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ONTOLOGY REPORT - ANNOTATIONS


Term:signal transduction
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Accession:GO:0007165 term browser browse the term
Definition:The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell.
Comment:Note that signal transduction is defined broadly to include a ligand interacting with a receptor, downstream signaling steps and a response being triggered. A change in form of the signal in every step is not necessary. Note that in many cases the end of this process is regulation of the initiation of transcription. Note that specific transcription factors may be annotated to this term, but core/general transcription machinery such as RNA polymerase should not.
Synonyms:narrow_synonym: signaling cascade;   signalling cascade
 related_synonym: signaling pathway;   signalling pathway
 alt_id: GO:0023033
 xref: Wikipedia:Signal_transduction


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Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 130258
    signaling 46546
      signal transduction 42136
        ER-nucleus signaling pathway + 334
        G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway + 10445
        SMAD protein signal transduction + 662
        apoptotic signaling pathway + 4908
        bile acid signaling pathway + 151
        calmodulin dependent kinase signaling pathway + 79
        carbohydrate mediated signaling + 58
        cell surface receptor signaling pathway + 19958
        chloroplast-nucleus signaling pathway 0
        dopamine receptor signaling pathway + 296
        endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response + 582
        extracellular ATP signaling 0
        hormone-mediated signaling pathway + 1328
        hydrogen peroxide mediated signaling pathway + 0
        hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha signaling pathway + 56
        immune response-regulating signaling pathway + 2161
        intracellular receptor signaling pathway + 1822
        intracellular signal transduction + 18985
        ligand-gated ion channel signaling pathway + 0
        lipoprotein particle mediated signaling + 25
        mitochondria-nucleus signaling pathway 16
        necroptotic signaling pathway 65
        negative regulation of signal transduction + 9638
        neuronal signal transduction + 48
        osmosensory signaling pathway + 28
        pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway + 1243
        peptidoglycan recognition protein signaling pathway + 0
        phototransduction + 233
        positive regulation of signal transduction + 12631
        postsynaptic signal transduction + 340
        presynaptic signal transduction + 24
        red or far-red light signaling pathway + 8
        regulation of blood pressure by chemoreceptor signaling pathway 0
        regulation of floral organ abscission by signal transduction + 0
        regulation of signal transduction + 22512
        salicylic acid mediated signaling pathway + 0
        serotonin receptor signaling pathway + 186
        signal transduction by conformational transition 0
        signal transduction by protein phosphorylation + 6446
        signal transduction in absence of ligand + 611
        signal transduction involved in cellular response to ammonium ion 0
        signal transduction involved in filamentous growth 0
        signal transduction involved in morphogenesis checkpoint 0
        signal transduction involved in positive regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion + 0
        signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expression 185
        sphingolipid mediated signaling pathway + 86
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 130258
    biological regulation 89360
      regulation of biological process 84937
        regulation of cellular process 81044
          signal transduction 42136
            ER-nucleus signaling pathway + 334
            G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway + 10445
            SMAD protein signal transduction + 662
            apoptotic signaling pathway + 4908
            bile acid signaling pathway + 151
            calmodulin dependent kinase signaling pathway + 79
            carbohydrate mediated signaling + 58
            cell surface receptor signaling pathway + 19958
            chloroplast-nucleus signaling pathway 0
            dopamine receptor signaling pathway + 296
            endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response + 582
            extracellular ATP signaling 0
            hormone-mediated signaling pathway + 1328
            hydrogen peroxide mediated signaling pathway + 0
            hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha signaling pathway + 56
            immune response-regulating signaling pathway + 2161
            intracellular receptor signaling pathway + 1822
            intracellular signal transduction + 18985
            ligand-gated ion channel signaling pathway + 0
            lipoprotein particle mediated signaling + 25
            mitochondria-nucleus signaling pathway 16
            necroptotic signaling pathway 65
            negative regulation of signal transduction + 9638
            neuronal signal transduction + 48
            osmosensory signaling pathway + 28
            pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway + 1243
            peptidoglycan recognition protein signaling pathway + 0
            phototransduction + 233
            positive regulation of signal transduction + 12631
            postsynaptic signal transduction + 340
            presynaptic signal transduction + 24
            red or far-red light signaling pathway + 8
            regulation of blood pressure by chemoreceptor signaling pathway 0
            regulation of floral organ abscission by signal transduction + 0
            regulation of signal transduction + 22512
            salicylic acid mediated signaling pathway + 0
            serotonin receptor signaling pathway + 186
            signal transduction by conformational transition 0
            signal transduction by protein phosphorylation + 6446
            signal transduction in absence of ligand + 611
            signal transduction involved in cellular response to ammonium ion 0
            signal transduction involved in filamentous growth 0
            signal transduction involved in morphogenesis checkpoint 0
            signal transduction involved in positive regulation of conjugation with cellular fusion + 0
            signal transduction involved in regulation of gene expression 185
            sphingolipid mediated signaling pathway + 86
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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.