardiac conduction
go back to main search page
Accession:GO:0061337 term browser browse the term
Definition:Transfer of an organized electrical impulse across the heart to coordinate the contraction of cardiac muscles. The process begins with generation of an action potential (in the sinoatrial node (SA) in humans) and ends with a change in the rate, frequency, or extent of the contraction of the heart muscles.



show annotations for term's descendants           Sort by:
cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ABCC9 ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 9 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr27:25,199,580...25,352,637
Ensembl chr27:25,200,418...25,388,477
JBrowse link
G CACNA1C calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C involved_in ISO (PMID:24728418) UniProt PMID:24728418 NCBI chr27:44,007,363...44,748,251
Ensembl chr27:44,008,020...44,746,429
JBrowse link
G GJA1 gap junction protein alpha 1 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:10969038), (PMID:9109444) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:9109444 PMID:10969038 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:60,941,772...60,944,694
Ensembl chr 1:60,929,097...60,942,936
JBrowse link
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:10515563), (PMID:10969038), (PMID:9501070)
(PMID:18599871), (PMID:9501069)
MGI PMID:9501069 PMID:9501070 PMID:10515563 PMID:10969038 PMID:18599871 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G KCNQ1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr18:46,554,390...46,830,533
Ensembl chr18:46,518,908...46,830,043
JBrowse link
G MEF2A myocyte enhancer factor 2A involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 3:41,012,103...41,177,588
Ensembl chr 3:41,015,713...41,179,448
JBrowse link
G MIR208A microRNA mir-208a acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:19726871) MGI PMID:19726871 NCBI chr 8:3,636,919...3,636,987
Ensembl chr 8:3,636,919...3,636,987
JBrowse link
G SCN10A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 10 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:20062061) MGI PMID:20062061 NCBI chr23:8,420,468...8,527,414
Ensembl chr23:8,420,472...8,527,383
JBrowse link
G SCN1B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:117,504,428...117,510,666
Ensembl chr 1:117,503,828...117,511,727
JBrowse link
G SCN2B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 2 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within_positive_effect
IEA
ISO
(PMID:27932425) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:27932425 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 5:15,514,760...15,534,179
Ensembl chr 5:15,521,481...15,534,179
JBrowse link
G SCN3B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 3 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:19351516) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:19351516 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 5:10,783,235...10,808,342
Ensembl chr 5:10,783,325...10,804,242
JBrowse link
G SLC4A3 solute carrier family 4 member 3 acts_upstream_of_or_within
involved_in
ISO
IEA
(PMID:29167417) ARUK-UCL
Ensembl
PMID:29167417 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr37:26,136,589...26,149,312
Ensembl chr37:26,136,412...26,149,312
JBrowse link
G SPTBN4 spectrin beta, non-erythrocytic 4 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:20877009) MGI PMID:20877009 NCBI chr 1:113,167,251...113,243,071
Ensembl chr 1:113,168,484...113,240,934
JBrowse link
G TMEM65 transmembrane protein 65 involved_in ISO (MGI:7366463|PMID:36257954) UniProt PMID:36257954 MGI:7366463 NCBI chr13:22,426,487...22,494,520
Ensembl chr13:22,426,793...22,494,520
JBrowse link
G ZMPSTE24 zinc metallopeptidase STE24 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:27799555) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:27799555 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr15:2,669,546...2,708,480
Ensembl chr15:2,670,326...2,709,160
JBrowse link
atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:19343045), (PMID:23264583) BHF-UCL PMID:19343045 PMID:23264583 NCBI chr27:39,808,987...39,810,789
Ensembl chr27:39,756,363...39,811,035
JBrowse link
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107
G KCNE5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr  X:82,844,188...82,845,641
Ensembl chr  X:82,845,064...82,846,083
JBrowse link
G KCNQ1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr18:46,554,390...46,830,533
Ensembl chr18:46,518,908...46,830,043
JBrowse link
G NUP155 nucleoporin 155 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:19070573) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:19070573 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:71,340,109...71,409,286
