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CHEBI ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

The Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology is downloaded weekly from EMBL-EBI at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. The data is made available under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). For more information see: Degtyarenko et al. (2008) ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest. Nucleic Acids Res. 36, D344–D350.

Term:short-chain fatty acid anion
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Accession:CHEBI:58951 term browser browse the term
Definition:Any fatty acid anion obtained by removal of a proton from the carboxy group of a short-chain fatty acid (chain length of less than C6).
Synonyms:related_synonym: Formula=CO2R;   SMILES=[O-]C([*])=O;   a short-chain fatty acid;   short-chain fatty acid anions
 cyclic_relationship: is_conjugate_base_of CHEBI:26666



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(R)-carnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Adipoq adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing increases expression EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of ADIPOQ protein CTD PMID:30256492 NCBI chr11:77,721,912...77,735,644
Ensembl chr11:77,721,912...77,735,564
JBrowse link
G Akt1 AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 multiple interactions
increases phosphorylation
EXP 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one inhibits the reaction [Carnitine results in increased phosphorylation of AKT1 protein] CTD PMID:29186614 NCBI chr 6:131,713,716...131,735,319
Ensembl chr 6:131,713,720...131,733,921
JBrowse link
G App amyloid beta precursor protein multiple interactions ISO Carnitine promotes the reaction [Paraquat deficiency inhibits the reaction [Paraquat promotes the reaction [APP protein binds to APP protein]]] CTD PMID:33290254 NCBI chr11:24,019,774...24,236,584
Ensembl chr11:24,019,778...24,236,561
JBrowse link
G Bax BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator decreases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in decreased expression of BAX protein
2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one inhibits the reaction [Carnitine results in decreased expression of BAX protein]
CTD PMID:29186614 NCBI chr 1:95,940,001...95,945,407
Ensembl chr 1:95,938,808...95,945,368
JBrowse link
G Bbox1 gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 1 multiple interactions
increases chemical synthesis
ISO Aluminum inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]; Hydrogen Peroxide inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]; Ketoglutaric Acids inhibits the reaction [Aluminum inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]]; Ketoglutaric Acids inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]] CTD PMID:21439360 NCBI chr 3:96,822,654...96,871,786
Ensembl chr 3:96,822,655...96,871,458
JBrowse link
G Bcl2 BCL2, apoptosis regulator multiple interactions
increases phosphorylation
EXP 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one inhibits the reaction [Carnitine results in increased phosphorylation of BCL2 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in decreased expression of BCL2 mRNA] CTD PMID:23213347 PMID:29186614 NCBI chr13:22,689,783...22,853,920 JBrowse link
G Bcl2l1 Bcl2-like 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in decreased expression of BCL2L1 protein] CTD PMID:19491382 NCBI chr 3:141,253,508...141,304,582
Ensembl chr 3:141,253,523...141,303,479
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions EXP
ISO
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in increased cleavage of CASP3 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in increased expression of CASP3 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of CASP3 mRNA]]
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [quinone results in increased activity of CASP3 protein]
CTD PMID:19491382 PMID:23213347 PMID:26562095 PMID:32478940 NCBI chr16:45,662,910...45,681,171
Ensembl chr16:45,662,910...45,684,648
JBrowse link
G Casp8 caspase 8 multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [quinone results in increased activity of CASP8 protein] CTD PMID:32478940 NCBI chr 9:60,263,863...60,312,542
Ensembl chr 9:60,264,075...60,312,542
JBrowse link
G Casp9 caspase 9 multiple interactions EXP
ISO
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in increased expression of CASP9 mRNA]
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [quinone results in increased activity of CASP9 protein]
CTD PMID:23213347 PMID:32478940 NCBI chr 5:154,108,872...154,126,628
Ensembl chr 5:154,109,046...154,126,626
JBrowse link
G Cat catalase multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Diethylnitrosamine results in decreased activity of CAT protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in decreased activity of CAT protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in decreased expression of CAT mRNA] CTD PMID:16889571 PMID:19294768 PMID:23213347 NCBI chr 3:89,842,393...89,874,577
Ensembl chr 3:89,842,399...89,874,478
JBrowse link
G Ccn2 cellular communication network factor 2 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in increased expression of CCN2 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr 1:20,802,199...20,805,315
