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CHEBI ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

The Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology is downloaded weekly from EMBL-EBI at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. The data is made available under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). For more information see: Degtyarenko et al. (2008) ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest. Nucleic Acids Res. 36, D344–D350.

Term:branched-chain amino acid
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Accession:CHEBI:22918 term browser browse the term
Definition:Any amino acid in which the parent hydrocarbon chain has one or more alkyl substituents
Synonyms:related_synonym: branched chain amino acids
 cyclic_relationship: is_conjugate_acid_of CHEBI:63471


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aloxistatin term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Capn1 calpain 1 multiple interactions ISO aloxistatin inhibits the reaction [CAPN1 protein results in increased degradation of and results in decreased expression of SMN2 protein alternative form] CTD PMID:30910806 NCBI chr 1:221,346,081...221,370,965
Ensembl chr 1:221,346,066...221,370,322
JBrowse link
G Capn7 calpain 7 multiple interactions ISO aloxistatin inhibits the reaction [CAPN7 protein results in increased degradation of and results in decreased expression of SMN2 protein alternative form] CTD PMID:30910806 NCBI chr16:7,435,541...7,472,483
Ensembl chr16:7,435,634...7,471,807
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions ISO [aloxistatin co-treated with pepstatin] inhibits the reaction [[vistusertib co-treated with Chloroquine] results in increased activity of CASP3 protein] CTD PMID:26853465 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Ctsb cathepsin B multiple interactions ISO [aloxistatin co-treated with pepstatin] results in decreased expression of CTSB protein; aloxistatin inhibits the reaction [CTSB protein results in increased degradation of and results in decreased expression of SMN2 protein alternative form] CTD PMID:30910806, PMID:32186374 NCBI chr15:46,316,741...46,337,613
Ensembl chr15:46,316,741...46,337,612
JBrowse link
G Ctsd cathepsin D multiple interactions ISO [aloxistatin co-treated with pepstatin] results in decreased expression of CTSD protein CTD PMID:32186374 NCBI chr 1:215,541,570...215,553,446
Ensembl chr 1:215,541,542...215,553,451
JBrowse link
G Ctsl cathepsin L multiple interactions ISO aloxistatin inhibits the reaction [CTSL protein results in increased degradation of and results in decreased expression of SMN2 protein alternative form] CTD PMID:30910806 NCBI chr17:1,873,105...1,879,266
Ensembl chr17:1,872,848...1,879,279
JBrowse link
G Lamp2 lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 multiple interactions ISO [aloxistatin co-treated with pepstatin] results in increased expression of LAMP2 protein CTD PMID:32186374 NCBI chr  X:124,722,628...124,766,079
Ensembl chr  X:124,722,628...124,766,044
JBrowse link
G Sqstm1 sequestosome 1 multiple interactions ISO [aloxistatin co-treated with pepstatin] results in increased expression of SQSTM1 protein CTD PMID:32186374 NCBI chr10:35,704,728...35,716,316
Ensembl chr10:35,704,730...35,716,294
JBrowse link
fluvalinate term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ahr aryl hydrocarbon receptor multiple interactions ISO fluvalinate analog promotes the reaction [Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin results in increased activity of AHR protein] CTD PMID:25684042 NCBI chr 6:54,963,990...55,001,806
Ensembl chr 6:54,963,990...55,001,464
JBrowse link
G Cdk2 cyclin dependent kinase 2 affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to CDK2 protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr 7:3,124,953...3,132,533
Ensembl chr 7:3,124,954...3,132,457
JBrowse link
G Erbb2 erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to ERBB2 protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr10:86,367,596...86,391,728
Ensembl chr10:86,367,596...86,391,728
JBrowse link
G Fgfr2 fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to FGFR2 protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr 1:200,590,951...200,696,946
Ensembl chr 1:200,590,953...200,696,928
JBrowse link
G Mmp9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to MMP9 protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr 3:161,413,410...161,421,473
Ensembl chr 3:161,413,298...161,421,520
JBrowse link
G Nqo1 NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to NQO1 protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr19:38,422,210...38,437,103
Ensembl chr19:38,422,164...38,437,180
JBrowse link
G Nr1h4 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 multiple interactions ISO fluvalinate inhibits the reaction [pregna-4,17-diene-3,16-dione results in decreased activity of NR1H4 protein] CTD PMID:25257666 NCBI chr 7:30,003,429...30,162,095
Ensembl chr 7:30,003,429...30,162,056
JBrowse link
G Nr1i2 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 multiple interactions ISO fluvalinate binds to and results in increased activity of NR1I2 protein CTD PMID:21115097 NCBI chr11:65,022,100...65,058,546
Ensembl chr11:65,022,100...65,058,545
JBrowse link
G Ppard peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to PPARD protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr20:7,818,289...7,883,482
Ensembl chr20:7,818,289...7,885,333
JBrowse link
G Rora RAR-related orphan receptor A affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to RORA protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr 8:75,515,886...75,616,477
Ensembl chr 8:75,516,904...75,607,212
JBrowse link
G Rorc RAR-related orphan receptor C affects binding ISO fluvalinate binds to RORC protein CTD PMID:32278787 NCBI chr 2:195,612,471...195,636,797
Ensembl chr 2:195,617,021...195,637,630
JBrowse link
L-isoleucine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Egf epidermal growth factor multiple interactions EXP [bafilomycin A1 co-treated with EGF protein] results in decreased abundance of Isoleucine; Cycloheximide inhibits the reaction [[bafilomycin A1 co-treated with EGF protein] results in decreased abundance of Isoleucine] CTD PMID:22689575 NCBI chr 2:68,820,616...68,895,537 JBrowse link
L-leucine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Atg5 autophagy related 5 multiple interactions ISO Leucine inhibits the reaction [alpinetin promotes the reaction [Dextran Sulfate results in increased expression of ATG5 mRNA]] CTD PMID:31676321 NCBI chr20:49,301,783...49,393,147
Ensembl chr20:49,318,308...49,393,140
JBrowse link
G Atg7 autophagy related 7 multiple interactions ISO Leucine inhibits the reaction [alpinetin promotes the reaction [Dextran Sulfate results in increased expression of ATG7 mRNA]] CTD PMID:31676321 NCBI chr 4:146,570,113...146,777,093
Ensembl chr 4:146,598,413...146,777,124
JBrowse link
G Becn1 beclin 1 multiple interactions ISO Leucine inhibits the reaction [[Dextran Sulfate co-treated with alpinetin] results in increased expression of BECN1 protein] CTD PMID:31676321 NCBI chr10:89,209,944...89,225,297
Ensembl chr10:89,209,940...89,225,297
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions ISO Leucine inhibits the reaction [alpinetin inhibits the reaction [Dextran Sulfate results in increased cleavage of CASP3 protein]] CTD PMID:31676321 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Egf epidermal growth factor multiple interactions EXP [bafilomycin A1 co-treated with EGF protein] results in decreased abundance of Leucine; Cycloheximide inhibits the reaction [[bafilomycin A1 co-treated with EGF protein] results in decreased abundance of Leucine] CTD PMID:22689575 NCBI chr 2:68,820,616...68,895,537 JBrowse link
G Map1lc3b microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta multiple interactions ISO Leucine inhibits the reaction [[Dextran Sulfate co-treated with alpinetin] results in increased expression of and results in increased lipidation of MAP1LC3B protein] CTD PMID:31676321 NCBI chr19:53,635,449...53,643,970
Ensembl chr19:53,629,779...53,646,058
JBrowse link
G Mpo myeloperoxidase multiple interactions ISO Leucine inhibits the reaction [alpinetin inhibits the reaction [Dextran Sulfate results in increased activity of MPO protein]] CTD PMID:31676321 NCBI chr10:75,087,892...75,098,260