Ensembl chr 4:71,340,168...71,408,038
JBrowse link
G SCN3B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 5:10,783,235...10,808,342
Ensembl chr 5:10,783,325...10,804,242
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
atrial cardiac muscle cell to AV node cell communication term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:2449848|PMID:12571597) BHF-UCL PMID:12571597 MGI:2449848 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
atrial cardiac muscle cell to AV node cell communication by electrical coupling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in IEA
IBA
Ensembl
TreeGrafter
GO_Central
GO_REF:0000033 GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
AV node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA1G calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISO (MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884) BHF-UCL PMID:16690884 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr 9:26,481,148...26,544,511
Ensembl chr 9:26,481,652...26,544,845
JBrowse link
G SCN10A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 10 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,420,468...8,527,414
Ensembl chr23:8,420,472...8,527,383
JBrowse link
G SCN4B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 4 involved_in ISO (PMID:17592081) BHF-UCL PMID:17592081 NCBI chr 5:15,552,347...15,564,085
Ensembl chr 5:15,543,632...15,563,486
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
AV node cell to bundle of His cell communication term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CXADR CXADR Ig-like cell adhesion molecule involved_in ISO (MGI:3814765|PMID:18636119) UniProt PMID:18636119 MGI:3814765 NCBI chr31:14,021,292...14,079,049
Ensembl chr31:14,021,303...14,078,847
JBrowse link
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:10515563) MGI PMID:10515563 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
AV node cell to bundle of His cell communication by electrical coupling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G GJC1 gap junction protein gamma 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 9:18,642,359...18,688,128
Ensembl chr 9:18,686,527...18,687,717
JBrowse link
G GJD3 gap junction protein delta 3 NOT|involved_in ISO (PMID:19168070)
(MGI:3623651|PMID:16571663), (MGI:5544102|PMID:22982984)
BHF-UCL PMID:16571663 PMID:19168070 PMID:22982984 MGI:3623651 MGI:5544102 NCBI chr 9:22,246,891...22,248,597 JBrowse link
AV node cell to bundle of His cell signaling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA1G calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISO (MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884) BHF-UCL PMID:16690884 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr 9:26,481,148...26,544,511
Ensembl chr 9:26,481,652...26,544,845
JBrowse link
AV node cell-bundle of His cell adhesion involved in cell communication term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CXADR CXADR Ig-like cell adhesion molecule involved_in ISO (MGI:3814765|PMID:18636119) BHF-UCL PMID:18636119 MGI:3814765 NCBI chr31:14,021,292...14,079,049
Ensembl chr31:14,021,303...14,078,847
JBrowse link
bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G SCN10A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 10 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,420,468...8,527,414
Ensembl chr23:8,420,472...8,527,383
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
bundle of His cell to Purkinje myocyte communication term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G TNNI3K TNNI3 interacting kinase involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 6:71,825,853...72,107,832
Ensembl chr 6:71,815,734...72,119,476
JBrowse link
bundle of His cell to Purkinje myocyte communication by electrical coupling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G TBX5 T-box transcription factor 5 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_positive_effect
IEA
ISO
(MGI:5449667|PMID:22728936) Ensembl
BHF-UCL
PMID:22728936 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:5449667 NCBI chr26:11,462,541...11,549,699
Ensembl chr26:11,463,653...11,506,446
JBrowse link
bundle of His cell-Purkinje myocyte adhesion involved in cell communication term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CTNNA3 catenin alpha 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:17,364,121...19,035,836
Ensembl chr 4:17,372,245...19,017,093
JBrowse link
G DSC2 desmocollin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 7:58,369,316...58,402,028
Ensembl chr 7:58,322,959...58,457,978
JBrowse link
G DSG2 desmoglein 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 7:57,981,918...58,030,197
