Send us a Message



Submit Data |  Help |  Video Tutorials |  News |  Publications |  Download |  REST API |  Citing RGD |  Contact   

RGD DISEASE ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

RGD uses the Human Disease Ontology (DO, https://disease-ontology.org/) for disease curation across species. RGD automatically downloads each new release of the ontology on a monthly basis. Some additional terms which are required for RGD's curation purposes but are not currently covered in the official version of DO have been added. As corresponding terms are added to DO, these custom terms are retired and the DO terms substituted in existing annotations and subsequently used for curation.

Term:hepatic vascular disease
go back to main search page
Accession:DOID:272 term browser browse the term
Definition:A vascular disease that is located_in the liver. (DO)
Synonyms:exact_synonym: vascular disorder of liver
 primary_id: RDO:9002801
 xref: NCI:C35442
For additional species annotation, visit the Alliance of Genome Resources.



show annotations for term's descendants           Sort by:
 
Banti's Syndrome term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ace angiotensin I converting enzyme ISO protein:increased expression:serum (human) RGD PMID:21290180 RGD:25671452 NCBI chr10:90,910,316...90,930,437
Ensembl chr10:90,910,316...90,931,131
JBrowse link
G Itgb3 integrin subunit beta 3 ISO DNA:missense mutation: :p.L33P (human) RGD PMID:18685811 RGD:10755472 NCBI chr10:89,509,917...89,564,679
Ensembl chr10:89,509,989...89,564,679
JBrowse link
G Mthfr methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase susceptibility ISO DNA:SNPs: :DNA:SNPs: :677C>T, 1298A>C(human) RGD PMID:18685811 RGD:10755472 NCBI chr 5:158,465,248...158,484,999
Ensembl chr 5:158,465,296...158,483,797
JBrowse link
G Serpine1 serpin family E member 1 susceptibility ISO DNA:polymorphism:promoter: RGD PMID:18685811 RGD:10755472 NCBI chr12:19,601,272...19,611,657
Ensembl chr12:19,601,272...19,611,657
JBrowse link
Budd-Chiari syndrome term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Apoa1 apolipoprotein A1 ISO protein: decreased expression: plasma (human) RGD PMID:21145806 RGD:25671435 NCBI chr 8:46,527,251...46,529,035
Ensembl chr 8:46,527,144...46,529,035
JBrowse link
G F5 coagulation factor V disease_progression
susceptibility
severity
ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Budd-Chiari syndrome
DNA:missense mutation:cds:R506Q (human)
associated with hyperhomocysteinemia:DNA:missense mutation:cds: (R506Q) (human)
ClinVar Annotator: match by OMIM:600880
OMIM
ClinVar
RGD
PMID:11950065 PMID:16246256 PMID:19486170 PMID:24033266 PMID:25741868 More... RGD:11537993, RGD:15036813, RGD:14700661, RGD:14700660 NCBI chr13:76,513,463...76,583,106
Ensembl chr13:76,513,255...76,582,317
JBrowse link
G Insl6 insulin-like 6 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Budd-Chiari syndrome ClinVar PMID:15781101 PMID:15793561 PMID:15858187 PMID:16081687 PMID:16247455 More... NCBI chr 1:227,069,958...227,073,493
Ensembl chr 1:227,069,958...227,073,493
JBrowse link
G Jak2 Janus kinase 2 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Budd-Chiari syndrome
ClinVar Annotator: match by OMIM:600880
CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism
OMIM
ClinVar
CTD
PMID:15781101 PMID:15793561 PMID:15858187 PMID:16081687 PMID:16247455 More... NCBI chr 1:226,995,334...227,054,381
Ensembl chr 1:226,995,334...227,054,189
JBrowse link
G Mthfr methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase susceptibility ISO DNA:transition: :677C>T (human)
DNA:SNPs: :DNA:SNPs: :677C>T, 1298A>C(human)
RGD PMID:12221667 PMID:26238013 RGD:10449395, RGD:11537993 NCBI chr 5:158,465,248...158,484,999
Ensembl chr 5:158,465,296...158,483,797
JBrowse link
esophageal varix term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Alb albumin ISO associated with ascites RGD PMID:8664482 RGD:1601159 NCBI chr14:17,607,397...17,622,814
Ensembl chr14:17,607,381...17,622,836
JBrowse link