Ensembl chr10:75,087,892...75,098,260
JBrowse link
G Sqstm1 sequestosome 1 multiple interactions ISO Leucine inhibits the reaction [[Dextran Sulfate co-treated with alpinetin] results in decreased expression of SQSTM1 protein] CTD PMID:31676321 NCBI chr10:35,704,728...35,716,316
Ensembl chr10:35,704,730...35,716,294
JBrowse link
orlistat term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Abhd12 abhydrolase domain containing 12, lysophospholipase decreases activity ISO orlistat results in decreased activity of ABHD12 protein CTD PMID:18657971 NCBI chr 3:146,630,298...146,690,375
Ensembl chr 3:146,630,299...146,690,375
JBrowse link
G Abhd16a abhydrolase domain containing 16A, phospholipase decreases activity ISO orlistat results in decreased activity of ABHD16A protein CTD PMID:18657971 NCBI chr20:5,080,070...5,094,935
Ensembl chr20:5,080,070...5,094,935
JBrowse link
G Acot8 acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of ACOT8 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 3:161,260,837...161,272,495
Ensembl chr 3:161,259,735...161,272,460
JBrowse link
G Adipoq adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing multiple interactions EXP orlistat inhibits the reaction [Dietary Fats results in decreased expression of ADIPOQ protein] CTD PMID:25087745 NCBI chr11:81,330,845...81,344,488
Ensembl chr11:81,330,293...81,344,488
JBrowse link
G Atf4 activating transcription factor 4 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of ATF4 mRNA CTD PMID:17283163 NCBI chr 7:121,480,723...121,482,781
Ensembl chr 7:121,480,723...121,482,772
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 increases activity
increases cleavage
ISO orlistat results in increased activity of CASP3 protein
orlistat results in increased cleavage of CASP3 protein
CTD PMID:17283163, PMID:20805790, PMID:21723078 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Casp8 caspase 8 multiple interactions ISO orlistat analog results in increased cleavage of and results in increased activity of CASP8 protein; orlistat results in increased cleavage of and results in increased activity of CASP8 protein CTD PMID:18796435, PMID:20577697 NCBI chr 9:65,614,142...65,662,624
Ensembl chr 9:65,614,142...65,662,106
JBrowse link
G Casp9 caspase 9 increases activity ISO orlistat results in increased activity of CASP9 protein CTD PMID:20805790 NCBI chr 5:160,356,211...160,373,774
Ensembl chr 5:160,355,833...160,373,778
JBrowse link
G Cat catalase multiple interactions
decreases expression
EXP
ISO
orlistat inhibits the reaction [Dietary Fats results in decreased activity of CAT protein]
Orlistat results in decreased expression of CAT protein
CTD PMID:25087745, PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 3:93,379,872...93,412,058
Ensembl chr 3:93,379,874...93,412,058
JBrowse link
G Cck cholecystokinin multiple interactions
decreases secretion
ISO [[orlistat results in decreased abundance of Fatty Acids, Nonesterified] which results in decreased secretion of CCK protein] which results in decreased secretion of PNLIP protein; orlistat inhibits the reaction [Fats results in increased secretion of CCK protein]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [Olive Oil results in increased secretion of CCK protein]
orlistat results in decreased secretion of CCK protein
CTD PMID:11408251, PMID:18303078, PMID:18647814 NCBI chr 8:130,120,525...130,127,515
Ensembl chr 8:130,120,523...130,127,392
JBrowse link
G Ccna2 cyclin A2 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of CCNA2 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 2:123,274,727...123,282,266
Ensembl chr 2:123,275,881...123,282,214
JBrowse link
G Ccnd1 cyclin D1 increases expression ISO Orlistat results in increased expression of CCND1 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 1:218,090,750...218,100,447
Ensembl chr 1:218,090,750...218,100,325
JBrowse link
G Ccne1 cyclin E1 increases expression ISO Orlistat results in increased expression of CCNE1 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 1:94,485,830...94,495,112
Ensembl chr 1:94,485,832...94,494,980
JBrowse link
G Cdk1 cyclin-dependent kinase 1 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of CDK1 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr20:20,576,341...20,591,510
Ensembl chr20:20,576,377...20,591,549
JBrowse link
G Cdk2 cyclin dependent kinase 2 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of CDK2 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 7:3,124,953...3,132,533
Ensembl chr 7:3,124,954...3,132,457
JBrowse link
G Cdk4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of CDK4 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 7:70,345,971...70,352,689
Ensembl chr 7:70,349,863...70,352,418
JBrowse link
G Cdkn1a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A increases expression ISO Orlistat results in increased expression of CDKN1A protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr20:6,348,422...6,358,864
Ensembl chr20:6,351,458...6,358,864
JBrowse link
G Cdkn1b cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of CDKN1B protein CTD PMID:15138278 NCBI chr 4:168,689,043...168,694,159
Ensembl chr 4:168,689,163...168,693,964
JBrowse link
G Cel carboxyl ester lipase decreases activity ISO orlistat results in decreased activity of CEL protein CTD PMID:11592731, PMID:12381337 NCBI chr 3:7,134,021...7,141,522
Ensembl chr 3:7,134,021...7,141,522
JBrowse link
G Clps colipase multiple interactions ISO orlistat inhibits the reaction [[PNLIP protein co-treated with CLPS protein] results in increased hydrolysis of Olive Oil] CTD PMID:15158758 NCBI chr20:5,803,447...5,806,107
Ensembl chr20:5,803,383...5,806,097
JBrowse link
G Cpb2 carboxypeptidase B2 decreases expression ISO orlistat results in decreased expression of CPB2 protein CTD PMID:16959692 NCBI chr15:57,290,849...57,339,762
Ensembl chr15:57,290,849...57,339,760
JBrowse link
G Cpt1a carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of CPT1A protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 1:218,568,157...218,629,679
Ensembl chr 1:218,569,510...218,629,678
JBrowse link
G Cpt2 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of CPT2 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 5:127,505,646...127,523,016
Ensembl chr 5:127,505,614...127,523,089
JBrowse link
G Dagla diacylglycerol lipase, alpha decreases activity ISO orlistat results in decreased activity of DAGLA protein CTD PMID:16466961 NCBI chr 1:226,297,013...226,353,712
Ensembl chr 1:226,297,016...226,353,611
JBrowse link
G Ddit3 DNA-damage inducible transcript 3 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of DDIT3 mRNA CTD PMID:17283163 NCBI chr 7:70,578,564...70,585,074
Ensembl chr 7:70,580,198...70,585,084
JBrowse link
G Ddit4 DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of DDIT4 mRNA CTD PMID:18796435 NCBI chr20:29,509,283...29,511,382
Ensembl chr20:29,509,289...29,511,382
JBrowse link
G Eif2a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A increases phosphorylation
multiple interactions
ISO orlistat results in increased phosphorylation of EIF2A protein
orlistat promotes the reaction [EIF2AK3 protein results in increased phosphorylation of EIF2A protein]
Cycloheximide inhibits the reaction [orlistat results in increased phosphorylation of EIF2A protein]
orlistat analog results in increased phosphorylation of EIF2A protein; orlistat results in increased phosphorylation of EIF2A protein
CTD PMID:17283163, PMID:20577697 NCBI chr 2:148,722,343...148,755,781
Ensembl chr 2:148,722,231...148,755,520
JBrowse link
G Eif2ak3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 increases response to substance
multiple interactions
ISO EIF2AK3 gene mutant form results in increased susceptibility to orlistat
orlistat promotes the reaction [EIF2AK3 protein results in increased phosphorylation of EIF2A protein]
CTD PMID:17283163 NCBI chr 4:98,648,513...98,709,695
Ensembl chr 4:98,648,545...98,709,694
JBrowse link
G Eif4e eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E increases phosphorylation ISO orlistat results in increased phosphorylation of EIF4E protein CTD PMID:18796435 NCBI chr 2:243,819,616...243,853,987
Ensembl chr 2:243,820,661...243,852,631
JBrowse link
G Erbb2 erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 affects response to substance
affects localization
decreases expression