Ensembl chr 7:57,982,825...58,077,926
JBrowse link
G DSP desmoplakin involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr35:7,479,628...7,524,732
Ensembl chr35:7,479,643...7,524,044
JBrowse link
G JUP junction plakoglobin involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 9:21,028,773...21,053,071
Ensembl chr 9:21,028,828...21,053,071
JBrowse link
G PKP2 plakophilin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr27:16,023,186...16,109,978
Ensembl chr27:16,023,224...16,109,603
JBrowse link
cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:11046183) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:11046183 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G SLC8A1 solute carrier family 8 member A1 involved_in ISO PMID:21779914 BHF-UCL PMID:21779914 RGD:8554732 NCBI chr17:32,004,207...32,381,399
Ensembl chr17:32,005,245...32,307,700
JBrowse link
cell communication involved in cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA1C calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:32109384) MGI PMID:32109384 NCBI chr27:44,007,363...44,748,251
Ensembl chr27:44,008,020...44,746,429
JBrowse link
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:10747000) MGI PMID:10747000 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G GJD3 gap junction protein delta 3 NOT|involved_in ISO (PMID:19168070) BHF-UCL PMID:19168070 NCBI chr 9:22,246,891...22,248,597 JBrowse link
cell-cell signaling involved in cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G PKP2 plakophilin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl
TreeGrafter
GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr27:16,023,186...16,109,978
Ensembl chr27:16,023,224...16,109,603
JBrowse link
G TBX5 T-box transcription factor 5 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_positive_effect
IEA
ISO
(MGI:5449667|PMID:22728936) Ensembl
BHF-UCL
PMID:22728936 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:5449667 NCBI chr26:11,462,541...11,549,699
Ensembl chr26:11,463,653...11,506,446
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA1C calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C involved_in ISO (PMID:17224476) BHF-UCL PMID:17224476 NCBI chr27:44,007,363...44,748,251
Ensembl chr27:44,008,020...44,746,429
JBrowse link
G CACNB2 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit beta 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 2:18,537,100...18,787,728
Ensembl chr 2:18,538,620...18,902,286
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during AV node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA1C calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C involved_in ISO (PMID:26253506) BHF-UCL PMID:26253506 NCBI chr27:44,007,363...44,748,251
Ensembl chr27:44,008,020...44,746,429
JBrowse link
G CACNA1G calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISO (MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884) BHF-UCL PMID:16690884 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr 9:26,481,148...26,544,511
Ensembl chr 9:26,481,652...26,544,845
JBrowse link
G CACNB2 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit beta 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 2:18,537,100...18,787,728
Ensembl chr 2:18,538,620...18,902,286
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
G TRPM4 transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:107,261,760...107,304,157
Ensembl chr 1:107,261,756...107,303,346
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA2D1 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit alpha2delta 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr18:21,561,091...21,949,970
Ensembl chr18:21,564,676...21,949,544
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
G TRPM4 transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:107,261,760...107,304,157
Ensembl chr 1:107,261,756...107,303,346
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during Purkinje myocyte cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G SCN1B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:117,504,428...117,510,666
Ensembl chr 1:117,503,828...117,511,727
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
G TRPM4 transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:107,261,760...107,304,157
Ensembl chr 1:107,261,756...107,303,346
JBrowse link
membrane depolarization during SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA1D calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:12700358) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:12700358 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr20:36,189,986...36,488,460
Ensembl chr20:36,191,810...36,613,686
JBrowse link
