Send us a Message



Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   

RGD DISEASE ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

RGD uses the Human Disease Ontology (DO, https://disease-ontology.org/) for disease curation across species. RGD automatically downloads each new release of the ontology on a monthly basis. Some additional terms which are required for RGD's curation purposes but are not currently covered in the official version of DO have been added. As corresponding terms are added to DO, these custom terms are retired and the DO terms substituted in existing annotations and subsequently used for curation.

Term:Paramyxoviridae Infections
go back to main search page
Accession:DOID:9007244 term browser browse the term
Definition:Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.
Synonyms:exact_synonym: Parainfluenza;   Parainfluenza Virus Infection;   Parainfluenza Virus Infections;   Paramyxoviridae Infection
 primary_id: MESH:D018184;   RDO:0006283
For additional species annotation, visit the Alliance of Genome Resources.



show annotations for term's descendants           Sort by:
 
Paramyxoviridae Infections term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ccl5 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 ISO protein:increased expression:nasal mucus (human) RGD PMID:20182399 RGD:4891406 NCBI chr11:83,525,778...83,530,518
Ensembl chr11:83,525,778...83,530,518
JBrowse link
G Cx3cl1 chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 IEP RGD PMID:20053825 RGD:4891886 NCBI chr 8:94,772,180...94,782,427
Ensembl chr 8:94,772,009...94,782,427
JBrowse link
G Cxcl9 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 ISO protein:increased expression:nasal mucus RGD PMID:20182399 RGD:4891406 NCBI chr 5:92,321,331...92,328,079
Ensembl chr 5:92,321,347...92,328,079
JBrowse link
measles term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G B2m beta-2 microglobulin ISO protein:increased expression:plasma RGD PMID:1402029 RGD:6482707 NCBI chr 2:122,147,687...122,153,082
Ensembl chr 2:122,147,686...122,153,083
JBrowse link
G Cd46 CD46 antigen, complement regulatory protein ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:8402913 NCBI chr 1:195,038,971...195,098,784
Ensembl chr 1:195,036,826...195,092,249
JBrowse link
G Muc1 mucin 1, transmembrane severity ISO protein:increased expression:serum RGD PMID:11802251 RGD:5131281 NCBI chr 3:89,229,056...89,233,381
Ensembl chr 3:89,229,057...89,233,381
JBrowse link
Metapneumovirus infections term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cd1d1 CD1d1 antigen IEP protein:decreased expression:alveolar macrophage, monocyte (mouse) RGD PMID:32463330 RGD:127345107 NCBI chr 3:86,995,834...87,012,358
Ensembl chr 3:86,995,834...86,999,441
JBrowse link
G Mavs mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein severity IMP RGD PMID:25953917 RGD:40903044 NCBI chr 2:131,234,063...131,248,025
Ensembl chr 2:131,234,063...131,248,025
JBrowse link
Nasu-Hakola disease term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Trem2 triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by OMIM:221770
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 1
ClinVar PMID:12080485 PMID:12754369 PMID:12925681 PMID:15883308 PMID:18546367 More... NCBI chr17:48,346,401...48,352,276
Ensembl chr17:48,346,401...48,354,147
JBrowse link
G Tyrobp TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein ISO
IEA
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy 1
CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism
OMIM:221770
ClinVar Annotator: match by OMIM:221770
ClinVar Annotator: match by null
OMIM
ClinVar
CTD
MouseDO
PMID:10888890 PMID:11109371 PMID:12370476 PMID:15883308 PMID:17125796 More... NCBI chr 7:30,413,782...30,417,582
Ensembl chr 7:30,413,760...30,417,585
JBrowse link
