Send us a Message



Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   

ONTOLOGY REPORT - ANNOTATIONS


Term:tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation
go back to main search page
Accession:GO:0006418 term browser browse the term
Definition:The synthesis of aminoacyl tRNA by the formation of an ester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group of the most 3' adenosine of the tRNA and the alpha carboxylic acid group of an amino acid, to be used in ribosome-mediated polypeptide synthesis.
Synonyms:narrow_synonym: tRNA charging
 xref: MetaCyc:TRNA-CHARGING-PWY



show annotations for term's descendants           Sort by:
 
tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gars glycyl-tRNA synthetase involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(PMID:28675565)
UniProt
RGD
PMID:28675565 GO_REF:0000024 NCBI chr 4:84,171,596...84,212,609
Ensembl chr 4:84,171,596...84,212,609
JBrowse link
G LOC317588 hypothetical protein LOC317588 involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002
G Mars1 methionyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 7:63,121,142...63,138,550
Ensembl chr 7:63,121,142...63,138,495
JBrowse link
G Nars2 asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002 NCBI chr 1:151,300,446...151,412,069
Ensembl chr 1:151,300,467...151,413,521
JBrowse link
alanyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Aars1 alanyl-tRNA synthetase 1 acts_upstream_of_or_within
involved_in
IDA
ISO
IBA
MGI:3618596 (MGI:3640843|PMID:16906134)
(MGI:5905209|PMID:27622773)
PMID:21873635
(PMID:27622773), (PMID:28493438)
RGD PMID:16906134 PMID:27622773 PMID:28493438 PMID:2040280 PMID:21873635 MGI:3640843 MGI:5905209, RGD:2302982, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr19:38,999,130...39,021,152
Ensembl chr19:38,999,163...39,021,147
JBrowse link
G Aars2 alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 9:15,484,639...15,496,116
Ensembl chr 9:15,297,531...15,496,090
JBrowse link
G Aarsd1 alanyl-tRNA synthetase domain containing 1 involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002 NCBI chr10:86,340,625...86,353,729
Ensembl chr10:86,340,626...86,353,729
JBrowse link
arginyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Dalrd3 DALR anticodon binding domain containing 3 involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002 NCBI chr 8:109,264,100...109,268,560
Ensembl chr 8:109,265,676...109,268,568
JBrowse link
G Rars1 arginyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IDA
ISO
IBA
(MGI:3055639|PMID:12060739)
PMID:21873635
(PMID:25288775)
RGD PMID:12060739 PMID:25288775 PMID:7082655 PMID:21873635 MGI:3055639, RGD:2303394, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr10:20,270,744...20,295,192
Ensembl chr10:20,270,483...20,295,196
JBrowse link
G Rars2 arginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 5:49,181,517...49,238,664
Ensembl chr 5:49,181,565...49,233,276
JBrowse link
asparaginyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Nars1 asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in ISO (PMID:9421509) RGD PMID:9421509 NCBI chr18:57,989,308...58,005,639
Ensembl chr18:57,989,308...58,005,622
JBrowse link
G Nars2 asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002 NCBI chr 1:151,300,446...151,412,069
Ensembl chr 1:151,300,467...151,413,521
JBrowse link
aspartyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Dars1 aspartyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr13:39,857,936...39,913,055
Ensembl chr13:39,857,936...39,913,116
JBrowse link
cysteinyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cars cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase involved_in ISO
IBA
(PMID:10908348), (PMID:17303165)
PMID:21873635
(PMID:11347887)
RGD PMID:10908348 PMID:11347887 PMID:17303165 PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:198,753,689...198,796,016
Ensembl chr 1:198,753,691...198,795,941
JBrowse link
G Cars2 cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr16:77,945,468...77,987,163
Ensembl chr16:77,950,008...77,987,772
JBrowse link
glutaminyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Lars1 leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in ISO (PMID:26869582) RGD PMID:26869582 NCBI chr18:34,201,555...34,256,003
Ensembl chr18:34,201,549...34,255,931
JBrowse link
G LOC100911132 glutamine--tRNA ligase-like involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537
G Qars1 glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IBA
ISS
ISO
PMID:21873635
GO_REF:0000024
(PMID:24656866), (PMID:26869582)
UniProt
RGD
PMID:24656866 PMID:26869582 PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000024, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 8:109,207,705...109,215,738
Ensembl chr 8:109,207,705...109,215,739
JBrowse link
glutamyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ears2 glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in ISO
IBA
(PMID:19805282)
PMID:21873635
RGD PMID:19805282 PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:176,597,986...176,625,848
Ensembl chr 1:176,597,986...176,625,836
JBrowse link
G Eprs glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002 NCBI chr13:96,901,548...96,971,966
Ensembl chr13:96,901,575...96,971,966
JBrowse link
glycyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gars glycyl-tRNA synthetase acts_upstream_of_or_within ISO MGI:3760297 (MGI:3849224|PMID:19470612) RGD PMID:19470612 MGI:3849224 NCBI chr 4:84,171,596...84,212,609
Ensembl chr 4:84,171,596...84,212,609
JBrowse link
histidyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Hars1 histidyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in ISO
IBA
(PMID:29235198)
PMID:21873635
RGD PMID:29235198 PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr18:28,381,649...28,398,699
Ensembl chr18:28,381,655...28,398,740
JBrowse link
G Hars2 histidyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA
ISO
PMID:21873635
(PMID:21464306)
RGD PMID:21464306 PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr18:28,398,790...28,408,075
Ensembl chr18:28,398,795...28,414,747
JBrowse link
isoleucyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Iars1 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in
acts_upstream_of_or_within
IBA
ISO