ISO ERBB2 protein affects the susceptibility to orlistat
orlistat affects the localization of ERBB2 protein
orlistat results in decreased expression of ERBB2 mRNA; orlistat results in decreased expression of ERBB2 protein
CTD PMID:15870086 NCBI chr10:86,367,596...86,391,728
Ensembl chr10:86,367,596...86,391,728
JBrowse link
G Ern1 endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 multiple interactions ISO orlistat affects the reaction [ERN1 protein affects the splicing of XBP1 mRNA] CTD PMID:17283163 NCBI chr10:94,588,555...94,682,072
Ensembl chr10:94,588,555...94,681,914
JBrowse link
G Etv4 ETS variant transcription factor 4 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of ETV4 protein CTD PMID:15870086 NCBI chr10:89,685,058...89,700,300
Ensembl chr10:89,685,058...89,700,283
JBrowse link
G Fabp1 fatty acid binding protein 1 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of FABP1 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 4:99,063,181...99,066,957
Ensembl chr 4:99,063,181...99,066,954
JBrowse link
G Fasn fatty acid synthase affects binding
decreases expression
decreases activity
multiple interactions
affects response to substance
ISO orlistat analog binds to FASN protein
Orlistat results in decreased expression of FASN protein
orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein
[orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein] which affects the abundance of Fatty Acids, Nonesterified; orlistat inhibits the reaction [FASN protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Palmitic Acid]
orlistat analog results in decreased activity of FASN protein; orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein
[orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein] which results in decreased abundance of Fatty Acids; [orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein] which results in decreased abundance of Phosphatidylcholines; [orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein] which results in decreased abundance of Phosphorylcholine; [orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein] which results in decreased chemical synthesis of Fatty Acids; [orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein] which results in decreased expression of SKP2 protein; orlistat binds to and results in decreased activity of FASN protein; orlistat inhibits the reaction [FASN protein results in decreased susceptibility to Doxorubicin]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [FASN protein results in decreased susceptibility to Mitoxantrone]
FASN protein affects the susceptibility to orlistat
CTD PMID:15026345, PMID:15138278, PMID:15870086, PMID:17012255, PMID:17618296, PMID:17847090, PMID:18281512, PMID:18710210, PMID:18723500, PMID:20148945, PMID:20577697, PMID:21213365, PMID:30667213 NCBI chr10:109,987,735...110,005,901
Ensembl chr10:109,987,735...110,005,901
JBrowse link
G Gcg glucagon multiple interactions
decreases secretion
decreases expression
ISO orlistat inhibits the reaction [Dietary Fats results in increased secretion of GCG protein]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [Olive Oil results in increased secretion of GCG protein]
orlistat results in decreased secretion of GCG protein
orlistat results in decreased expression of GCG protein
CTD PMID:12915676, PMID:18647814, PMID:19837920 NCBI chr 3:48,442,635...48,451,650
Ensembl chr 3:48,442,635...48,451,650
JBrowse link
G Ghrl ghrelin and obestatin prepropeptide multiple interactions ISO orlistat inhibits the reaction [Olive Oil results in decreased expression of GHRL protein]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [Triglycerides results in decreased secretion of GHRL protein] CTD PMID:15998659, PMID:17138722 NCBI chr 4:145,674,157...145,678,066
Ensembl chr 4:145,674,157...145,678,066
JBrowse link
G Gip gastric inhibitory polypeptide decreases expression ISO orlistat results in decreased expression of GIP protein CTD PMID:12915676 NCBI chr10:83,835,080...83,848,399
Ensembl chr10:83,840,303...83,848,396
JBrowse link
G Gpt glutamic--pyruvic transaminase multiple interactions EXP orlistat inhibits the reaction [[Corn Oil co-treated with (5'-(4-amino-7,7-dimethyl-2-trifluoromethyl-7H-pyrimido(4,5-b)(1,4)oxazin-6-yl)-2',3'-dihydrospiro(cyclohexane-1,1'-inden)-4-yl)acetic acid] results in increased activity of GPT protein] CTD PMID:29479035 NCBI chr 7:117,759,083...117,761,932
Ensembl chr 7:117,759,083...117,761,931
JBrowse link
G Gpx8 glutathione peroxidase 8 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of GPX8 mRNA CTD PMID:18796435 NCBI chr 2:44,903,337...44,907,046
Ensembl chr 2:44,903,337...44,907,030
JBrowse link
G Hba-a2 hemoglobin alpha, adult chain 2 decreases expression ISO orlistat results in decreased expression of HBA1 protein modified form CTD PMID:19207292, PMID:19461584 NCBI chr10:15,589,364...15,590,207
Ensembl chr10:15,589,364...15,590,220
JBrowse link
G Hmgcr 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase multiple interactions EXP orlistat inhibits the reaction [Dietary Fats results in increased expression of HMGCR protein] CTD PMID:25087745 NCBI chr 2:27,480,224...27,500,654
Ensembl chr 2:27,480,226...27,500,654
JBrowse link
G Hspa5 heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of HSPA5 mRNA CTD PMID:17283163 NCBI chr 3:13,838,304...13,842,763
Ensembl chr 3:13,838,304...13,842,762
JBrowse link
G Il6 interleukin 6 multiple interactions ISO orlistat inhibits the reaction [Lipopolysaccharides results in increased expression of IL6 mRNA] CTD PMID:21088047 NCBI chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
Ensembl chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
JBrowse link
G Ins2 insulin 2 decreases expression
affects expression
increases expression
ISO orlistat results in decreased expression of INS protein
orlistat affects the expression of INS protein
orlistat results in increased expression of INS protein
CTD PMID:10095983, PMID:11274935, PMID:12915676 NCBI chr 1:215,856,967...215,858,034
Ensembl chr 1:215,856,971...215,858,034
JBrowse link
G Kdelr3 KDEL endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 3 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of KDELR3 mRNA CTD PMID:18796435 NCBI chr 7:120,749,680...120,760,163
Ensembl chr 7:120,749,752...120,760,160
JBrowse link
G Kdr kinase insert domain receptor decreases expression ISO orlistat results in decreased expression of KDR protein CTD PMID:17012255 NCBI chr14:34,727,677...34,787,127
Ensembl chr14:34,727,623...34,787,183
JBrowse link
G Krt81 keratin 81 increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of KRT81 mRNA CTD PMID:18796435 NCBI chr 7:143,107,901...143,113,006
Ensembl chr 7:143,107,901...143,112,960
JBrowse link
G Lcat lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase multiple interactions EXP orlistat inhibits the reaction [Dietary Fats results in decreased expression of LCAT protein] CTD PMID:25087745 NCBI chr19:37,913,333...37,916,799
Ensembl chr19:37,913,336...37,916,813
JBrowse link
G Lep leptin multiple interactions ISO
EXP
orlistat inhibits the reaction [Dietary Fats results in increased expression of LEP protein] CTD PMID:21332399, PMID:25087745 NCBI chr 4:56,337,695...56,351,818
Ensembl chr 4:56,337,695...56,351,818
JBrowse link
G Lipf lipase F, gastric type decreases activity ISO orlistat results in decreased activity of LIPF protein CTD PMID:11408251, PMID:12381337 NCBI chr 1:252,284,464...252,302,811
Ensembl chr 1:252,284,464...252,302,811
JBrowse link
G Lpl lipoprotein lipase decreases activity
multiple interactions
ISO
EXP
orlistat results in decreased activity of LPL protein
[orlistat results in decreased activity of LPL protein] which affects the uptake of Triglycerides
orlistat inhibits the reaction [[LPL protein results in increased hydrolysis of Triglycerides] which results in increased uptake of Triglycerides]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [LPL protein results in decreased activity of TNF protein]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [very low density lipoprotein triglyceride results in increased activity of LPL protein]
orlistat inhibits the reaction [Dietary Fats results in decreased expression of LPL protein]
CTD PMID:12388125, PMID:12573449, PMID:15910848, PMID:15994321, PMID:18698144, PMID:25087745 NCBI chr16:22,537,687...22,561,487
Ensembl chr16:22,537,056...22,561,496
JBrowse link