Pneumovirus Infections term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Il21 interleukin 21 IEP mRNA:increased expression:lung (mouse) RGD PMID:22238461 RGD:6892925 NCBI chr 3:37,222,759...37,232,636
Ensembl chr 3:37,222,759...37,232,636
JBrowse link
G Il21r interleukin 21 receptor IMP RGD PMID:22238461 RGD:6892925 NCBI chr 7:125,603,252...125,634,397
Ensembl chr 7:125,603,429...125,633,570
JBrowse link
G Pdcd1 programmed cell death 1 treatment IMP associated with reinfection RGD PMID:25339663 RGD:40822811 NCBI chr 1:94,038,305...94,052,553
Ensembl chr 1:94,038,305...94,052,553
JBrowse link
respiratory syncytial virus infectious disease term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ace2 angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 2 severity
treatment
IMP
ISO
human protein in a mouse model RGD PMID:26813885 PMID:26813885 RGD:32716392, RGD:32716392 NCBI chr  X:164,139,342...164,188,418
Ensembl chr  X:164,139,332...164,188,420
JBrowse link
G Aicda activation-induced cytidine deaminase treatment IDA RGD PMID:27721128 RGD:127285642 NCBI chr 6:122,553,809...122,564,180
Ensembl chr 6:122,553,801...122,564,180
JBrowse link
G Ccl1 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 IEP mRNA:increased expression:lung RGD PMID:11134301 RGD:4891417 NCBI chr11:82,176,666...82,179,812
Ensembl chr11:82,176,657...82,305,690
JBrowse link
G Ccl11 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 11 IEP RGD PMID:10955955 RGD:4145447 NCBI chr11:82,057,832...82,062,955
Ensembl chr11:82,057,823...82,062,955
JBrowse link
G Ccl17 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 ISO mRNA:increased expression:lung RGD PMID:17641031 RGD:4145495 NCBI chr 8:94,809,380...94,812,038
Ensembl chr 8:94,810,453...94,812,036
JBrowse link
G Ccl5 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 IEP protein:altered expression:lung, T cell (mouse) RGD PMID:19124761 RGD:4891880 NCBI chr11:83,525,778...83,530,518
Ensembl chr11:83,525,778...83,530,518
JBrowse link
G Ccr5 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 ISO DNA:snps:5' utr:g.-2459A>G, g.-2554G>T (human)
protein:increased expression:blood, monocyte (human)
RGD PMID:12964123 PMID:18439876 RGD:4892113, RGD:4892079 NCBI chr 9:124,121,543...124,127,183
Ensembl chr 9:124,121,543...124,147,699
JBrowse link
G Cd1d1 CD1d1 antigen ameliorates IMP RGD PMID:32463330 RGD:127345107 NCBI chr 3:86,995,834...87,012,358
Ensembl chr 3:86,995,834...86,999,441
JBrowse link
G Cd274 CD274 antigen severity IMP
IEP
protein:increased expression: lung RGD PMID:25465101 PMID:25465101 RGD:11056952, RGD:11056952 NCBI chr19:29,362,107...29,388,095
Ensembl chr19:29,367,455...29,388,095
JBrowse link
G Cd28 CD28 antigen ISO RGD PMID:18056387 RGD:5131621 NCBI chr 1:60,746,388...60,773,359
Ensembl chr 1:60,716,800...60,773,359
JBrowse link
G Cftr cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator IMP DNA:mutation: : RGD PMID:20015999 RGD:4140389 NCBI chr 6:18,170,687...18,322,770
Ensembl chr 6:18,170,687...18,322,768
JBrowse link
G Cx3cr1 chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 severity IMP
IEP
RGD PMID:12941892 PMID:16424189 RGD:4892018, RGD:4892016 NCBI chr 9:120,048,683...120,068,296
Ensembl chr 9:119,901,616...120,069,879
JBrowse link
G Cxcl1 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 IEP mRNA:increased expression:blood RGD PMID:20843364 RGD:5134958 NCBI chr 5:90,891,245...90,893,121
Ensembl chr 5:90,891,241...90,893,115
JBrowse link
G Cxcl10 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 IMP RGD PMID:18624292 RGD:5135483 NCBI chr 5:92,346,638...92,348,889
Ensembl chr 5:92,346,638...92,348,889
JBrowse link
G Cxcl15 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 15 ISO protein:increased expression:nasopharynx(human) RGD PMID:29325581 RGD:150521551 NCBI chr 5:90,794,534...90,803,067
Ensembl chr 5:90,794,534...90,803,067