PMID:21873635
(PMID:8052601)
(MGI:3055639|PMID:12060739)
RGD PMID:8052601 PMID:12060739 PMID:21873635 MGI:3055639, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr17:14,940,919...14,987,277
Ensembl chr17:14,940,924...14,987,237
JBrowse link
G Iars2 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr13:96,831,773...96,865,533
Ensembl chr13:96,831,484...96,865,501
JBrowse link
leucyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Lars1 leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IBA
ISO
PMID:21873635
(MGI:3055639|PMID:12060739)
RGD PMID:12060739 PMID:21873635 MGI:3055639, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr18:34,201,555...34,256,003
Ensembl chr18:34,201,549...34,255,931
JBrowse link
G Lars2 leucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in ISO
IBA
(PMID:10684970)
PMID:21873635
RGD PMID:10684970 PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 8:123,010,271...123,108,957
Ensembl chr 8:123,010,293...123,106,395
JBrowse link
lysyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Kars lysyl-tRNA synthetase involved_in IDA
IBA
ISO
PMID:21873635
(PMID:10952987), (PMID:23159739), (PMID:9278442)
PMID:6315704
RGD PMID:9278442 PMID:10952987 PMID:23159739 PMID:7372681 PMID:21873635 More... RGD:2303393, RGD:13792537, RGD:12911009, RGD:2303394 NCBI chr19:39,957,846...39,976,886
Ensembl chr19:39,957,846...39,977,632
JBrowse link
methionyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Mars1 methionyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in ISO (PMID:11714285)
(MGI:3055639|PMID:12060739)
RGD PMID:11714285 PMID:12060739 MGI:3055639 NCBI chr 7:63,121,142...63,138,550
Ensembl chr 7:63,121,142...63,138,495
JBrowse link
G Mars2 methionyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in ISO
IBA
(PMID:15274629)
PMID:21873635
RGD PMID:15274629 PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 9:56,720,408...56,729,991
Ensembl chr 9:56,720,983...56,723,820
JBrowse link
mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Aars2 alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in ISO
IEA
(PMID:21549344)
GO_REF:0000107
RGD
Ensembl
PMID:21549344 GO_REF:0000107 NCBI chr 9:15,484,639...15,496,116
Ensembl chr 9:15,297,531...15,496,090
JBrowse link
mitochondrial asparaginyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Dars2 aspartyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (mitochondrial) involved_in ISS
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
(PMID:23275545)
UniProt
RGD
PMID:23275545 GO_REF:0000024 NCBI chr13:73,308,726...73,336,558
Ensembl chr13:73,308,726...73,336,934
JBrowse link
mitochondrial seryl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Sars2 seryl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:84,028,972...84,040,725
Ensembl chr 1:84,028,986...84,040,725
JBrowse link
mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Wars2 tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase 2 (mitochondrial) involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 2:186,459,744...186,543,581
Ensembl chr 2:186,459,444...186,543,571
JBrowse link
mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Yars2 tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 2 involved_in ISO (PMID:20598274) RGD PMID:20598274 NCBI chr11:84,632,350...84,638,138
Ensembl chr11:84,624,369...84,638,125
JBrowse link
phenylalanyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Fars2 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in ISS
IEA
IBA
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
GO_REF:0000002
PMID:21873635
(PMID:10329163)
UniProt
InterPro
RGD
PMID:10329163 PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000002 GO_REF:0000024, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr17:28,319,215...28,746,217
Ensembl chr17:28,319,280...28,746,337
JBrowse link
G Farsa phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase subunit alpha involved_in ISS
IBA
ISO
GO_REF:0000024
PMID:21873635
(PMID:20223217)
UniProt
RGD
PMID:20223217 PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000024, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr19:23,291,409...23,300,985
Ensembl chr19:23,268,869...23,300,980
JBrowse link
G Farsb phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase subunit beta involved_in ISO
IBA
(PMID:20223217)
PMID:21873635
RGD PMID:20223217 PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 9:79,887,852...79,947,082
Ensembl chr 9:79,887,842...79,947,045
JBrowse link
G Lrrc47 leucine rich repeat containing 47 involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002 NCBI chr 5:164,570,539...164,580,174
Ensembl chr 5:164,570,435...164,580,174
JBrowse link
prolyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G AABR07062535.1 involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537
G Eprs glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase involved_in IBA
ISO
PMID:21873635
(MGI:3055639|PMID:12060739)
(PMID:24100331)
RGD PMID:12060739 PMID:24100331 PMID:21873635 MGI:3055639, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr13:96,901,548...96,971,966
Ensembl chr13:96,901,575...96,971,966
JBrowse link
G Pars2 prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 5:121,433,993...121,439,158
Ensembl chr 5:121,434,096...121,439,154
JBrowse link
seryl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Sars1 seryl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IBA
IEA
ISO
ISS
PMID:21873635
GO_REF:0000107
(PMID:24095058), (PMID:28236339)
GO_REF:0000024
Ensembl
RGD
UniProt
PMID:24095058 PMID:28236339 PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 2:196,065,543...196,081,240
Ensembl chr 2:196,065,430...196,081,277
JBrowse link
G Sars2 seryl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:84,028,972...84,040,725
Ensembl chr 1:84,028,986...84,040,725
JBrowse link
threonyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Tars1 threonyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in ISS
IEA
ISO
IBA
GO_REF:0000024
GO_REF:0000107
(MGI:3055639|PMID:12060739), (MGI:6164765|PMID:29579307)
PMID:21873635
(PMID:25824639)
UniProt
Ensembl
RGD
PMID:12060739 PMID:25824639 PMID:29579307 PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000024 GO_REF:0000107 MGI:3055639 MGI:6164765, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 2:60,368,251...60,387,733