Ensembl chr 1:20,802,199...20,805,734
JBrowse link
G Cdh1 cadherin 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in decreased expression of CDH1 protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr19:34,492,371...34,561,775
Ensembl chr19:34,492,371...34,561,775
JBrowse link
G Col1a1 collagen type I alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of COL1A1 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in increased expression of COL1A1 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 PMID:28973641 NCBI chr10:79,883,622...79,900,625
Ensembl chr10:79,883,622...79,900,624
JBrowse link
G Col2a1 collagen type II alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP [COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] affects the abundance of Carnitine; [geniposide co-treated with phellodendrine co-treated with magnoflorine co-treated with Chlorogenic Acid co-treated with crocin co-treated with Flavonoids co-treated with Berberine Alkaloids] inhibits the reaction [[COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in increased abundance of Carnitine]; Dexamethasone inhibits the reaction [[COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in increased abundance of Carnitine]; huang-lien-chieh-tu-tang inhibits the reaction [[COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in increased abundance of Carnitine] CTD PMID:24709313 NCBI chr 7:129,098,489...129,127,620
Ensembl chr 7:129,098,786...129,127,546
JBrowse link
G Cpt1a carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A multiple interactions EXP
ISO
valproyl-coenzyme A inhibits the reaction [CPT1A protein results in increased metabolism of Carnitine]
[Doxorubicin co-treated with Carnitine] results in increased expression of CPT1A mRNA; [Genistein co-treated with Carnitine] results in increased expression of CPT1A protein; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [quinone results in decreased expression of CPT1A protein]
CTD PMID:16283381 PMID:16362726 PMID:19854160 PMID:32478940 NCBI chr 1:200,564,634...200,627,059
Ensembl chr 1:200,565,613...200,627,055
JBrowse link
G Cpt2 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 multiple interactions ISO Carnitine promotes the reaction [[Bezafibrate results in increased activity of CPT2 protein] which results in increased abundance of Adenosine Triphosphate] CTD PMID:21816645 NCBI chr 5:122,664,677...122,682,126
Ensembl chr 5:122,664,677...122,682,095
JBrowse link
G Cybb cytochrome b-245 beta chain multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in increased expression of CYBB mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in increased expression of CYBB protein] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr  X:13,360,583...13,392,517
Ensembl chr  X:13,359,430...13,392,586
JBrowse link
G Cyp17a1 cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Atrazine results in decreased expression of CYP17A1 mRNA] CTD PMID:29710542 NCBI chr 1:245,535,462...245,543,148
Ensembl chr 1:245,535,462...245,541,573
JBrowse link
G Cyp2e1 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily e, polypeptide 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine promotes the reaction [Ethanol results in increased expression of CYP2E1 protein] CTD PMID:8130774 NCBI chr 1:195,840,330...195,850,728
Ensembl chr 1:195,840,058...195,864,023
JBrowse link
G Fabp3 fatty acid binding protein 3 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in decreased expression of FABP3 mRNA] CTD PMID:20470772 NCBI chr 5:142,651,962...142,658,707
Ensembl chr 5:142,651,956...142,658,718
JBrowse link
G Fabp9 fatty acid binding protein 9 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of FABP9 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of FABP9 protein] CTD PMID:33965443 NCBI chr 2:91,591,842...91,595,873
Ensembl chr 2:91,592,298...91,595,873
JBrowse link
G Fshb follicle stimulating hormone subunit beta multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of FSHB protein] CTD PMID:33965443 NCBI chr 3:93,548,560...93,552,370
Ensembl chr 3:93,548,560...93,552,370
JBrowse link
G Gpx1 glutathione peroxidase 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in decreased expression of GPX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:23213347 NCBI chr 8:109,026,905...109,028,031
Ensembl chr 8:109,026,905...109,028,024
JBrowse link
G Hadha hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase trifunctional multienzyme complex subunit alpha multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [quinone results in decreased expression of HADHA protein] CTD PMID:32478940 NCBI chr 6:26,187,969...26,227,605
Ensembl chr 6:26,187,956...26,227,869
JBrowse link
G Hrk harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in increased expression of HRK mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in increased expression of HRK protein] CTD PMID:16239342 NCBI chr12:38,387,484...38,409,652 JBrowse link
G Hspa2 heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 2 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium Chloride results in increased expression of HSPA2 protein] CTD PMID:22359436 NCBI chr 6:95,128,504...95,131,281
Ensembl chr 6:95,128,350...95,131,287
JBrowse link
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 multiple interactions