G Napepld N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D decreases activity EXP orlistat results in decreased activity of NAPEPLD protein CTD PMID:16466961 NCBI chr 4:9,965,323...10,004,650
Ensembl chr 4:9,966,891...10,002,247
JBrowse link
G Npy neuropeptide Y increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of NPY protein CTD PMID:15962606 NCBI chr 4:79,557,856...79,565,059
Ensembl chr 4:79,557,854...79,565,097
JBrowse link
G Nr1i2 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 increases activity ISO orlistat results in increased activity of NR1I2 protein CTD PMID:20599501 NCBI chr11:65,022,100...65,058,546
Ensembl chr11:65,022,100...65,058,545
JBrowse link
G Nr1i3 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 multiple interactions ISO Orlistat binds to and results in increased activity of NR1I3 protein alternative form CTD PMID:31312845 NCBI chr13:89,585,072...89,591,278
Ensembl chr13:89,586,283...89,591,277
JBrowse link
G Nts neurotensin multiple interactions ISO Orlistat inhibits the reaction [Fats results in increased secretion of NTS protein]; Orlistat inhibits the reaction [Olive Oil results in increased secretion of NTS protein] CTD PMID:18303078 NCBI chr 7:44,111,594...44,120,998
Ensembl chr 7:44,111,151...44,121,130
JBrowse link
G Parp1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 multiple interactions
increases cleavage
ISO [orlistat co-treated with Thapsigargin] results in increased cleavage of PARP1 protein
orlistat results in increased cleavage of PARP1 protein
CTD PMID:15870086, PMID:17283163 NCBI chr13:98,857,255...98,889,444
Ensembl chr13:98,857,177...98,889,716
JBrowse link
G Pla2g7 phospholipase A2 group VII decreases activity
multiple interactions
ISO orlistat results in decreased activity of PLA2G7 protein
[orlistat co-treated with Ezetimibe] results in decreased activity of PLA2G7 protein; [orlistat co-treated with Fenofibrate] results in decreased activity of PLA2G7 protein
CTD PMID:16911813, PMID:18513463, PMID:18657971 NCBI chr 9:19,935,754...19,978,013
Ensembl chr 9:19,935,768...19,978,013
JBrowse link
G Pnlip pancreatic lipase decreases secretion
multiple interactions
affects folding
decreases activity
ISO
EXP
orlistat results in decreased secretion of PNLIP protein
[[orlistat results in decreased abundance of Fatty Acids, Nonesterified] which results in decreased secretion of CCK protein] which results in decreased secretion of PNLIP protein; orlistat inhibits the reaction [[PNLIP protein co-treated with CLPS protein] results in increased hydrolysis of Olive Oil]
orlistat affects the folding of PNLIP protein
orlistat inhibits the reaction [Taurocholic Acid results in increased activity of PNLIP protein]
orlistat results in decreased activity of PNLIP protein
CTD PMID:11408251, PMID:11668201, PMID:12381337, PMID:15158758, PMID:19346257 NCBI chr 1:279,798,187...279,811,372
Ensembl chr 1:279,798,187...279,811,372
JBrowse link
G Pnliprp2 pancreatic lipase related protein 2 decreases activity ISO
EXP
orlistat results in decreased activity of PNLIPRP2 protein
Orlistat results in decreased activity of PNLIPRP2 protein
CTD PMID:9822688, PMID:17401110 NCBI chr 1:279,896,973...279,927,600
Ensembl chr 1:279,896,973...279,927,600
JBrowse link
G Pon1 paraoxonase 1 increases activity ISO orlistat results in increased activity of PON1 protein CTD PMID:11820148, PMID:17134960 NCBI chr 4:30,249,749...30,276,297
Ensembl chr 4:30,249,742...30,276,372
JBrowse link
G Ppt1 palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 decreases expression ISO Orlistat results in decreased expression of PPT1 protein CTD PMID:30667213 NCBI chr 5:140,538,260...140,558,163
Ensembl chr 5:140,538,260...140,558,162
JBrowse link
G Ppy pancreatic polypeptide multiple interactions ISO orlistat inhibits the reaction [Triglycerides results in increased secretion of PPY protein] CTD PMID:15998659 NCBI chr10:90,041,582...90,043,316
Ensembl chr10:90,041,591...90,042,877
JBrowse link
G Prkaa1 protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 1 multiple interactions EXP
ISO
orlistat inhibits the reaction [Isoproterenol results in increased phosphorylation of PRKAA1 protein]
orlistat inhibits the reaction [1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine results in increased phosphorylation of and results in increased activity of PRKAA1 protein]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [Isoproterenol results in increased phosphorylation of and results in increased activity of PRKAA1 protein]
CTD PMID:18390901, PMID:19167487 NCBI chr 2:54,857,688...54,893,404
Ensembl chr 2:54,857,688...54,893,404
JBrowse link
G Pyy peptide YY decreases secretion
multiple interactions
ISO orlistat results in decreased secretion of PYY protein
orlistat inhibits the reaction [Olive Oil results in increased expression of PYY protein]; orlistat inhibits the reaction [Triglycerides results in increased secretion of PYY protein]
CTD PMID:15998659, PMID:17138722, PMID:18647814 NCBI chr10:90,047,989...90,049,155
Ensembl chr10:90,047,993...90,049,112
JBrowse link
G Rb1 RB transcriptional corepressor 1 decreases phosphorylation ISO orlistat results in decreased phosphorylation of RB1 protein CTD PMID:15138278 NCBI chr15:55,081,582...55,209,060
Ensembl chr15:55,083,140...55,209,342
JBrowse link
G Sec24d SEC24 homolog D, COPII coat complex component increases expression ISO orlistat results in increased expression of SEC24D mRNA CTD PMID:18796435 NCBI chr 2:227,455,704...227,562,801
Ensembl chr 2:227,455,722...227,562,319
JBrowse link
G Skp2 S-phase kinase associated protein 2 multiple interactions
decreases expression
ISO [orlistat results in decreased activity of FASN protein] which results in decreased expression of SKP2 protein
orlistat results in decreased expression of SKP2 protein
CTD PMID:15138278 NCBI chr 2:58,506,146...58,534,211
Ensembl chr 2:58,506,151...58,534,211
JBrowse link
G Slc22a2 solute carrier family 22 member 2 multiple interactions ISO orlistat inhibits the reaction [SLC22A2 protein results in increased uptake of 4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium] CTD PMID:21599003 NCBI chr 1:48,318,025...48,360,219
Ensembl chr 1:48,317,995...48,360,261
JBrowse link
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor multiple interactions ISO orlistat inhibits the reaction [LPL protein results in decreased activity of TNF protein] CTD PMID:15994321 NCBI chr20:5,189,382...5,192,000
Ensembl chr20:5,189,390...5,192,000
JBrowse link
G Tnfsf10 TNF superfamily member 10 increases response to substance ISO orlistat results in increased susceptibility to TNFSF10 protein CTD PMID:18796435, PMID:21406729 NCBI chr 2:113,008,008...113,026,899
Ensembl chr 2:113,007,549...113,026,899
JBrowse link
G Xbp1 X-box binding protein 1 multiple interactions ISO orlistat affects the reaction [ERN1 protein affects the splicing of XBP1 mRNA] CTD PMID:17283163 NCBI chr14:85,753,736...85,758,820
Ensembl chr14:85,753,760...85,758,145
JBrowse link
ritonavir term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Abcb11 ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 11 decreases activity
multiple interactions
ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of ABCB11 protein
Ritonavir inhibits the reaction [ABCB11 protein results in increased transport of Taurocholic Acid]
CTD PMID:20829430, PMID:22646477, PMID:23956101, PMID:24014644, PMID:28437613 NCBI chr 3:55,480,024...55,587,946
Ensembl chr 3:55,480,024...55,587,946
JBrowse link
G Abcb1a ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1A multiple interactions ISO hyperforin inhibits the reaction [ABCB1 protein results in increased secretion of Ritonavir]; hypericin inhibits the reaction [ABCB1 protein results in increased secretion of Ritonavir]; kaempferol inhibits the reaction [ABCB1 protein results in increased secretion of Ritonavir]; Quercetin inhibits the reaction [ABCB1 protein results in increased secretion of Ritonavir] CTD PMID:15266218 NCBI chr 4:22,339,829...22,517,642
Ensembl chr 4:22,133,521...22,425,515
JBrowse link
G Abcb4 ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 4 decreases expression
decreases activity
ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of ABCB4
Ritonavir results in decreased activity of ABCB4 protein
CTD PMID:26626330, PMID:28437613 NCBI chr 4:22,133,984...22,192,687
Ensembl chr 4:22,133,521...22,425,515
JBrowse link