JBrowse link
G Cxcl9 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 IEP protein:increased expression:respiratory system fluid/secretion RGD PMID:15916706 RGD:5135444 NCBI chr 5:92,321,331...92,328,079
Ensembl chr 5:92,321,347...92,328,079
JBrowse link
G Cxcr3 chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 IMP RGD PMID:18624292 RGD:5135483 NCBI chr  X:101,731,535...101,734,147
Ensembl chr  X:101,731,535...101,734,269
JBrowse link
G Dnase1 deoxyribonuclease I ISO CTD Direct Evidence: therapeutic CTD PMID:28780505 NCBI chr16:4,036,958...4,040,024
Ensembl chr16:4,036,942...4,040,024
JBrowse link
G H2-M3 histocompatibility 2, M region locus 3 ISO RGD PMID:10706505 RGD:5144121 NCBI chr17:37,270,234...37,274,485
Ensembl chr17:37,270,220...37,274,484
JBrowse link
G Icam1 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 ISO protein:increased secretion:nasopharynx
CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism
CTD
RGD
PMID:17425601 PMID:20209309 RGD:4140425 NCBI chr 9:21,015,940...21,028,814
Ensembl chr 9:21,015,985...21,028,817
JBrowse link
G Ifng interferon gamma ISO associated with Otitis media;protein:increased expression:serum:
CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism
CTD
RGD
PMID:21937650 PMID:19352211 RGD:8142352 NCBI chr10:118,441,046...118,445,894
Ensembl chr10:118,441,046...118,445,892
JBrowse link
G Il10 interleukin 10 severity ISO RGD PMID:20209309 RGD:4140425 NCBI chr 1:131,019,845...131,024,970
Ensembl chr 1:131,019,845...131,024,974
JBrowse link
G Il13 interleukin 13 IMP RGD PMID:18250447 RGD:4145641 NCBI chr11:53,631,323...53,634,702
Ensembl chr11:53,631,324...53,634,702
JBrowse link
G Il17a interleukin 17A severity ISO protein:increased expression:plasma RGD PMID:19738511 RGD:4889103 NCBI chr 1:20,730,905...20,734,496
Ensembl chr 1:20,730,905...20,734,496
JBrowse link
G Il18 interleukin 18 IDA
ISO
DNA:polymorphism:intron:rs360721 (human) RGD PMID:20130064 PMID:18043444 RGD:4889550, RGD:4889584 NCBI chr 9:50,554,700...50,581,841
Ensembl chr 9:50,554,827...50,581,840
JBrowse link
G Il1rl1 interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 IMP RGD PMID:11283151 RGD:5144238 NCBI chr 1:40,404,864...40,465,418
Ensembl chr 1:40,429,570...40,465,415
JBrowse link
G Il27 interleukin 27 ameliorates IMP RGD PMID:22301139 RGD:126790525 NCBI chr 7:126,589,009...126,595,035
Ensembl chr 7:126,589,010...126,594,941
JBrowse link
G Il2ra interleukin 2 receptor, alpha chain IEP RGD PMID:20639494 RGD:5147443 NCBI chr 2:11,642,792...11,693,194
Ensembl chr 2:11,642,807...11,693,193
JBrowse link
G Il33 interleukin 33 IMP
IEP
RGD PMID:28771101 PMID:26044350 RGD:39939029, RGD:11342984 NCBI chr19:29,925,113...29,960,718
Ensembl chr19:29,925,114...29,960,718
JBrowse link
G Il5 interleukin 5 severity IMP RGD PMID:25410867 RGD:11354937 NCBI chr11:53,720,794...53,725,103
Ensembl chr11:53,720,794...53,725,106
JBrowse link
G Il5ra interleukin 5 receptor, alpha ISO protein:decreased expression:blood, eosinophil RGD PMID:16734609 RGD:5128618 NCBI chr 6:106,710,375...106,749,037
Ensembl chr 6:106,710,357...106,749,037
JBrowse link
G Il6 interleukin 6 severity ISO protein:increased expression:nasal mucus
associated with Otitis media;protein:increased expression:serum:
RGD PMID:20622030 PMID:19352211 RGD:4143259, RGD:8142352 NCBI chr 5:30,013,114...30,019,975
Ensembl chr 5:30,013,114...30,019,981
JBrowse link
G Il9 interleukin 9 susceptibility IMP
ISO
DNA:SNPs: :rs2069885, rs1799962 (human) RGD PMID:19915054 PMID:20503287 RGD:5128685, RGD:5128684 NCBI chr13:56,479,277...56,482,257
Ensembl chr13:56,479,277...56,482,246
JBrowse link
G Irf1 interferon regulatory factor 1 ISO protein:increased expression:dorsal root ganglion RGD PMID:20045913 RGD:5128775 NCBI chr11:53,770,014...53,778,374
Ensembl chr11:53,770,014...53,778,374
JBrowse link