increases abundance
ISO Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Carnitine] CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:134,038,644...134,057,969
Ensembl chr 1:134,029,772...134,058,025
JBrowse link
G Il10 interleukin 10 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of IL10 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in decreased expression of IL10 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 PMID:33965443 NCBI chr13:42,472,625...42,477,308
Ensembl chr13:42,472,839...42,477,313
JBrowse link
G Il1b interleukin 1 beta multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of IL1B mRNA]]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of IL1B mRNA] CTD PMID:26562095 PMID:26581635 NCBI chr 3:116,577,005...116,583,386
Ensembl chr 3:116,577,010...116,583,415
JBrowse link
G Il6 interleukin 6 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in increased expression of IL6 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in increased expression of IL6 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 PMID:33965443 NCBI chr 4:5,214,602...5,219,178
Ensembl chr 4:5,213,394...5,219,178
JBrowse link
G Lepr leptin receptor affects abundance ISO LEPR affects the abundance of Carnitine CTD PMID:20567778 NCBI chr 5:116,294,409...116,477,904
Ensembl chr 5:116,289,823...116,475,908
JBrowse link
G Lhb luteinizing hormone subunit beta multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of LHB protein] CTD PMID:33965443 NCBI chr 1:95,898,269...95,901,973
Ensembl chr 1:95,900,984...95,901,972
Ensembl chr 1:95,900,984...95,901,972
JBrowse link
G Mmp9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in decreased expression of MMP9 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr 3:153,684,158...153,692,118
Ensembl chr 3:153,683,858...153,692,120
JBrowse link
G Mpo myeloperoxidase multiple interactions
increases activity
EXP [Carboplatin co-treated with Carnitine deficiency] results in increased expression of MPO protein; Acetaminophen promotes the reaction [Carnitine deficiency results in increased activity of MPO protein] CTD PMID:18597074 PMID:18852009 NCBI chr10:72,594,458...72,608,862
Ensembl chr10:72,594,661...72,604,819
JBrowse link
G Mt-co1 mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [nickel chloride results in decreased expression of COX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21419151 NCBI chr MT:5,323...6,867
Ensembl chr MT:5,323...6,867
JBrowse link
G Mt-nd6 mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 6 multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [nickel chloride results in decreased expression of ND6 mRNA] CTD PMID:21419151 NCBI chr MT:13,543...14,061
Ensembl chr MT:13,543...14,061
JBrowse link
G Mttp microsomal triglyceride transfer protein multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Stavudine results in decreased expression of MTTP mRNA] CTD PMID:18299183 NCBI chr 2:226,613,090...226,654,239
Ensembl chr 2:226,613,090...226,654,239
JBrowse link
G Nos2 nitric oxide synthase 2 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in increased expression of NOS2 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in increased expression of NOS2 mRNA] CTD PMID:23213347 PMID:33965443 NCBI chr10:63,815,308...63,851,208
Ensembl chr10:63,815,308...63,851,210
JBrowse link
G Nos3 nitric oxide synthase 3 increases expression EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of NOS3 CTD PMID:20123095 NCBI chr 4:10,793,834...10,814,170
Ensembl chr 4:10,793,834...10,814,166
JBrowse link
G Ocln occludin multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of OCLN protein] CTD PMID:33965443 NCBI chr 2:31,657,217...31,707,466
Ensembl chr 2:31,657,220...31,764,150
JBrowse link
G Ppara peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha multiple interactions
increases activity
EXP [pirinixic acid results in increased activity of PPARA protein] promotes the reaction [SLC22A21 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; PPARA protein promotes the reaction [Carnitine results in decreased susceptibility to Gentamicins]
Carnitine results in increased activity of PPARA protein
CTD PMID:19491382 PMID:19735737 NCBI chr 7:116,832,405...116,900,878
Ensembl chr 7:116,832,756...116,895,346
JBrowse link
G Pparg peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma increases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of PPARG protein
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [[Dietary Fats co-treated with Fructose] results in decreased expression of PPARG protein]
CTD PMID:30256492 NCBI chr 4:148,423,102...148,548,471
Ensembl chr 4:148,423,194...148,548,468
JBrowse link
G Ptgis prostaglandin I2 synthase increases expression
increases response to substance
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of PTGIS mRNA
PTGIS protein results in increased susceptibility to Carnitine
[Carnitine results in increased expression of PTGIS mRNA] which results in increased chemical synthesis of 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha
CTD PMID:19491382 NCBI chr 3:155,928,564...155,964,228 JBrowse link
G Rela RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in increased expression of RELA protein] CTD PMID:33965443 NCBI chr 1:202,925,001...202,935,484
Ensembl chr 1:202,924,945...202,935,484
JBrowse link