G Acss2 acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 affects expression EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of ACSS2 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 3:151,032,925...151,075,856
Ensembl chr 3:151,032,952...151,075,856
JBrowse link
G Adipoq adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing decreases expression
multiple interactions
ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of ADIPOQ mRNA; Ritonavir results in decreased expression of ADIPOQ protein
rosiglitazone inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in decreased secretion of ADIPOQ protein]
diphenyleneiodonium inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in decreased expression of ADIPOQ protein]
CTD PMID:15865214, PMID:17668557 NCBI chr11:81,330,845...81,344,488
Ensembl chr11:81,330,293...81,344,488
JBrowse link
G Alb albumin affects binding ISO Ritonavir binds to ALB protein CTD PMID:15814459, PMID:16336266 NCBI chr14:19,176,275...19,191,793
Ensembl chr14:19,176,277...19,191,863
JBrowse link
G Bak1 BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of BAK1 protein CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr20:5,609,620...5,618,899
Ensembl chr20:5,609,625...5,618,260
JBrowse link
G Bcl2 BCL2, apoptosis regulator decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of BCL2 protein CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
Ensembl chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
JBrowse link
G Bcl2l1 Bcl2-like 1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of BCL2L1 mRNA CTD PMID:16174765 NCBI chr 3:148,259,594...148,314,191
Ensembl chr 3:148,259,596...148,313,810
JBrowse link
G Birc5 baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of BIRC5 mRNA; Ritonavir results in decreased expression of BIRC5 protein CTD PMID:16174765, PMID:21270666 NCBI chr10:106,856,097...106,864,419
Ensembl chr10:106,856,097...106,864,413
JBrowse link
G Casp1 caspase 1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CASP1 protein CTD PMID:10551732 NCBI chr 8:2,605,743...2,614,637
Ensembl chr 8:2,604,962...2,614,631
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 decreases activity ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of CASP3 protein CTD PMID:10551732 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Ccl2 C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 multiple interactions
increases expression
increases secretion
decreases expression
ISO diphenyleneiodonium inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of CCL2 protein]; Pravastatin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased secretion of CCL2 protein]
Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCL2
CTD PMID:17668557, PMID:20884875, PMID:26626330 NCBI chr10:69,412,065...69,413,863
Ensembl chr10:69,412,017...69,413,870
JBrowse link
G Ccl20 C-C motif chemokine ligand 20 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCL20 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 9:88,918,359...88,921,017
Ensembl chr 9:88,918,433...88,921,001
JBrowse link
G Ccl3 C-C motif chemokine ligand 3 decreases expression
increases expression
ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCL3
Ritonavir results in increased expression of CCL3 protein
CTD PMID:17668557, PMID:26626330 NCBI chr10:70,869,516...70,871,066
Ensembl chr10:70,869,513...70,871,066
JBrowse link
G Ccl4 C-C motif chemokine ligand 4 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCL4 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr10:70,870,926...70,886,357
Ensembl chr10:70,884,531...70,886,355
JBrowse link
G Ccna2 cyclin A2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCNA2 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 2:123,274,727...123,282,266
Ensembl chr 2:123,275,881...123,282,214
JBrowse link
G Ccnb1 cyclin B1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCNB1 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 2:30,782,133...30,791,106
Ensembl chr 2:30,783,915...30,791,221
JBrowse link
G Ccnd1 cyclin D1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCND1 protein CTD PMID:16551874, PMID:21270666 NCBI chr 1:218,090,750...218,100,447
Ensembl chr 1:218,090,750...218,100,325
JBrowse link
G Ccnd2 cyclin D2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCND2 mRNA CTD PMID:16174765, PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 4:159,674,885...159,697,207
Ensembl chr 4:159,674,885...159,697,207
JBrowse link
G Ccne2 cyclin E2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CCNE2 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 5:24,434,077...24,446,406
Ensembl chr 5:24,434,872...24,446,406
JBrowse link
G Cdk2 cyclin dependent kinase 2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CDK2 mRNA; Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CDK2 protein CTD PMID:16551874, PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 7:3,124,953...3,132,533
Ensembl chr 7:3,124,954...3,132,457
JBrowse link
G Cdk4 cyclin-dependent kinase 4 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CDK4 mRNA; Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CDK4 protein CTD PMID:16551874, PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 7:70,345,971...70,352,689
Ensembl chr 7:70,349,863...70,352,418
JBrowse link
G Cdk5 cyclin-dependent kinase 5 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CDK5 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 4:7,282,945...7,287,427
Ensembl chr 4:7,282,948...7,288,383
JBrowse link
G Cdk6 cyclin-dependent kinase 6 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CDK6 mRNA; Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CDK6 protein CTD PMID:16551874, PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 4:27,781,728...27,969,653
Ensembl chr 4:27,785,647...27,966,398
JBrowse link
G Cdkn1a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A increases expression
multiple interactions
ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of CDKN1A mRNA; Ritonavir results in increased expression of CDKN1A protein
manganese(III)-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of CDKN1A protein]
CTD PMID:19386116, PMID:20884875 NCBI chr20:6,348,422...6,358,864
Ensembl chr20:6,351,458...6,358,864
JBrowse link
G Cdkn1b cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of CDKN1B mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 4:168,689,043...168,694,159
Ensembl chr 4:168,689,163...168,693,964
JBrowse link
G Cdkn2b cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of CDKN2B mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 5:107,834,353...107,857,428
Ensembl chr 5:107,845,951...107,858,104
JBrowse link
G Cebpa CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha multiple interactions ISO Ritonavir inhibits the reaction [[INS1 protein co-treated with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine co-treated with Dexamethasone] results in increased expression of CEBPA protein] CTD PMID:11101056 NCBI chr 1:91,363,492...91,366,164
Ensembl chr 1:91,363,492...91,366,164
JBrowse link
G Ciita class II, major histocompatibility complex, transactivator increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of CIITA CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr10:5,212,621...5,260,641
Ensembl chr10:5,213,350...5,260,608
JBrowse link
G Crot carnitine O-octanoyltransferase decreases expression EXP Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CROT mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 4:22,079,837...22,116,265
Ensembl chr 4:22,081,604...22,116,265
JBrowse link
G Cxcl1 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CXCL1 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr14:18,743,678...18,745,457
Ensembl chr14:18,743,685...18,745,457
JBrowse link
G Cxcl10 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CXCL10 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr14:17,210,733...17,212,930
Ensembl chr14:17,210,733...17,212,930
JBrowse link
G Cxcl12 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CXCL12 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 4:149,261,044...149,273,891
Ensembl chr 4:149,261,044...149,273,891
JBrowse link
G Cxcl2 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CXCL2 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr14:18,731,346...18,733,391
Ensembl chr14:18,731,378...18,733,391
JBrowse link