G Sst somatostatin ISO CTD Direct Evidence: therapeutic CTD PMID:1385068 NCBI chr11:76,956,896...76,958,173
Ensembl chr11:76,956,896...76,958,173
JBrowse link
hemangioma of liver term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gja4 gap junction protein, alpha 4 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hepatic hemangioma ClinVar NCBI chr 5:139,633,324...139,635,857
Ensembl chr 5:139,633,287...139,635,925
JBrowse link
hepatic veno-occlusive disease term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Adamts13 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13 ISO protein:decreased activity:plasma (human) RGD PMID:12040478 RGD:10449042 NCBI chr 3:10,299,264...10,338,464
Ensembl chr 3:10,300,028...10,346,687
JBrowse link
G Asip agouti signaling protein ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:32937126 NCBI chr 3:143,473,584...143,561,170
Ensembl chr 3:143,555,696...143,561,171
JBrowse link
G Csf3 colony stimulating factor 3 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:8602625 NCBI chr10:83,660,787...83,664,569
Ensembl chr10:83,661,207...83,663,603
JBrowse link
G Gstm1 glutathione S-transferase mu 1 susceptibility ISO associated with Beta-Thalassemia; RGD PMID:15142875 RGD:10450877 NCBI chr 2:195,649,845...195,655,402
Ensembl chr 2:195,649,845...195,655,411
JBrowse link
G Hfe homeostatic iron regulator susceptibility ISO DNA:missense mutation:cds:p.C282Y (human) RGD PMID:15834437 RGD:8694354 NCBI chr17:41,413,451...41,421,502
Ensembl chr17:41,413,451...41,421,502
JBrowse link
G Hmox1 heme oxygenase 1 IDA RGD PMID:19387321 RGD:4145318 NCBI chr19:13,466,287...13,474,082
Ensembl chr19:13,467,244...13,474,079
JBrowse link
G Mmp9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 IEP protein:increased expression:blood, liver, lung RGD PMID:23303633 RGD:13204885 NCBI chr 3:153,684,158...153,692,118
Ensembl chr 3:153,683,858...153,692,120
JBrowse link
G Mthfr methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase susceptibility ISO DNA:SNPs: :DNA:SNPs: :677C>T, 1298A>C(human) RGD PMID:24583625 RGD:14696752 NCBI chr 5:158,465,248...158,484,999
Ensembl chr 5:158,465,296...158,483,797
JBrowse link
G Ocln occludin ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:17015055 NCBI chr 2:31,657,217...31,707,466
Ensembl chr 2:31,657,220...31,764,150
JBrowse link
hepatic venoocclusive disease with immunodeficiency term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Sp110 SP110 nuclear body protein ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hepatic veno-occlusive disease-immunodeficiency syndrome
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease with Immunodeficiency
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hepatic venoocclusive disease with immunodeficiency
ClinVar Annotator: match by OMIM:235550
OMIM
ClinVar
PMID:9536098 PMID:16648851 PMID:16803959 PMID:16816019 PMID:17149599 More... NCBI chr 9:86,200,503...86,225,355
Ensembl chr 9:86,200,503...86,222,670
JBrowse link
G Sp140 SP140 nuclear body protein ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hepatic venoocclusive disease with immunodeficiency
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hepatic veno-occlusive disease-immunodeficiency syndrome
ClinVar Annotator: match by term: Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease with Immunodeficiency
ClinVar PMID:9536098 PMID:16648851 PMID:16803959 PMID:17576681 PMID:21536091 More... NCBI chr 9:86,224,472...86,274,724
Ensembl chr 9:86,224,513...86,274,542
JBrowse link
Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension 1 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Dguok deoxyguanosine kinase ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: PORTAL HYPERTENSION, NONCIRRHOTIC, 1 OMIM
ClinVar
PMID:11983456 PMID:17073823 PMID:17452231 PMID:23043144 PMID:26874653 NCBI chr 4:115,987,101...116,014,733
Ensembl chr 4:115,979,094...116,014,733
JBrowse link
Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension 2 term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Gimap5 GTPase, IMAP family member 5 ISO ClinVar Annotator: match by term: PORTAL HYPERTENSION, NONCIRRHOTIC, 2 OMIM
ClinVar
PMID:29382851 PMID:33956074 NCBI chr 4:77,693,417...77,701,025
Ensembl chr 4:77,687,564...77,703,086
JBrowse link
peliosis hepatis term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G F2rl3 F2R like thrombin or trypsin receptor 3 ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD PMID:20974703 NCBI chr16:17,117,441...17,119,434
Ensembl chr16:17,117,441...17,119,472
JBrowse link
portal hypertension term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Adm adrenomedullin ISO mRNA:increased expression:liver RGD PMID:15086360 RGD:1625304 NCBI chr 1:164,745,484...164,747,655
Ensembl chr 1:164,745,466...164,747,654
JBrowse link
G Alox5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase IDA associated with Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental RGD PMID:11832453 RGD:1626153 NCBI chr 4:149,531,329...149,578,696
Ensembl chr 4:149,531,515...149,578,743
JBrowse link
G Angpt2 angiopoietin 2 IDA RGD PMID:19070926 RGD:2314171 NCBI chr16:71,088,364...71,138,805
Ensembl chr16:71,088,364...71,138,804
JBrowse link
G Arrb2 arrestin, beta 2 treatment IEP
ISO
associated with Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental
associated with Liver Cirrhosis;protein:increased expression:mesenteric artery
RGD PMID:24719556 PMID:24337852 RGD:13506899, RGD:13506901 NCBI chr10:55,146,887...55,154,854
Ensembl chr10:55,146,818...55,154,850
JBrowse link
G Avp arginine vasopressin IMP
ISO
CTD Direct Evidence: therapeutic CTD
RGD
PMID:6696534 PMID:18987488 RGD:2301924 NCBI chr 3:117,793,447...117,805,091
Ensembl chr 3:117,793,457...117,795,425
JBrowse link
G Avpr1a arginine vasopressin receptor 1A ISO associated with Liver Cirrhosis;mRNA:increased expression:liver, artery RGD PMID:12641544 RGD:2300334 NCBI chr 7:58,114,306...58,118,230
Ensembl chr 7:58,114,284...58,122,215
JBrowse link
G Bdkrb2 bradykinin receptor B2 IMP RGD PMID:19950773 RGD:4891055 NCBI chr 6:124,472,317...124,502,497
Ensembl chr 6:124,472,566...124,502,497
JBrowse link
G Ccl2 C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 ISO associated with biliary atresia; RGD PMID:17161183 RGD:14995924 NCBI chr10:67,005,424...67,007,222
Ensembl chr10:67,005,424...67,007,226
JBrowse link
G Cpeb1 cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 treatment IEP
ISO
protein:increased expression:mesentary RGD PMID:26627607 PMID:26627607 RGD:11528851, RGD:11528851 NCBI chr 1:135,300,048...135,407,688
Ensembl chr 1:135,300,461...135,409,760
JBrowse link
G Cpeb4 cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4 treatment ISO protein:increased expression:mesentary RGD PMID:26627607 PMID:26627607 RGD:11528851, RGD:11528851 NCBI chr10:15,717,794...15,780,482
Ensembl chr10:15,717,794...15,780,603
JBrowse link
G Cx3cl1 C-X3-C motif chemokine ligand 1 IEP RGD PMID:21347560 RGD:9491791 NCBI chr19:10,227,337...10,237,826
Ensembl chr19:10,227,340...10,236,833
JBrowse link
G Cx3cr1 C-X3-C motif chemokine receptor 1 IEP RGD PMID:21347560 RGD:9491791 NCBI chr 8:119,785,726...119,799,431
Ensembl chr 8:119,782,595...119,800,014
JBrowse link
G Dbh dopamine beta-hydroxylase IEP protein:decreased expression:mesenteric artery (rat) RGD PMID:19968782 RGD:5129480 NCBI chr 3:10,488,260...10,505,245
Ensembl chr 3:10,488,260...10,505,248
JBrowse link
G Ddc dopa decarboxylase IEP mRNA:decreased expression:superior mesenteric artery (rat) RGD PMID:18457899 RGD:5129683 NCBI chr14:86,378,685...86,469,189
Ensembl chr14:86,378,685...86,469,208
JBrowse link
G Dguok deoxyguanosine kinase ISO CTD Direct Evidence: marker/mechanism CTD NCBI chr 4:115,987,101...116,014,733
Ensembl chr 4:115,979,094...116,014,733
JBrowse link
G Dusp1 dual specificity phosphatase 1 IEP mRNA, protein:increased expression:stomach mucosa RGD PMID:11758828 RGD:2298677 NCBI chr10:16,680,489...16,683,276 JBrowse link
G Edn1 endothelin 1 IDA RGD PMID:17214938 RGD:4892595 NCBI chr17:22,454,924...22,460,812