G CACNA1G calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISO (MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884) BHF-UCL PMID:16690884 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr 9:26,481,148...26,544,511
Ensembl chr 9:26,481,652...26,544,845
JBrowse link
G HCN4 hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 4 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr30:36,637,492...36,656,194
Ensembl chr30:36,639,908...36,656,406
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
membrane repolarization during atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:19343045), (PMID:23264583) BHF-UCL PMID:19343045 PMID:23264583 NCBI chr27:39,808,987...39,810,789
Ensembl chr27:39,756,363...39,811,035
JBrowse link
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107
G KCNJ5 potassium inwardly rectifying channel subfamily J member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:20560207) BHF-UCL PMID:20560207 NCBI chr 5:5,736,544...5,760,705
Ensembl chr 5:5,740,176...5,760,866
JBrowse link
G KCNN2 potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:5292192|PMID:19139040) BHF-UCL PMID:19139040 MGI:5292192 NCBI chr11:4,279,362...4,423,080
Ensembl chr11:4,154,746...4,423,078
JBrowse link
G KCNQ1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr18:46,554,390...46,830,533
Ensembl chr18:46,518,908...46,830,043
JBrowse link
membrane repolarization during bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:23264583) BHF-UCL PMID:23264583 NCBI chr27:39,808,987...39,810,789
Ensembl chr27:39,756,363...39,811,035
JBrowse link
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107
membrane repolarization during SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:19343045) BHF-UCL PMID:19343045 NCBI chr27:39,808,987...39,810,789
Ensembl chr27:39,756,363...39,811,035
JBrowse link
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107
negative regulation of cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJD3 gap junction protein delta 3 involved_in ISO (MGI:3623651|PMID:16571663) BHF-UCL PMID:16571663 MGI:3623651 NCBI chr 9:22,246,891...22,248,597 JBrowse link
negative regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJD3 gap junction protein delta 3 NOT|involved_in ISO (PMID:19168070)
(MGI:3623651|PMID:16571663)
BHF-UCL PMID:16571663 PMID:19168070 MGI:3623651 NCBI chr 9:22,246,891...22,248,597 JBrowse link
positive regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G TRPM4 transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 ISO RGD PMID:23954346 RGD:10003031 NCBI chr 1:107,261,760...107,304,157
Ensembl chr 1:107,261,756...107,303,346
JBrowse link
positive regulation of cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G TBX5 T-box transcription factor 5 acts_upstream_of
involved_in
ISO
IEA
(MGI:5449667|PMID:22728936) BHF-UCL
Ensembl
PMID:22728936 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:5449667 NCBI chr26:11,462,541...11,549,699
Ensembl chr26:11,463,653...11,506,446
JBrowse link
positive regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G TRDN triadin involved_in IDA (PMID:15731460) BHF-UCL PMID:15731460 NCBI chr 1:62,402,763...62,762,717
Ensembl chr 1:62,402,642...62,762,722
JBrowse link
Purkinje myocyte to ventricular cardiac muscle cell signaling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G RYR2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:3820489|PMID:17872467) BHF-UCL PMID:17872467 MGI:3820489 NCBI chr 4:2,371,868...2,908,132
Ensembl chr 4:2,373,114...2,907,875
JBrowse link
regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G RYR2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:2,371,868...2,908,132
Ensembl chr 4:2,373,114...2,907,875
JBrowse link
regulation of AV node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:2449848|PMID:12571597) BHF-UCL PMID:12571597 MGI:2449848 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
G CXADR CXADR Ig-like cell adhesion molecule involved_in ISO (MGI:3814765|PMID:18636119) BHF-UCL PMID:18636119 MGI:3814765 NCBI chr31:14,021,292...14,079,049
Ensembl chr31:14,021,303...14,078,847
JBrowse link
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G RYR2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:2,371,868...2,908,132
Ensembl chr 4:2,373,114...2,907,875
JBrowse link
regulation of bundle of His cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G RANGRF RAN guanine nucleotide release factor involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 5:33,084,355...33,085,810
Ensembl chr 5:33,084,397...33,085,812
JBrowse link
regulation of cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ACE2 angiotensin converting enzyme 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr  X:11,798,839...11,839,591
Ensembl chr  X:11,798,839...11,900,594