G Cxcl3 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 3 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CXCL1 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr14:18,820,168...18,839,659
Ensembl chr14:18,820,168...18,839,595
JBrowse link
G Cxcl6 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 6 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CXCL6 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr14:18,860,201...18,920,839
Ensembl chr14:18,860,264...18,862,407
JBrowse link
G Cyb5r3 cytochrome b5 reductase 3 affects expression EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of CYB5R3 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 7:124,024,003...124,041,564
Ensembl chr 7:124,023,995...124,041,594
JBrowse link
G Cyp1a1 cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of CYP1A1 mRNA CTD PMID:11918509 NCBI chr 8:62,472,087...62,478,122
Ensembl chr 8:62,472,095...62,478,147
JBrowse link
G Cyp1a2 cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily a, polypeptide 2 increases expression
decreases expression
ISO
EXP
Ritonavir results in increased expression of CYP1A2 mRNA
Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CYP1A2 mRNA
CTD PMID:11918509, PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 8:62,451,360...62,458,244
Ensembl chr 8:62,451,329...62,458,301
JBrowse link
G Cyp2b3 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily b, polypeptide 3 increases activity
increases expression
ISO Ritonavir results in increased activity of CYP2B6 protein
Ritonavir results in increased expression of CYP2B6 protein
CTD PMID:14977870, PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 1:83,163,103...83,236,615
Ensembl chr 1:83,163,079...83,236,615
JBrowse link
G Cyp2c6v1 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 6, variant 1 increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of CYP2C19 mRNA CTD PMID:11918509 NCBI chr 1:147,713,879...147,814,410
Ensembl chr 1:147,713,892...147,888,007
JBrowse link
G Cyp2c79 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily c, polypeptide 79 decreases activity ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of CYP2C8 protein CTD PMID:15601807 NCBI chr 1:147,236,480...147,307,988 JBrowse link
G Cyp2d4 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily d, polypeptide 4 affects metabolic processing ISO CYP2D6 protein affects the metabolism of Ritonavir CTD PMID:15286053 NCBI chr 7:123,599,264...123,608,436
Ensembl chr 7:123,599,266...123,608,436
JBrowse link
G Cyp3a23-3a1 cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily a, polypeptide 23-polypeptide 1 increases expression EXP Ritonavir results in increased expression of CYP3A23-3A1 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr12:11,053,888...11,082,742
Ensembl chr12:11,655,402...11,733,136
JBrowse link
G Cyp3a9 cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily a, polypeptide 9 decreases activity ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of CYP3A5 protein CTD PMID:15523003 NCBI chr12:19,074,288...19,114,491
Ensembl chr12:19,074,583...19,114,399
JBrowse link
G Cyp4a3 cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily a, polypeptide 3 decreases expression EXP Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CYP4A3 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 5:134,468,666...134,484,851
Ensembl chr 5:134,469,270...134,484,839
JBrowse link
G Cyp4b1 cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily b, polypeptide 1 affects expression
decreases expression
EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of CYP4B1 mRNA
Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CYP4B1 mRNA
CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 5:134,508,728...134,526,103
Ensembl chr 5:134,508,730...134,526,089
JBrowse link
G Cyp51 cytochrome P450, family 51 increases expression EXP Ritonavir results in increased expression of CYP51 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 4:27,175,564...27,194,018
Ensembl chr 4:27,175,243...27,194,018
JBrowse link
G Cyp7a1 cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1 decreases expression ISO
EXP
Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CYP7A1 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200, PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 5:19,358,734...19,368,431
Ensembl chr 5:19,358,734...19,368,431
JBrowse link
G Cyp8b1 cytochrome P450 family 8 subfamily B member 1 decreases expression ISO
EXP
Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CYP8B1
Ritonavir results in decreased expression of CYP8B1 mRNA
CTD PMID:17719200, PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 8:130,548,418...130,550,388
Ensembl chr 8:130,548,418...130,550,388
JBrowse link
G Dhcr7 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase affects expression EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of DHCR7 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 1:217,018,916...217,034,890
Ensembl chr 1:217,018,916...217,034,904
JBrowse link
G E2f1 E2F transcription factor 1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of E2F1 mRNA; Ritonavir results in decreased expression of E2F1 protein CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 3:150,062,895...150,073,721
Ensembl chr 3:150,047,826...150,073,721
JBrowse link
G E2f2 E2F transcription factor 2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of E2F2 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 5:154,516,611...154,540,228
Ensembl chr 5:154,522,119...154,540,265
JBrowse link
G E2f3 E2F transcription factor 3 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of E2F3 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr17:36,334,136...36,408,831
Ensembl chr17:36,334,147...36,408,831
JBrowse link
G Ehhadh enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase affects expression EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of EHHADH mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr11:82,945,104...82,978,364
Ensembl chr11:82,945,104...82,978,364
JBrowse link
G Esr1 estrogen receptor 1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of ESR1 protein CTD PMID:16551874 NCBI chr 1:41,192,029...41,594,799
Ensembl chr 1:41,192,824...41,594,796
JBrowse link
G Faslg Fas ligand decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of FASLG protein CTD PMID:10551732 NCBI chr13:79,696,811...79,717,581
Ensembl chr13:79,698,445...79,705,705
JBrowse link
G Fasn fatty acid synthase affects expression EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of FASN mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr10:109,987,735...110,005,901
Ensembl chr10:109,987,735...110,005,901
JBrowse link
G Fgf19 fibroblast growth factor 19 increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of FGF19 mRNA CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 1:218,058,405...218,061,693
Ensembl chr 1:218,058,405...218,061,693
JBrowse link
G Fos Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of FOS protein CTD PMID:15504750 NCBI chr 6:109,300,433...109,303,299
Ensembl chr 6:109,300,433...109,303,299
JBrowse link
G Glb1 galactosidase, beta 1 multiple interactions
increases activity
ISO Acetylcysteine inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased activity of GLB1 protein]; FTI 277 inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased activity of GLB1 protein]; manganese(III)-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased activity of GLB1 protein]; Pravastatin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased activity of GLB1 protein] CTD PMID:20884875 NCBI chr 8:122,439,328...122,511,939
Ensembl chr 8:122,439,328...122,511,939
JBrowse link
G Gpd1 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 multiple interactions ISO Ritonavir promotes the reaction [[INS1 protein co-treated with Dexamethasone co-treated with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine] results in increased expression of GPD1 protein] CTD PMID:11101056 NCBI chr 7:141,368,928...141,377,931
Ensembl chr 7:141,370,491...141,377,928
JBrowse link
G Hmox1 heme oxygenase 1 multiple interactions
increases expression