Ensembl chr 2:60,367,796...60,387,717
JBrowse link
G Tars2 threonyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 2:183,293,095...183,310,210
Ensembl chr 2:183,293,097...183,310,184
JBrowse link
G Tars3 threonyl-tRNA synthetase 3 involved_in IBA
ISO
PMID:21873635
(MGI:6164765|PMID:29579307)
RGD PMID:29579307 PMID:21873635 MGI:6164765, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 1:119,213,189...119,265,492
Ensembl chr 1:119,213,213...119,265,488
JBrowse link
tRNA aminoacylation for mitochondrial protein translation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ears2 glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in ISO (PMID:19805282) RGD PMID:19805282 NCBI chr 1:176,597,986...176,625,848
Ensembl chr 1:176,597,986...176,625,836
JBrowse link
tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Wars1 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IEA
ISO
IBA
GO_REF:0000002
(MGI:3055639|PMID:12060739), (MGI:4414690|PMID:19941862)
PMID:21873635
InterPro
RGD
PMID:12060739 PMID:19941862 PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000002 MGI:3055639 MGI:4414690, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 6:127,776,088...127,807,273
Ensembl chr 6:127,776,090...127,807,269
JBrowse link
G Wars2 tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase 2 (mitochondrial) involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr 2:186,459,744...186,543,581
Ensembl chr 2:186,459,444...186,543,571
JBrowse link
tyrosyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Yars1 tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IEA GO_REF:0000002 InterPro GO_REF:0000002 NCBI chr 5:141,535,815...141,564,029
Ensembl chr 5:141,535,759...141,563,833
JBrowse link
valyl-tRNA aminoacylation term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Vars1 valyl-tRNA synthetase 1 involved_in IBA PMID:21873635 GO_Central PMID:21873635 RGD:13792537 NCBI chr20:3,805,774...3,820,468
Ensembl chr20:3,805,776...3,820,298
JBrowse link
G Vars2 valyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial involved_in IEA
IBA
GO_REF:0000002
PMID:21873635
InterPro PMID:21873635 GO_REF:0000002, RGD:13792537 NCBI chr20:3,077,132...3,087,994
Ensembl chr20:3,077,132...3,087,994
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 19504
    metabolic process 11814
      primary metabolic process 10544
        protein metabolic process 5904
          cellular protein metabolic process 5241
            translation 1092
              tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation 44
                alanyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                arginyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                asparaginyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                aspartyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 1
                cysteinyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                glutaminyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                glutamyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                glycyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 1
                histidyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                isoleucyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                leucyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                lysyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 1
                methionyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                phenylalanyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 4
                prolyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                seryl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                tRNA aminoacylation for mitochondrial protein translation + 6
                threonyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                tyrosyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                valyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  biological_process 19504
    cellular process 18357
      cellular metabolic process 10733
        cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process 6572
          nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process 5383
            nucleic acid metabolic process 4892
              RNA metabolic process 4362
                ncRNA metabolic process 513
                  tRNA metabolic process 175
                    tRNA aminoacylation 47
                      tRNA aminoacylation for protein translation 44
                        alanyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                        arginyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                        asparaginyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                        aspartyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 1
                        cysteinyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        glutaminyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                        glutamyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        glycyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 1
                        histidyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        isoleucyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        leucyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        lysyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 1
                        methionyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        phenylalanyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 4
                        prolyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                        seryl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        tRNA aminoacylation for mitochondrial protein translation + 6
                        threonyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 3
                        tryptophanyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        tyrosyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
                        valyl-tRNA aminoacylation + 2
paths to the root