JBrowse link
G AGT angiotensinogen involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:8,681,192...8,694,059
Ensembl chr 4:8,683,798...8,693,880
JBrowse link
G EHD3 EH domain containing 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:24,828,289...24,854,990
Ensembl chr17:24,828,372...24,853,400
JBrowse link
G MIR19A microRNA mir-19a involved_in ISO (PMID:23271053) BHF-UCL PMID:23271053 NCBI chr22:42,478,298...42,478,355
Ensembl chr22:42,478,285...42,478,366
JBrowse link
G NKX2-5 NK2 homeobox 5 involved_in ISO (MGI:3829107|PMID:18689573) BHF-UCL PMID:18689573 MGI:3829107 NCBI chr 4:39,240,755...39,254,585
Ensembl chr 4:39,244,286...39,247,592
JBrowse link
G TMEM65 transmembrane protein 65 involved_in IEA TreeGrafter GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr13:22,426,487...22,494,520
Ensembl chr13:22,426,793...22,494,520
JBrowse link
G TNNI3K TNNI3 interacting kinase involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 6:71,825,853...72,107,832
Ensembl chr 6:71,815,734...72,119,476
JBrowse link
regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling involved in cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CAV1 caveolin 1 involved_in ISO (MGI:5607357|PMID:25017399) BHF-UCL PMID:25017399 MGI:5607357 NCBI chr14:55,458,934...55,494,563
Ensembl chr14:55,461,048...55,492,935
JBrowse link
G HRC histidine rich calcium binding protein involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:107,304,718...107,308,741
Ensembl chr 1:107,304,924...107,308,740
JBrowse link
G IRX3 iroquois homeobox 3 acts_upstream_of
involved_in
ISO
IEA
(MGI:5288100|PMID:21825130) BHF-UCL
Ensembl
PMID:21825130 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:5288100 NCBI chr 2:61,555,608...61,559,185
Ensembl chr 2:61,555,492...61,558,958
JBrowse link
G PDE4D phosphodiesterase 4D involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 2:45,843,767...47,245,263
Ensembl chr 2:45,846,294...46,949,912
JBrowse link
G SRI sorcin involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr14:14,257,375...14,274,816
Ensembl chr14:14,260,052...14,274,801
JBrowse link
regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ACE angiotensin I converting enzyme involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 9:11,497,182...11,516,362
Ensembl chr 9:11,497,182...11,516,358
JBrowse link
G AKAP9 A-kinase anchoring protein 9 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr14:17,590,256...17,743,646
Ensembl chr14:17,590,772...17,740,294
JBrowse link
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
G BIN1 bridging integrator 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr19:23,503,934...23,534,407
Ensembl chr19:23,375,363...23,534,303
JBrowse link
G CACNA1C calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C involved_in ISO (PMID:15454078), (PMID:15863612), (PMID:17224476), (PMID:26253506) BHF-UCL PMID:15454078 PMID:15863612 PMID:17224476 PMID:26253506 NCBI chr27:44,007,363...44,748,251
Ensembl chr27:44,008,020...44,746,429
JBrowse link
G CACNA1D calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 D involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:12700358) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:12700358 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr20:36,189,986...36,488,460
Ensembl chr20:36,191,810...36,613,686
JBrowse link
G CACNA1G calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISO (MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884) BHF-UCL PMID:16690884 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr 9:26,481,148...26,544,511
Ensembl chr 9:26,481,652...26,544,845
JBrowse link
G CACNA2D1 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit alpha2delta 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr18:21,561,091...21,949,970
Ensembl chr18:21,564,676...21,949,544
JBrowse link
G CACNB2 calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit beta 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 2:18,537,100...18,787,728
Ensembl chr 2:18,538,620...18,902,286
JBrowse link
G CAV1 caveolin 1 involved_in ISO (MGI:5607357|PMID:25017399) BHF-UCL PMID:25017399 MGI:5607357 NCBI chr14:55,458,934...55,494,563
Ensembl chr14:55,461,048...55,492,935
JBrowse link
G CTNNA3 catenin alpha 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:17,364,121...19,035,836
Ensembl chr 4:17,372,245...19,017,093
JBrowse link
G DSC2 desmocollin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 7:58,369,316...58,402,028
Ensembl chr 7:58,322,959...58,457,978
JBrowse link
G DSG2 desmoglein 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 7:57,981,918...58,030,197
Ensembl chr 7:57,982,825...58,077,926
JBrowse link
G DSP desmoplakin involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr35:7,479,628...7,524,732