ISO 4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)imidazole inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein]; Acetylcysteine inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA]; Acetylcysteine inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein]; Bilirubin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein]; Dactinomycin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA]; Dactinomycin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein]; HMOX1 protein inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of ICAM1 protein]; NFE2L2 protein mutant form inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA]; Ritonavir promotes the reaction [Atazanavir Sulfate results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA]; Ritonavir promotes the reaction [HMOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Bilirubin]; Ritonavir promotes the reaction [Lopinavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA]; Rotenone inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein]; SB 203580 inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein]; tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer promotes the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein]
Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA; Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 protein
CTD PMID:15504750, PMID:26968795 NCBI chr19:14,508,634...14,515,455
Ensembl chr19:14,508,616...14,515,456
JBrowse link
G Hsp90aa1 heat shock protein 90 alpha family class A member 1 affects response to substance ISO HSP90AA1 protein affects the susceptibility to Ritonavir CTD PMID:16551874 NCBI chr 6:135,107,262...135,112,793
Ensembl chr 6:135,107,271...135,112,775
JBrowse link
G Hsph1 heat shock protein family H (Hsp110) member 1 increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of HSPH1 protein CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr12:6,322,685...6,341,898
Ensembl chr12:6,322,668...6,341,902
JBrowse link
G Icam1 intercellular adhesion molecule 1 increases expression
multiple interactions
ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of ICAM1 protein
HMOX1 protein inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of ICAM1 protein]
CTD PMID:26968795 NCBI chr 8:22,035,287...22,047,049
Ensembl chr 8:22,035,256...22,047,059
JBrowse link
G Ifng interferon gamma multiple interactions ISO Ritonavir inhibits the reaction [IFNG protein results in increased secretion of TNF protein] CTD PMID:10551732 NCBI chr 7:61,337,383...61,341,419
Ensembl chr 7:61,337,381...61,341,419
JBrowse link
G Il6 interleukin 6 multiple interactions
increases expression
increases secretion
ISO diphenyleneiodonium inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of IL6 protein]; Pravastatin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased secretion of IL6 protein]; Ritonavir inhibits the reaction [Lipopolysaccharides results in increased expression of IL6 mRNA]
rosiglitazone inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of IL6 mRNA]
Ritonavir results in increased expression of IL6 mRNA; Ritonavir results in increased expression of IL6 protein
CTD PMID:15388451, PMID:15865214, PMID:17668557, PMID:20884875 NCBI chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
Ensembl chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
JBrowse link
G Il7 interleukin 7 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of IL7 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 2:96,427,884...96,474,979
Ensembl chr 2:96,439,286...96,474,977
JBrowse link
G Jun Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of JUN protein CTD PMID:15504750 NCBI chr 5:114,011,184...114,014,277
Ensembl chr 5:114,011,189...114,014,277
JBrowse link
G Lep leptin multiple interactions
decreases expression
ISO diphenyleneiodonium inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in decreased expression of LEP protein] CTD PMID:17668557 NCBI chr 4:56,337,695...56,351,818
Ensembl chr 4:56,337,695...56,351,818
JBrowse link
G Lif LIF, interleukin 6 family cytokine decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of LIF CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr14:84,482,652...84,500,574
Ensembl chr14:84,482,674...84,500,642
JBrowse link
G Lmna lamin A/C increases expression
increases farnesylation
ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of LMNA protein
Ritonavir results in increased farnesylation of LMNA protein alternative form
CTD PMID:18230615, PMID:20884875 NCBI chr 2:187,842,884...187,863,552
Ensembl chr 2:187,842,885...187,863,516
JBrowse link
G Lpl lipoprotein lipase affects expression ISO Ritonavir affects the expression of LPL mRNA CTD PMID:11741158 NCBI chr16:22,537,687...22,561,487
Ensembl chr16:22,537,056...22,561,496
JBrowse link
G Myc MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of MYC mRNA CTD PMID:16174765 NCBI chr 7:102,586,313...102,591,240
Ensembl chr 7:102,586,313...102,591,240
JBrowse link
G Nfe2l2 nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 increases expression
multiple interactions
ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of NFE2L2 protein
NFE2L2 protein mutant form inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA]
CTD PMID:26968795 NCBI chr 3:62,497,568...62,525,146
Ensembl chr 3:62,497,571...62,524,996
JBrowse link
G Nfkb1 nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 decreases activity ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of NFKB1 protein CTD PMID:16174765 NCBI chr 2:240,773,520...240,890,053
Ensembl chr 2:240,773,456...240,866,689
JBrowse link
G Nfkbia NFKB inhibitor alpha decreases phosphorylation ISO Ritonavir results in decreased phosphorylation of NFKBIA protein CTD PMID:16174765 NCBI chr 6:76,267,227...76,270,457
Ensembl chr 6:76,267,228...76,270,457
JBrowse link
G Nlrc5 NLR family, CARD domain containing 5 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of NLRC5 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr19:10,904,381...11,006,202
Ensembl chr19:10,905,542...10,976,396
JBrowse link
G Nos3 nitric oxide synthase 3 multiple interactions
decreases expression
ISO Masoprocol inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in decreased expression of NOS3 mRNA] CTD PMID:22037733 NCBI chr 4:7,321,908...7,342,404
Ensembl chr 4:7,320,668...7,342,410
JBrowse link
G Notch4 notch receptor 4 decreases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Ritonavir results in decreased expression of NOTCH4 protein
[Saquinavir co-treated with Nicotine co-treated with Ritonavir] results in decreased expression of NOTCH4 protein; Vitamin E inhibits the reaction [[Nicotine co-treated with Ritonavir co-treated with Saquinavir] results in decreased expression of NOTCH4 protein]
CTD PMID:20722969 NCBI chr20:4,329,794...4,353,868
Ensembl chr20:4,329,811...4,353,785
JBrowse link
G Nr1h4 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of NR1H4 mRNA CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 7:30,003,429...30,162,095
Ensembl chr 7:30,003,429...30,162,056
JBrowse link
G Nr1i2 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 2 multiple interactions
increases activity
ISO
EXP
Ritonavir binds to and results in increased activity of NR1I2 protein
Ritonavir results in increased activity of NR1I2 protein
CTD PMID:14977870, PMID:15849716, PMID:27732639 NCBI chr11:65,022,100...65,058,546
Ensembl chr11:65,022,100...65,058,545
JBrowse link
G Parp1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 increases cleavage ISO Ritonavir results in increased cleavage of PARP1 protein CTD PMID:19386116, PMID:21270666 NCBI chr13:98,857,255...98,889,444
Ensembl chr13:98,857,177...98,889,716
JBrowse link
G Pon1 paraoxonase 1 decreases activity EXP Ritonavir results in decreased activity of PON1 protein CTD PMID:27378623 NCBI chr 4:30,249,749...30,276,297
Ensembl chr 4:30,249,742...30,276,372
JBrowse link
G Pparg peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma multiple interactions
increases expression
ISO Ritonavir inhibits the reaction [[INS1 protein co-treated with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine co-treated with Dexamethasone] results in increased expression of PPARG protein]
Ritonavir results in increased expression of PPARG mRNA
CTD PMID:11101056, PMID:17879945 NCBI chr 4:147,274,055...147,399,383
Ensembl chr 4:147,274,107...147,399,380
JBrowse link
G Prkca protein kinase C, alpha multiple interactions
increases activity
increases expression
ISO Ritonavir binds to and affects the localization of PRKCA protein
Ritonavir results in increased activity of PRKCA protein
Ritonavir results in increased expression of PRKCA protein
CTD PMID:22020176 NCBI chr10:96,186,509...96,585,168