G Slc22a4 solute carrier family 22 member 4 increases uptake ISO SLC22A4 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine CTD PMID:21256917 NCBI chr10:38,133,333...38,179,932 JBrowse link
G Slc22a5 solute carrier family 22 member 5 multiple interactions
decreases expression
increases transport
increases uptake
increases expression
affects uptake
affects binding
ISO
EXP
[Doxorubicin co-treated with Carnitine] results in increased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA; Amiodarone inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Atorvastatin inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of pivaloylcarnitine]; Choline inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Clozapine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; grepafloxacin affects the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Ipratropium inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Lidocaine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Nifedipine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Ofloxacin inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Olanzapine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine analog]; pivaloylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Propranolol inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Quetiapine Fumarate inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Spironolactone inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; talinolol inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; ziprasidone inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]
Carnitine results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA; Carnitine results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 protein
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Cyclophosphamide results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Cyclophosphamide results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Tetraethylammonium]; Dithioerythritol inhibits the reaction [Omeprazole inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]]; Ofloxacin inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Omeprazole inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Tetraethylammonium inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]
Carnitine deficiency results in increased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA
SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine; SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine analog
SLC22A5 protein affects the uptake of Carnitine
Carnitine binds to SLC22A5 protein
CTD PMID:12644265 PMID:15486076 PMID:16283381 PMID:16928358 PMID:18762717 More... NCBI chr10:38,008,303...38,035,474
Ensembl chr10:38,008,311...38,035,309
JBrowse link
G Slc22a8 solute carrier family 22 member 8 increases transport ISO SLC22A8 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine CTD PMID:15100168 NCBI chr 1:205,496,331...205,516,378
Ensembl chr 1:205,498,084...205,517,450
JBrowse link
G Slc25a20 solute carrier family 25 member 20 multiple interactions
increases transport
EXP Ampicillin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide results in decreased activity of SLC25A20 protein]; Cefazolin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Cefonicid inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Cephalothin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Piperacillin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine] CTD PMID:18452908 PMID:23402788 NCBI chr 8:109,365,056...109,386,512
Ensembl chr 8:109,365,002...109,386,512
JBrowse link
G Slc2a4 solute carrier family 2 member 4 increases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of SLC2A4 protein
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [[Dietary Fats co-treated with Fructose] results in decreased expression of SLC2A4 protein]
CTD PMID:30256492 NCBI chr10:54,666,015...54,671,581
Ensembl chr10:54,666,015...54,671,565
JBrowse link
G Snai1 snail family transcriptional repressor 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of SNAI1 protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr 3:156,248,479...156,252,969
Ensembl chr 3:156,248,485...156,252,969
JBrowse link
G Srebf1 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Stavudine results in increased expression of SREBF1 mRNA] CTD PMID:18299183 NCBI chr10:45,007,637...45,029,650
Ensembl chr10:45,007,637...45,029,650
JBrowse link
G Star steroidogenic acute regulatory protein multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of STAR mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in decreased expression of STAR protein] CTD PMID:33965443 NCBI chr16:66,267,094...66,274,368
Ensembl chr16:66,264,807...66,271,672
JBrowse link
G Tgfb1 transforming growth factor, beta 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of TGFB1 mRNA]]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of TGFB1 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of TGFB1 mRNA] CTD PMID:26562095 PMID:26581635 PMID:28973641 NCBI chr 1:81,196,532...81,212,848
Ensembl chr 1:81,196,532...81,212,847
JBrowse link
G Timp1 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of TIMP1 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr  X:1,212,969...1,217,714
Ensembl chr  X:1,212,972...1,217,664
JBrowse link