Ensembl chr35:7,479,643...7,524,044
JBrowse link
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:11046183) MGI PMID:11046183 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G HCN4 hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 4 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr30:36,637,492...36,656,194
Ensembl chr30:36,639,908...36,656,406
JBrowse link
G ISL1 ISL LIM homeobox 1 acts_upstream_of
involved_in
ISO
IEA
(MGI:5688210|PMID:26193633) BHF-UCL
Ensembl
PMID:26193633 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:5688210 NCBI chr 4:63,638,009...63,648,492
Ensembl chr 4:63,637,443...63,648,183
JBrowse link
G JUP junction plakoglobin involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 9:21,028,773...21,053,071
Ensembl chr 9:21,028,828...21,053,071
JBrowse link
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:19343045), (PMID:23264583) BHF-UCL PMID:19343045 PMID:23264583 NCBI chr27:39,808,987...39,810,789
Ensembl chr27:39,756,363...39,811,035
JBrowse link
G KCNA5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107
G KCND3 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:63,470,829...63,668,354
Ensembl chr17:63,470,415...63,668,035
JBrowse link
G KCNE1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 1 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
ISO (PMID:10400998)
(PMID:14561835)
BHF-UCL
MGI
PMID:10400998 PMID:14561835 NCBI chr31:29,858,428...29,868,315 JBrowse link
G KCNE2 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl
TreeGrafter
GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr31:29,777,154...29,777,839
Ensembl chr31:29,581,658...29,777,525
JBrowse link
G KCNE3 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl
TreeGrafter
GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr21:23,860,727...23,872,194
Ensembl chr21:23,871,648...23,871,947
JBrowse link
G KCNE4 involved_in IEA TreeGrafter GO_REF:0000118
G KCNE5 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl
TreeGrafter
GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr  X:82,844,188...82,845,641
Ensembl chr  X:82,845,064...82,846,083
JBrowse link
G KCNH2 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2 acts_upstream_of_or_within
involved_in
ISO
IEA
IBA
(PMID:7889573)
(PMID:10843886)
MGI
TreeGrafter
GO_Central
Ensembl
PMID:7889573 PMID:10843886 GO_REF:0000033 GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr16:15,009,031...15,041,786
Ensembl chr16:15,009,031...15,041,504
JBrowse link
G KCNH6 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 6 involved_in IEA TreeGrafter GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr 9:11,538,506...11,559,303
Ensembl chr 9:11,538,205...11,559,319
JBrowse link
G KCNJ2 potassium inwardly rectifying channel subfamily J member 2 involved_in ISO (PMID:15761194) BHF-UCL PMID:15761194 NCBI chr 9:16,468,938...16,475,722
Ensembl chr 9:16,468,938...16,475,722
JBrowse link
G KCNJ5 potassium inwardly rectifying channel subfamily J member 5 involved_in ISO (PMID:20560207) BHF-UCL PMID:20560207 NCBI chr 5:5,736,544...5,760,705
Ensembl chr 5:5,740,176...5,760,866
JBrowse link
G KCNQ1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr18:46,554,390...46,830,533
Ensembl chr18:46,518,908...46,830,043
JBrowse link
G LOC100856208 angiotensin-converting enzyme-like protein Ace3 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 9:11,523,477...11,537,026 JBrowse link
G PKP2 plakophilin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr27:16,023,186...16,109,978
Ensembl chr27:16,023,224...16,109,603
JBrowse link
G SCN1B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 1 involved_in IEA
IBA
Ensembl
GO_Central
TreeGrafter
GO_REF:0000033 GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr 1:117,504,428...117,510,666
Ensembl chr 1:117,503,828...117,511,727
JBrowse link
G SCN2B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 5:15,514,760...15,534,179
Ensembl chr 5:15,521,481...15,534,179
JBrowse link
G SCN3B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl
TreeGrafter
GO_REF:0000107 GO_REF:0000118 NCBI chr 5:10,783,235...10,808,342
Ensembl chr 5:10,783,325...10,804,242
JBrowse link
G SCN4B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 4 involved_in ISO (PMID:17592081) BHF-UCL PMID:17592081 NCBI chr 5:15,552,347...15,564,085
Ensembl chr 5:15,543,632...15,563,486
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:11972032), (PMID:15809371), (PMID:15932895), (PMID:16172272) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:11972032 PMID:15809371 PMID:15932895 PMID:16172272 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
G SRC SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr24:25,982,499...26,019,748