Ensembl chr10:96,191,133...96,584,947
JBrowse link
G Psma1 proteasome 20S subunit alpha 1 affects expression EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of PSMA1 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr 1:183,733,567...183,744,586
Ensembl chr 1:183,733,567...183,744,586
JBrowse link
G Psmb3 proteasome 20S subunit beta 3 affects expression EXP Ritonavir affects the expression of PSMB3 mRNA CTD PMID:17719200 NCBI chr10:85,646,646...85,653,729
Ensembl chr10:85,646,633...85,653,729
JBrowse link
G Psmb5 proteasome 20S subunit beta 5 increases expression EXP Ritonavir results in increased expression of PSMB5 mRNA CTD PMID:20213465 NCBI chr15:33,259,039...33,263,634
Ensembl chr15:33,259,043...33,263,659
JBrowse link
G Rb1 RB transcriptional corepressor 1 decreases phosphorylation
increases expression
ISO Ritonavir results in decreased phosphorylation of RB1 protein
Ritonavir results in increased expression of RB1 mRNA
CTD PMID:16551874, PMID:19386116, PMID:21270666 NCBI chr15:55,081,582...55,209,060
Ensembl chr15:55,083,140...55,209,342
JBrowse link
G Rbl1 RB transcriptional corepressor like 1 increases expression ISO Ritonavir results in increased expression of RBL1 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr 3:153,263,692...153,321,351
Ensembl chr 3:153,263,692...153,321,352
JBrowse link
G Rbl2 RB transcriptional corepressor like 2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of RBL2 mRNA CTD PMID:19386116 NCBI chr19:17,300,088...17,346,865
Ensembl chr19:17,300,089...17,346,808
JBrowse link
G Rel REL proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit decreases activity ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of REL protein CTD PMID:16174765 NCBI chr14:108,490,794...108,517,582
Ensembl chr14:108,491,069...108,509,892
JBrowse link
G Rela RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit decreases activity ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of RELA protein CTD PMID:16174765 NCBI chr 1:220,992,770...221,003,249
Ensembl chr 1:220,992,770...221,003,249
JBrowse link
G Scarb1 scavenger receptor class B, member 1 multiple interactions
increases expression
ISO Estradiol inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of SCARB1 protein]
Ritonavir results in increased expression of SCARB1 mRNA
CTD PMID:17879945 NCBI chr12:36,694,952...36,761,445
Ensembl chr12:36,694,960...36,761,455
JBrowse link
G Scp2 sterol carrier protein 2 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of SCP2 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 5:127,647,934...127,735,703
Ensembl chr 5:127,620,274...127,735,739
JBrowse link
G Slc10a1 solute carrier family 10 member 1 decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of SLC10A1 CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr 6:104,617,730...104,631,355
Ensembl chr 6:104,617,730...104,631,355
JBrowse link
G Slc51a solute carrier family 51 subunit alpha decreases expression ISO Ritonavir results in decreased expression of SLC51A CTD PMID:26626330 NCBI chr11:71,533,078...71,547,476
Ensembl chr11:71,533,078...71,547,476
JBrowse link
G Src SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase decreases phosphorylation ISO Ritonavir results in decreased phosphorylation of SRC protein CTD PMID:21270666 NCBI chr 3:153,547,807...153,595,643
Ensembl chr 3:153,580,861...153,595,642
JBrowse link
G Srebf1 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 multiple interactions ISO Ritonavir promotes the reaction [[INS1 protein co-treated with Dexamethasone co-treated with 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine] results in increased expression of SREBF1 protein] CTD PMID:11101056 NCBI chr10:46,570,996...46,593,021
Ensembl chr10:46,570,996...46,593,009
JBrowse link
G Stat3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 decreases phosphorylation ISO Ritonavir results in decreased phosphorylation of STAT3 protein CTD PMID:21270666 NCBI chr10:88,790,401...88,842,263
Ensembl chr10:88,790,408...88,842,233
JBrowse link
G Tjp1 tight junction protein 1 decreases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Ritonavir results in decreased expression of TJP1 protein
[Saquinavir co-treated with Nicotine co-treated with Ritonavir] results in decreased expression of TJP1 protein; Vitamin E inhibits the reaction [[Nicotine co-treated with Ritonavir co-treated with Saquinavir] results in decreased expression of TJP1 protein]
CTD PMID:20722969 NCBI chr 1:126,146,489...126,515,359
Ensembl chr 1:126,146,489...126,227,469
JBrowse link
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor decreases secretion
multiple interactions
increases expression
ISO Ritonavir results in decreased secretion of TNF protein
rosiglitazone inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of TNF mRNA]
Ritonavir inhibits the reaction [IFNG protein results in increased secretion of TNF protein]; Ritonavir inhibits the reaction [Lipopolysaccharides results in increased secretion of TNF protein]
Ritonavir results in increased expression of TNF mRNA; Ritonavir results in increased expression of TNF protein
CTD PMID:10551732, PMID:15388451, PMID:15865214 NCBI chr20:5,189,382...5,192,000
Ensembl chr20:5,189,390...5,192,000
JBrowse link
G Tp53 tumor protein p53 multiple interactions
increases expression
ISO FTI 277 inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of TP53 protein]; manganese(III)-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of TP53 protein]; Pravastatin inhibits the reaction [Ritonavir results in increased expression of TP53 protein] CTD PMID:19386116, PMID:20884875 NCBI chr10:56,186,299...56,198,449
Ensembl chr10:56,187,020...56,198,449
JBrowse link
G Ugt1a1 UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 affects expression ISO Ritonavir affects the expression of UGT1A1 mRNA CTD PMID:15849716 NCBI chr 9:95,295,701...95,302,822
Ensembl chr 9:95,161,157...95,302,822
JBrowse link
G Zmpste24 zinc metallopeptidase STE24 decreases activity ISO Ritonavir results in decreased activity of ZMPSTE24 protein CTD PMID:18230615 NCBI chr 5:139,982,404...140,015,541
Ensembl chr 5:139,983,680...140,015,541
JBrowse link
valine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Egf epidermal growth factor multiple interactions EXP [bafilomycin A1 co-treated with EGF protein] results in decreased abundance of Valine; Cycloheximide inhibits the reaction [[bafilomycin A1 co-treated with EGF protein] results in decreased abundance of Valine] CTD PMID:22689575 NCBI chr 2:68,820,616...68,895,537 JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19792
    role 19738
      application 19385
        refrigerant 17443
          ammonia 16961
            organic amino compound 16960
              amino acid 14080
                branched-chain amino acid 183
                  2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid 0
                  2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid + 1
                  leucine + 85
                  valine + 117
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19792
    subatomic particle 19788
      composite particle 19788
        hadron 19788
          baryon 19788
            nucleon 19788
              atomic nucleus 19788
                atom 19788
                  main group element atom 19675
                    p-block element atom 19675
                      carbon group element atom 19571
                        carbon atom 19560
                          organic molecular entity 19560
                            organic group 18508
                              organic divalent group 18501
                                organodiyl group 18501
                                  carbonyl group 18404
                                    carbonyl compound 18404
                                      carboxylic acid 18079
                                        amino acid 14080
                                          branched-chain amino acid 183
                                            2-amino-2-methylbutanoic acid 0
                                            2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid + 1
                                            leucine + 85
                                            valine + 117
paths to the root

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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.