Ensembl chr17:22,454,420...22,460,885
JBrowse link
G Ednra endothelin receptor type A IMP RGD PMID:17214938 RGD:4892595 NCBI chr19:30,233,540...30,303,727
Ensembl chr19:30,233,571...30,297,049
JBrowse link
G Ednrb endothelin receptor type B IMP RGD PMID:17214938 RGD:4892595 NCBI chr15:80,640,839...80,672,115
Ensembl chr15:80,643,043...80,672,115
JBrowse link
G F5 coagulation factor V IEP associated with Acute Hepatitis;protein:decreased expression:serum (human) RGD PMID:2777210 RGD:14700665 NCBI chr13:76,513,463...76,583,106
Ensembl chr13:76,513,255...76,582,317
JBrowse link
G Grk2 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 treatment IEP protein:increased expression:endothelial cell, liver sinusoid RGD PMID:16142243 PMID:25469036 RGD:1580269, RGD:13514048 NCBI chr 1:201,581,480...201,601,580
Ensembl chr 1:201,581,480...201,601,582
JBrowse link
G Hmox1 heme oxygenase 1 IDA RGD PMID:16830363 RGD:1582701 NCBI chr19:13,466,287...13,474,082
Ensembl chr19:13,467,244...13,474,079
JBrowse link
G Hsp90aa1 heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1 IEP mRNA:decreased expression:stomach (rat) RGD PMID:19383083 RGD:5686823 NCBI chr 6:129,702,376...129,707,907
Ensembl chr 6:129,702,383...129,707,268
JBrowse link
G Il1b interleukin 1 beta IEP protein:increased expression:serum RGD PMID:15951934 RGD:1626634 NCBI chr 3:116,577,005...116,583,386
Ensembl chr 3:116,577,010...116,583,415
JBrowse link
G Jak2 Janus kinase 2 severity IMP associated with liver cirrhosis RGD PMID:26385087 RGD:18337263 NCBI chr 1:226,995,334...227,054,381
Ensembl chr 1:226,995,334...227,054,189
JBrowse link
G Mtor mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase treatment IMP associated with Liver Cirrhosis RGD PMID:24404143 RGD:10041031 NCBI chr 5:158,884,856...158,994,311
Ensembl chr 5:158,884,804...158,994,311
JBrowse link
G Ngfr nerve growth factor receptor IEP protein:increased expression:superior mesenteric ganglion RGD PMID:22292477 RGD:10414081 NCBI chr10:80,515,287...80,533,518
Ensembl chr10:80,515,299...80,533,518
JBrowse link
G Nos1 nitric oxide synthase 1 treatment IDA associated with liver cirrhosis RGD PMID:10727442 RGD:13824993 NCBI chr12:38,615,111...38,795,492
Ensembl chr12:38,626,714...38,710,945
JBrowse link
G Nos3 nitric oxide synthase 3 treatment IDA
IEP
ISO
associated with Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
CTD Direct Evidence: therapeutic
mRNA:increased expression:aorta (rat)
CTD
RGD
PMID:18070013 PMID:16142243 PMID:29263339 PMID:10889169 RGD:1580269, RGD:13504710, RGD:7794685 NCBI chr 4:10,793,834...10,814,170
Ensembl chr 4:10,793,834...10,814,166
JBrowse link
G Nr1d1 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1 treatment IEP associated with Cholestasis RGD PMID:24497272 RGD:10448995 NCBI chr10:83,728,348...83,735,562
Ensembl chr10:83,728,318...83,735,705
JBrowse link
G Nr1h4 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 treatment IMP associated with liver cirrhosis;mRNA:altered expression:liver (rat) RGD PMID:19418582 RGD:15042868 NCBI chr 7:23,846,122...23,942,085
Ensembl chr 7:23,846,122...23,942,047
JBrowse link
G Pik3r1 phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 IDA protein:altered localization, increased tyrosine phosphorylation:plasma membrane, stomach mucosa RGD PMID:11826414 RGD:1625216 NCBI chr 2:32,878,942...32,963,611
Ensembl chr 2:32,882,032...32,963,631
JBrowse link
G Prkcd protein kinase C, delta ISO mRNA:decreased expression:spleen, macrophage RGD PMID:17659678 RGD:1642521 NCBI chr16:5,769,226...5,807,214
Ensembl chr16:5,769,215...5,799,352
JBrowse link
G Prl prolactin IDA protein:decreased expression:plasma RGD PMID:17119344 RGD:1642556 NCBI chr17:37,859,999...37,870,062
Ensembl chr17:37,860,007...37,870,062
JBrowse link
G Pten phosphatase and tensin homolog IDA RGD PMID:14525948 RGD:1581280 NCBI chr 1:230,631,303...230,696,754
Ensembl chr 1:230,630,338...230,696,838
JBrowse link
G Ptgs2 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 IMP RGD PMID:17876871 RGD:1642587 NCBI chr13:62,164,080...62,169,770