Ensembl chr24:25,999,048...26,018,077
JBrowse link
G TRPM4 transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 4 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:107,261,760...107,304,157
Ensembl chr 1:107,261,756...107,303,346
JBrowse link
regulation of Purkinje myocyte action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
regulation of SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
G RYR2 ryanodine receptor 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 4:2,371,868...2,908,132
Ensembl chr 4:2,373,114...2,907,875
JBrowse link
G TBX18 T-box transcription factor 18 acts_upstream_of
involved_in
ISO
IEA
(PMID:23242162) BHF-UCL
Ensembl
PMID:23242162 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr12:44,901,076...44,929,730
Ensembl chr12:44,873,119...44,929,205
JBrowse link
regulation of the force of heart contraction by cardiac conduction term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G PLN phospholamban involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IEA
ISO
(PMID:10644605) Ensembl
MGI
PMID:10644605 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 1:58,579,095...58,590,541
Ensembl chr 1:58,579,145...58,590,535
JBrowse link
G SLC9A1 solute carrier family 9 member A1 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 2:73,054,742...73,103,364
Ensembl chr 2:73,054,742...73,103,364
JBrowse link
SA node cell action potential term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in ISO (MGI:5430886|PMID:18832177) BHF-UCL PMID:18832177 MGI:5430886 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
G CACNA1G calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISO (MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884) BHF-UCL PMID:16690884 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr 9:26,481,148...26,544,511
Ensembl chr 9:26,481,652...26,544,845
JBrowse link
G GJA5 gap junction protein alpha 5 acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO (PMID:11046183) MGI PMID:11046183 NCBI chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
Ensembl chr17:58,289,327...58,305,315
JBrowse link
G HCN4 hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 4 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr30:36,637,492...36,656,194
Ensembl chr30:36,639,908...36,656,406
JBrowse link
G SCN3B sodium voltage-gated channel beta subunit 3 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 5:10,783,235...10,808,342
Ensembl chr 5:10,783,325...10,804,242
JBrowse link
G SCN5A sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 5 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr23:8,278,844...8,374,614
Ensembl chr23:8,280,793...8,358,560
JBrowse link
SA node cell to atrial cardiac muscle cell communication term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G ANK2 ankyrin 2 involved_in IEA Ensembl GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr32:32,484,196...33,143,295
Ensembl chr32:32,671,281...33,141,036
JBrowse link
SA node cell to atrial cardiac muscle cell signaling term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G CACNA1G calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G involved_in ISO (MGI:3714901|PMID:16690884) BHF-UCL PMID:16690884 MGI:3714901 NCBI chr 9:26,481,148...26,544,511
Ensembl chr 9:26,481,652...26,544,845
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 17917
    multicellular organismal process 8083
      system process 2903
        regulation of system process 672
          regulation of blood circulation 292
            regulation of heart contraction 214
              cardiac conduction 72
                cell communication involved in cardiac conduction + 42
                negative regulation of cardiac conduction 1
                positive regulation of cardiac conduction 1
                regulation of cardiac conduction + 13
                regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction 40
                regulation of the force of heart contraction by cardiac conduction 2
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 17917
    multicellular organismal process 8083
      system process 2903
        circulatory system process 594
          blood circulation 567
            heart contraction 254
              regulation of heart contraction 214
                cardiac conduction 72
                  cell communication involved in cardiac conduction + 42
                  negative regulation of cardiac conduction 1
                  positive regulation of cardiac conduction 1
                  regulation of cardiac conduction + 13
                  regulation of heart rate by cardiac conduction 40
                  regulation of the force of heart contraction by cardiac conduction 2
paths to the root