G Tjp1 tight junction protein 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in decreased expression of TJP1 protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr 1:118,849,838...119,094,492
Ensembl chr 1:118,849,838...119,094,432
JBrowse link
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor increases expression
multiple interactions
decreases expression
EXP Carnitine deficiency results in increased expression of TNF mRNA
[Carboplatin co-treated with Carnitine deficiency] results in increased expression of TNF protein; Acetaminophen promotes the reaction [Carnitine deficiency results in increased expression of TNF mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [carbendazim results in increased expression of TNF protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of TNF mRNA]]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of TNF protein]]
Carnitine results in decreased expression of TNF protein
CTD PMID:18597074 PMID:18629605 PMID:18852009 PMID:26562095 PMID:33965443 NCBI chr20:3,622,011...3,624,629
Ensembl chr20:3,622,011...3,624,629
JBrowse link
G Vim vimentin multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of VIM protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr17:76,668,701...76,677,186
Ensembl chr17:76,668,647...76,677,187
JBrowse link
4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Bbox1 gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 1 multiple interactions ISO [BBOX1 protein co-treated with Ketoglutaric Acids] results in increased metabolism of gamma-butyrobetaine CTD PMID:21439360 NCBI chr 3:96,822,654...96,871,786
Ensembl chr 3:96,822,655...96,871,458
JBrowse link
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 multiple interactions
increases abundance
ISO Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of gamma-butyrobetaine] CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:134,038,644...134,057,969
Ensembl chr 1:134,029,772...134,058,025
JBrowse link
6-aminohexanoate term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G A2m alpha-2-macroglobulin decreases expression ISO Aminocaproic Acid results in decreased expression of A2M protein CTD PMID:11304663 NCBI chr 4:154,897,770...154,947,787
Ensembl chr 4:154,897,877...154,947,786
JBrowse link
G Folh1 folate hydrolase 1 multiple interactions ISO [2-(3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid binds to Aminocaproic Acid binds to 1-(1,3-carboxypropyl)-4,7-carboxymethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane binds to Valerates binds to bombesin (7-14) binds to Copper] inhibits the reaction [isospaglumic acid binds to FOLH1 protein] CTD PMID:24508213 NCBI chr 1:140,428,101...140,501,563
Ensembl chr 1:140,428,101...140,501,379
JBrowse link
G Grpr gastrin releasing peptide receptor multiple interactions ISO [2-(3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid binds to Aminocaproic Acid binds to 1-(1,3-carboxypropyl)-4,7-carboxymethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane binds to Valerates binds to bombesin (7-14) binds to Copper] inhibits the reaction [bombesin, Tyr(4)- binds to GRPR protein] CTD PMID:24508213 NCBI chr  X:30,998,425...31,038,442
Ensembl chr  X:30,998,416...31,038,442
JBrowse link
G Mapk1 mitogen activated protein kinase 1 multiple interactions ISO Aminocaproic Acid inhibits the reaction [PLG protein results in increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein] CTD PMID:17482686 NCBI chr11:83,957,813...84,023,629
Ensembl chr11:83,957,813...84,023,616
JBrowse link
G Mapk3 mitogen activated protein kinase 3 multiple interactions ISO Aminocaproic Acid inhibits the reaction [PLG protein results in increased phosphorylation of MAPK3 protein] CTD PMID:17482686 NCBI chr 1:181,366,646...181,372,863
Ensembl chr 1:181,366,637...181,372,863
JBrowse link
G Plg plasminogen multiple interactions ISO Aminocaproic Acid inhibits the reaction [PLG protein results in increased phosphorylation of MAPK1 protein]; Aminocaproic Acid inhibits the reaction [PLG protein results in increased phosphorylation of MAPK3 protein] CTD PMID:17482686 NCBI chr 1:48,325,186...48,367,643
Ensembl chr 1:48,325,185...48,367,786
JBrowse link
G Serpinc1 serpin family C member 1 increases expression ISO Aminocaproic Acid results in increased expression of SERPINC1 protein CTD PMID:11304663 NCBI chr13:73,257,208...73,271,476
Ensembl chr13:73,257,179...73,284,293
JBrowse link
CAR(3:0(Me2)) term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Slc22a5 solute carrier family 22 member 5 affects binding
increases uptake
multiple interactions
increases transport
ISO
EXP
pivaloylcarnitine binds to SLC22A5 protein
SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of pivaloylcarnitine
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of pivaloylcarnitine]; pivaloylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]
CTD PMID:18762717 PMID:19539806 NCBI chr10:38,008,303...38,035,474
Ensembl chr10:38,008,311...38,035,309
JBrowse link
O-acetyl-L-carnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ache acetylcholinesterase multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Dexamethasone results in decreased activity of ACHE protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased activity of ACHE protein] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr12:19,407,359...19,413,713
Ensembl chr12:19,407,360...19,413,651