Ensembl chr13:62,163,932...62,172,188
JBrowse link
G Ren renin ISO RGD PMID:12854169 RGD:1580698 NCBI chr13:44,796,260...44,807,491
Ensembl chr13:44,796,091...44,807,489
JBrowse link
G Serpinf1 serpin family F member 1 IEP protein:increased expression:gastric wall (rat) RGD PMID:22024088 RGD:8655539 NCBI chr10:60,250,198...60,262,593
Ensembl chr10:60,249,708...60,262,646
JBrowse link
G Th tyrosine hydroxylase IEP mRNA:decreased expression:superior mesenteric artery (rat) RGD PMID:19968782 RGD:5129480 NCBI chr 1:198,071,500...198,078,832
Ensembl chr 1:198,071,503...198,109,767
JBrowse link
G Timp2 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2 IMP associated with Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental RGD PMID:17351970 RGD:2290408 NCBI chr10:103,541,199...103,590,611
Ensembl chr10:103,531,505...103,590,611
JBrowse link
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor treatment IEP
IMP
mRNA:increased expression:stomach (rat) RGD PMID:9834372 PMID:9198288 PMID:10070045 PMID:9537427 PMID:7875478 RGD:14688051, RGD:14995426, RGD:14995425, RGD:14985259, RGD:14975128 NCBI chr20:3,622,011...3,624,629
Ensembl chr20:3,622,011...3,624,629
JBrowse link
G Vash1 vasohibin 1 disease_progression
treatment
IEP
ISO
RGD PMID:24390792 PMID:24390792 RGD:15003198, RGD:15003198 NCBI chr 6:106,330,374...106,345,740
Ensembl chr 6:106,329,123...106,345,726
JBrowse link
G Vegfa vascular endothelial growth factor A ISO
IEP
CTD Direct Evidence: therapeutic
protein:increased expression:mesentary
CTD
RGD
PMID:18416461 PMID:26627607 RGD:11528851 NCBI chr 9:14,955,300...14,970,641
Ensembl chr 9:14,955,300...14,970,641
JBrowse link
G Xdh xanthine dehydrogenase IEP protein:alternative form:jejunum RGD PMID:10562591 RGD:13209137 NCBI chr 6:21,530,463...21,592,172
Ensembl chr 6:21,530,113...21,592,268
JBrowse link
portal vein thrombosis term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G F2 coagulation factor II severity ISO associated with liver cirrhosis;protein:increased expression:plasma (human) RGD PMID:28465646 RGD:14985237 NCBI chr 3:77,596,196...77,609,486
Ensembl chr 3:77,596,198...77,609,486
JBrowse link
G Igf1r insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor susceptibility ISO associated with hepatocellular carcinoma;DNA:SNP:3'UTR:rs3743251(human) RGD PMID:24758241 RGD:14985227 NCBI chr 1:121,549,839...121,838,545
Ensembl chr 1:121,550,743...121,831,777
JBrowse link
G Mthfr methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase susceptibility ISO DNA:SNP: :677C>T(human) RGD PMID:27221722 PMID:25987440 RGD:14696705, RGD:14696749 NCBI chr 5:158,465,248...158,484,999
Ensembl chr 5:158,465,296...158,483,797
JBrowse link
G Serpine1 serpin family E member 1 susceptibility ISO DNA:polymorphism:promoter: RGD PMID:25987440 RGD:14696749 NCBI chr12:19,601,272...19,611,657
Ensembl chr12:19,601,272...19,611,657
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  disease 17445
    disease of anatomical entity 16777
      cardiovascular system disease 4542
        vascular disease 3461
          hepatic vascular disease 66
            Budd-Chiari syndrome + 5
            hemangioma of liver 1
            hepatic infarction 0
            hepatic veno-occlusive disease + 11
            liver angiosarcoma + 0
            nutmeg liver 0
            peliosis hepatis 1
            portal hypertension + 51
            portal vein thrombosis 4
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  disease 17445
    disease of anatomical entity 16777
      gastrointestinal system disease 6240
        hepatobiliary disease 2590
          liver disease 2492
            hepatic vascular disease 66
              Budd-Chiari syndrome + 5
              hemangioma of liver 1
              hepatic infarction 0
              hepatic veno-occlusive disease + 11
              liver angiosarcoma + 0
              nutmeg liver 0
              peliosis hepatis 1
              portal hypertension + 51
              portal vein thrombosis 4
paths to the root