G Mir21a microRNA 21a ameliorates IMP associated with asthma; RGD PMID:27448447 RGD:41404696 NCBI chr11:86,584,067...86,584,158
Ensembl chr11:86,584,067...86,584,158
JBrowse link
G Mmp2 matrix metallopeptidase 2 IEP mRNA, protein:increased expression, increased activity:bronchoalveolar lavage fluid RGD PMID:17254480 RGD:5130726 NCBI chr 8:92,827,290...92,853,421
Ensembl chr 8:92,827,291...92,853,420
JBrowse link
G Mmp9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 IEP mRNA, protein:increased expression, increased activity:bronchoalveolar lavage fluid RGD PMID:17254480 RGD:5130726 NCBI chr 2:164,940,326...164,955,850
Ensembl chr 2:164,940,780...164,955,850
JBrowse link
G Muc5ac mucin 5, subtypes A and C, tracheobronchial/gastric IEP associated with Respiratory Hypersensitivity; protein:increased expression:lung RGD PMID:15130904 RGD:5131205 NCBI chr 7:141,788,958...141,819,227
Ensembl chr 7:141,788,972...141,819,231
JBrowse link
G Ngf nerve growth factor ISO RGD PMID:19824047 RGD:4891065 NCBI chr 3:102,469,919...102,521,013
Ensembl chr 3:102,469,919...102,521,013
JBrowse link
G Ngfr nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 16) ISO RGD PMID:19824047 RGD:4891065 NCBI chr11:95,568,818...95,587,698
Ensembl chr11:95,568,818...95,587,735
JBrowse link
G Pdcd1 programmed cell death 1 IEP
ISO
protein:increased expression:CD4 Tcell, CD8 Tcell from lung:
protein:increased expression: CD8 Tcell from nasal wash:
RGD PMID:25465101 PMID:25465101 RGD:11056952, RGD:11056952 NCBI chr 1:94,038,305...94,052,553
Ensembl chr 1:94,038,305...94,052,553
JBrowse link
G Pde12 phosphodiesterase 12 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:26055709 NCBI chr14:26,664,117...26,669,846
Ensembl chr14:26,659,958...26,669,883
JBrowse link
G Ripk3 receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3 ameliorates IMP RGD PMID:33303545 RGD:127229923 NCBI chr14:55,784,995...55,788,857
Ensembl chr14:55,784,995...55,788,865
JBrowse link
G Rsad2 radical S-adenosyl methionine domain containing 2 treatment ISO RGD PMID:23018837 RGD:11554170 NCBI chr12:26,442,743...26,456,452
Ensembl chr12:26,442,746...26,456,452
JBrowse link
G Sarm1 sterile alpha and HEAT/Armadillo motif containing 1 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:24478430 NCBI chr11:78,470,273...78,497,816
Ensembl chr11:78,472,330...78,497,754
JBrowse link
G Scgb1a1 secretoglobin, family 1A, member 1 (uteroglobin) IMP RGD PMID:12847279 RGD:5144208 NCBI chr19:9,083,642...9,087,956
Ensembl chr19:9,083,636...9,087,958
JBrowse link
G Sftpa1 surfactant associated protein A1 susceptibility ISO DNA:polymorphisms, haplotype: (human)
protein:decreased expression:lung
RGD PMID:19287351 PMID:10194154 RGD:4143495, RGD:4143439 NCBI chr14:41,131,788...41,136,373
Ensembl chr14:41,131,782...41,136,452
JBrowse link
G Sftpb surfactant associated protein B severity ISO DNA:SNPs:promoter, cds, intron:-32G>T (rs2077079), p.T131I (rs1130866), 5781A>C (rs2040349) (human)
protein:decreased expression:lung
RGD PMID:17498296 PMID:10194154 RGD:4143382, RGD:4143439 NCBI chr 6:72,304,610...72,314,373
Ensembl chr 6:72,304,610...72,314,371
JBrowse link
G Sftpc surfactant associated protein C IMP
ISO
DNA:polymorphism: :138A>C, 186A>G (human) RGD PMID:19304906 PMID:17121584 RGD:4144065, RGD:4144116 NCBI chr14:70,520,941...70,524,081
Ensembl chr14:70,520,949...70,524,081
JBrowse link
G Sftpd surfactant associated protein D susceptibility ISO DNA:polymorphisms: :p.M11T, p.A160T (human
protein:decreased expression:lung
RGD PMID:19287351 PMID:10194154 RGD:4143495, RGD:4143439 NCBI chr14:41,172,212...41,185,198
Ensembl chr14:41,172,214...41,185,149
JBrowse link
G Tac1 tachykinin 1 ISO mRNA,protein:increased expression:lung RGD PMID:10516226 RGD:5147822 NCBI chr 6:7,555,061...7,562,978
Ensembl chr 6:7,554,879...7,565,834
JBrowse link
G Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 treatment ISO RGD PMID:10516226 RGD:5147822 NCBI chr 6:82,402,003...82,560,104
Ensembl chr 6:82,402,334...82,560,104
JBrowse link
G Ticam1 toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:24478430 NCBI chr17:56,269,462...56,276,767
Ensembl chr17:56,269,319...56,276,786
JBrowse link
G Tlr2 toll-like receptor 2 IMP RGD PMID:19019963 RGD:4889534 NCBI chr 3:83,836,272...83,841,824
Ensembl chr 3:83,836,272...83,841,767
JBrowse link
G Tlr3 toll-like receptor 3 IMP RGD PMID:16424225 RGD:5129224 NCBI chr 8:45,395,665...45,411,075
Ensembl chr 8:45,395,665...45,411,080
JBrowse link
G Tlr4 toll-like receptor 4 no_association
susceptibility
IMP
ISO
DNA:SNP:cds:p.D299G (human)
DNA:polymorphisms:cds:p.D259G, T359I (human)
DNA:SNPs:cds:p.D299G, T399I (human)
RGD PMID:19019963 PMID:17449325 PMID:17264400 PMID:17709532 RGD:4889534, RGD:4144164, RGD:4144167, RGD:4144161 NCBI chr 4:66,827,551...66,846,581
Ensembl chr 4:66,827,584...66,930,284
JBrowse link
G Tlr6 toll-like receptor 6 IMP RGD PMID:19019963 RGD:4889534 NCBI chr 5:64,953,092...64,970,942
Ensembl chr 5:64,952,031...64,960,097
JBrowse link
G Tlr7 toll-like receptor 7 ISO associated with Bronchiolitis; mRNA:increased expression:nasopharynx (human) RGD PMID:19386802 RGD:5129471 NCBI chr  X:167,303,380...167,330,574
Ensembl chr  X:167,304,929...167,330,558
JBrowse link
G Tlr8 toll-like receptor 8 ISO associated with Bronchiolitis; mRNA:increased expression:nasopharynx (human) RGD PMID:19386802 RGD:5129471 NCBI chr  X:167,241,123...167,264,329
Ensembl chr  X:167,242,696...167,264,329
JBrowse link
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor IEP protein:increased expression:Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid RGD PMID:15791294 RGD:4145715 NCBI chr17:35,199,367...35,202,007
Ensembl chr17:35,199,381...35,202,007
JBrowse link
G Tslp thymic stromal lymphopoietin sexual_dimorphism IMP
IEP
ISO
mRNA:increased expression:lung (mouse)
protein:increased expression:nasal mucus (human)
RGD PMID:27156176 PMID:31076663 PMID:28471975 RGD:38549376, RGD:38596346, RGD:38596342 NCBI chr18:32,815,383...32,819,799
Ensembl chr18:32,815,383...32,819,797
JBrowse link
Respirovirus Infections term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ccl28 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28 IEP mRNA:increased expression:lung (mouse) RGD PMID:17954569 RGD:4892194 NCBI chr13:119,623,819...119,654,359
Ensembl chr13:119,623,819...119,654,359
JBrowse link
G Ccr5 chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 IMP RGD PMID:17641009 RGD:4892127 NCBI chr 9:124,121,543...124,127,183
Ensembl chr 9:124,121,543...124,147,699
JBrowse link
G Mmp9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 ISO mRNA, protein:increased expression, increased activity:lung RGD PMID:16816895 RGD:5130923 NCBI chr 2:164,940,326...164,955,850
Ensembl chr 2:164,940,780...164,955,850
JBrowse link
G Ppia peptidylprolyl isomerase A exacerbates IMP RGD PMID:28594325 RGD:150429629 NCBI chr11:6,415,867...6,419,817
Ensembl chr11:6,415,443...6,419,817
JBrowse link
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ace angiotensin I converting enzyme (peptidyl-dipeptidase A) 1 ISO DNA:insertion/deletion: RGD PMID:16741935 RGD:40400901 NCBI chr11:105,967,948...105,989,964
Ensembl chr11:105,967,945...105,989,964
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  disease 14541
    disease by infectious agent 1908
      viral infectious disease 1595
        RNA Virus Infections 1389
          Mononegavirales Infections 97
            Paramyxoviridae Infections 73
              Avulavirus Infections + 0
              Henipavirus Infections + 0
              Morbillivirus Infections + 6
              Pneumovirinae infections + 64
              Respirovirus Infections + 4
              Rubulavirus Infections + 0
paths to the root