JBrowse link
G Apex1 apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of APEX1 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr15:24,144,595...24,146,785
Ensembl chr15:24,144,362...24,146,785
JBrowse link
G Atp6v1f ATPase H+ transporting V1 subunit F increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of ATP6V1F mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 4:58,067,666...58,070,628 JBrowse link
G C1qa complement C1q A chain decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of C1QA mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 5:149,133,635...149,136,482
Ensembl chr 5:149,133,636...149,136,534
JBrowse link
G C4b complement C4B (Chido blood group) decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of C4B mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr20:4,197,371...4,211,684
Ensembl chr20:4,197,366...4,211,681
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased activity of CASP3 protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in increased expression of CASP3 mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779 PMID:29278859 NCBI chr16:45,662,910...45,681,171
Ensembl chr16:45,662,910...45,684,648
JBrowse link
G Casp9 caspase 9 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased activity of CASP9 protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 5:154,108,872...154,126,628
Ensembl chr 5:154,109,046...154,126,626
JBrowse link
G Cat catalase multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in decreased activity of CAT protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in decreased expression of CAT mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779 PMID:26349760 PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 3:89,842,393...89,874,577
Ensembl chr 3:89,842,399...89,874,478
JBrowse link
G Col2a1 collagen type II alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP [COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in decreased abundance of Acetylcarnitine CTD PMID:24709313 NCBI chr 7:129,098,489...129,127,620
Ensembl chr 7:129,098,786...129,127,546
JBrowse link
G Ctss cathepsin S decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of CTSS mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 2:183,089,192...183,114,483
Ensembl chr 2:183,086,437...183,114,483
JBrowse link
G Cxcl14 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of CXCL14 mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr17:8,317,933...8,325,956
Ensembl chr17:8,317,933...8,324,839
JBrowse link
G Egr1 early growth response 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in increased expression of EGR1 mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779 NCBI chr18:26,463,333...26,465,531
Ensembl chr18:26,462,981...26,466,766
JBrowse link
G Gfap glial fibrillary acidic protein decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of GFAP mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr10:87,852,891...87,861,631
Ensembl chr10:87,852,890...87,861,589
JBrowse link
G Gsr glutathione-disulfide reductase multiple interactions ISO Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Acetaminophen results in decreased expression of GSR protein] CTD PMID:26265018 NCBI chr16:58,482,209...58,525,256
Ensembl chr16:58,482,505...58,525,661
JBrowse link
G Gstp1 glutathione S-transferase pi 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in decreased expression of GSTP1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr 1:201,337,762...201,340,230
Ensembl chr 1:201,321,672...201,340,226
JBrowse link
G Hmox1 heme oxygenase 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr19:13,466,287...13,474,082
Ensembl chr19:13,467,244...13,474,079
JBrowse link
G Hmox2 heme oxygenase 2 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of HMOX2 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr10:10,797,076...10,831,178
Ensembl chr10:10,797,055...10,831,148
JBrowse link
G Hspb1 heat shock protein family B (small) member 1 decreases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of HSPB1 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr12:20,794,014...20,795,675
Ensembl chr12:20,794,028...20,795,743
JBrowse link
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 increases abundance
multiple interactions
ISO IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Acetylcarnitine
Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Acetylcarnitine]
CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:134,038,644...134,057,969
Ensembl chr 1:134,029,772...134,058,025
JBrowse link
G Il1b interleukin 1 beta multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased expression of IL1B protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 3:116,577,005...116,583,386
Ensembl chr 3:116,577,010...116,583,415
JBrowse link
G Il6 interleukin 6 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased expression of IL6 protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 4:5,214,602...5,219,178
Ensembl chr 4:5,213,394...5,219,178
JBrowse link
G Mgst1 microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of MGST1 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 4:171,029,666...171,044,893
Ensembl chr 4:171,029,630...171,044,892
JBrowse link
G Mt-co1 mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in decreased expression of COX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779 NCBI chr MT:5,323...6,867
Ensembl chr MT:5,323...6,867
JBrowse link
G Ngf nerve growth factor multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cisplatin results in decreased expression of NGF protein] CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 2:189,901,058...189,954,452
Ensembl chr 2:189,901,058...189,954,452
JBrowse link
G Nos1 nitric oxide synthase 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of NOS1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr12:38,615,111...38,795,492
Ensembl chr12:38,626,714...38,710,945
JBrowse link
G Nos2 nitric oxide synthase 2 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of NOS2 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr10:63,815,308...63,851,208
Ensembl chr10:63,815,308...63,851,210
JBrowse link
G Pah phenylalanine hydroxylase decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of PAH mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 7:21,933,179...21,998,134
Ensembl chr 7:21,933,179...21,998,130
JBrowse link
G Pink1 PTEN induced kinase 1 multiple interactions ISO Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium results in increased expression of PINK1] CTD PMID:25464205 NCBI chr 5:150,530,523...150,542,635
Ensembl chr 5:150,530,523...150,542,635
JBrowse link
G Ppargc1a PPARG coactivator 1 alpha increases expression
multiple interactions
ISO Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of PPARGC1A protein
[Acetylcarnitine co-treated with Thioctic Acid] results in increased expression of PPARGC1A protein
CTD PMID:20414966 NCBI chr14:58,860,752...59,516,525
Ensembl chr14:58,861,144...59,512,656
JBrowse link
G Prkn parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase multiple interactions ISO Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium results in increased expression of PRKN] CTD PMID:25464205 NCBI chr 1:48,688,651...49,882,520 JBrowse link
G Psmb6 proteasome 20S subunit beta 6 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of PSMB6 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr10:55,239,274...55,241,581
Ensembl chr10:55,239,241...55,241,586
JBrowse link
G Ptma prothymosin alpha increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of PTMA mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 9:87,176,251...87,180,333
Ensembl chr 9:87,176,230...87,180,333
JBrowse link
G Rela RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased expression of RELA protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 1:202,925,001...202,935,484
Ensembl chr 1:202,924,945...202,935,484
JBrowse link
G Rps17 ribosomal protein S17 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of RPS17 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 1:135,295,920...135,298,506
Ensembl chr 1:135,295,919...135,298,535
JBrowse link
G Skap2 src kinase associated phosphoprotein 2 decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of SKAP2 mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 4:80,948,832...81,100,900
Ensembl chr 4:80,950,580...81,100,891
JBrowse link
G Slc25a20 solute carrier family 25 member 20 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide results in decreased activity of SLC25A20 protein] CTD PMID:23402788 NCBI chr 8:109,365,056...109,386,512
Ensembl chr 8:109,365,002...109,386,512
JBrowse link
G Snca synuclein alpha multiple interactions ISO [Acetylcarnitine co-treated with Thioctic Acid] inhibits the reaction [Rotenone results in increased expression of SNCA protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Rotenone results in increased expression of SNCA protein] CTD PMID:20414966 NCBI chr 4:89,696,420...89,797,240
Ensembl chr 4:89,696,420...89,796,262
JBrowse link
G Tnni3 troponin I3, cardiac type multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cisplatin results in increased expression of TNNI3 protein] CTD PMID:21034734 NCBI chr 1:69,299,900...69,303,582
Ensembl chr 1:69,299,900...69,303,580
JBrowse link
O-butanoyl-L-carnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 multiple interactions
increases abundance
ISO Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of butyrylcarnitine] CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:134,038,644...134,057,969
Ensembl chr 1:134,029,772...134,058,025
JBrowse link
O-octanoylcarnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Crot carnitine O-octanoyltransferase increases chemical synthesis ISO CROT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of octanoylcarnitine CTD PMID:6838215 NCBI chr 4:25,068,270...25,133,111
Ensembl chr 4:25,080,587...25,133,109
JBrowse link
O-palmitoylcarnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Col2a1 collagen type II alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP [COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in decreased abundance of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:24709313 NCBI chr 7:129,098,489...129,127,620
Ensembl chr 7:129,098,786...129,127,546
JBrowse link
G Gls glutaminase increases chemical synthesis ISO GLS protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:31040181 NCBI chr 9:49,344,616...49,416,900
Ensembl chr 9:49,344,781...49,416,900
JBrowse link
G Ppp3r1 protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha decreases metabolic processing ISO PPP3R1 gene mutant form results in decreased metabolism of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:19700627 NCBI chr14:91,556,743...91,606,230
Ensembl chr14:91,604,121...91,606,907
JBrowse link
G Prkaa1 protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 1 increases chemical synthesis ISO PRKAA1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:31040181 NCBI chr 2:54,240,298...54,275,978
Ensembl chr 2:54,240,137...54,275,978
JBrowse link
sodium propionate term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Cyp1a1 cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 multiple interactions ISO sodium propionate promotes the reaction [Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin results in increased expression of CYP1A1 mRNA] CTD PMID:31621310 NCBI chr 8:58,096,021...58,102,130
Ensembl chr 8:58,096,077...58,102,125
JBrowse link
G Cyp1b1 cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 multiple interactions ISO sodium propionate promotes the reaction [biochanin A results in increased expression of CYP1B1 mRNA]; sodium propionate promotes the reaction [Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin results in increased expression of CYP1B1 mRNA] CTD PMID:31621310 NCBI chr 6:15,342,312...15,350,886
Ensembl chr 6:15,342,344...15,350,917
JBrowse link
G Mt1 metallothionein 1 multiple interactions
increases expression
EXP [sodium propionate co-treated with Cadmium] results in increased expression of MT1A mRNA; [sodium propionate co-treated with Dexamethasone] results in increased expression of MT1A mRNA
sodium propionate results in increased expression of MT1A mRNA
CTD PMID:1597404 NCBI chr19:10,826,032...10,827,048 JBrowse link
G Ugt1a1 UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 multiple interactions ISO sodium propionate promotes the reaction [Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin results in increased expression of UGT1A1 mRNA] CTD PMID:31621310 NCBI chr 9:88,801,344...88,808,465 JBrowse link
sodium valproate term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Hdac8 histone deacetylase 8 decreases activity EXP Sodium valproate attenuates the reaction [deoxycorticosterone acetate increases activity of Hdac8 protein in the heart] RGD PMID:23868068 RGD:9681716 NCBI chr  X:67,385,288...67,593,014
Ensembl chr  X:67,385,289...67,592,923
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19800
    chemical entity 19800
      atom 19799
        nonmetal atom 19686
          carbon atom 19609
            organic molecular entity 19609
              lipid 17493
                fatty acid anion 108
                  short-chain fatty acid anion 101
                    (2E)-3-methylhex-2-enoate 0
                    (R)-3-hydroxypentanoate 0
                    (S)-2-methylbutanoate 0
                    (S)-3-hydroxypentanoate 0
                    2-methylbutyrate 0
                    2-methylvalerate 0
                    2-oxobutanoate 0
                    3-methylvalerate 0
                    4-hydroxybutyrate 0
                    butenoate + 0
                    fatty acid anion 3:0 + 4
                    fatty acid anion 4:0 + 89
                    hexanoate + 7
                    isocrotonate 0
                    isovalerate 0
                    pentadienoate 0
                    pentenoate + 0
                    propynoate 0
                    valerate + 1
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19800
    subatomic particle 19799
      composite particle 19799
        hadron 19799
          baryon 19799
            nucleon 19799
              atomic nucleus 19799
                atom 19799
                  main group element atom 19698
                    p-block element atom 19698
                      chalcogen 19450
                        chalcogen molecular entity 19450
                          oxygen molecular entity 19423
                            oxide 11771
                              oxoanion 8910
                                carboxylic acid anion 2437
                                  monocarboxylic acid anion 1552
                                    fatty acid anion 108
                                      short-chain fatty acid anion 101
                                        (2E)-3-methylhex-2-enoate 0
                                        (R)-3-hydroxypentanoate 0
                                        (S)-2-methylbutanoate 0
                                        (S)-3-hydroxypentanoate 0
                                        2-methylbutyrate 0
                                        2-methylvalerate 0
                                        2-oxobutanoate 0
                                        3-methylvalerate 0
                                        4-hydroxybutyrate 0
                                        butenoate + 0
                                        fatty acid anion 3:0 + 4
                                        fatty acid anion 4:0 + 89
                                        hexanoate + 7
                                        isocrotonate 0
                                        isovalerate 0
                                        pentadienoate 0
                                        pentenoate + 0
                                        propynoate 0
                                        valerate + 1
paths to the root