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CHEBI ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

The Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology is downloaded weekly from EMBL-EBI at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. The data is made available under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). For more information see: Degtyarenko et al. (2008) ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest. Nucleic Acids Res. 36, D344–D350.

Term:glycine betaine
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Accession:CHEBI:17750 term browser browse the term
Definition:The amino acid betaine derived from glycine.
Synonyms:related_synonym: (Trimethylammonio)acetate;   (trimethylammoniumyl)acetate;   1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium inner salt;   2-N,N,N-trimethylammonio acetate;   Bet;   Formula=C5H11NO2;   InChI=1S/C5H11NO2/c1-6(2,3)4-5(7)8/h4H2,1-3H3;   InChIKey=KWIUHFFTVRNATP-UHFFFAOYSA-N;   N,N,N-Trimethylglycine;   N,N,N-trimethylammonioacetate;   SMILES=C[N+](C)(C)CC([O-])=O;   Trimethylaminoacetate;   Trimethylammonioacetate;   abromine;   acidol;   betaine;   trimethylglycine;   trimethylglycocoll
 alt_id: CHEBI:13895;   CHEBI:15264;   CHEBI:22858;   CHEBI:24370;   CHEBI:27128;   CHEBI:3073
 xref: Beilstein:3537113;   CAS:107-43-7;   Drug_Central:347;   Gmelin:26434;   HMDB:HMDB0000043;   KEGG:C00719;   KEGG:D07523;   KNApSAcK:C00007291
 xref_mesh: MESH:D001622
 xref: MetaCyc:BETAINE;   PDBeChem:BET;   PMID:16197300;   PMID:18326594;   PMID:20346934;   PMID:20446114;   PMID:20642826;   PMID:22770225;   Reaxys:3537113;   Wikipedia:Trimethylglycine;   YMDB:YMDB01516
 cyclic_relationship: is_conjugate_base_of CHEBI:41139


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glycine betaine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Abi3bp ABI family member 3 binding protein increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of ABI3BP mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr11:46,206,932...46,422,791
Ensembl chr11:46,208,075...46,369,577
JBrowse link
G Acaca acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha multiple interactions EXP [Choline co-treated with Betaine co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Folic Acid co-treated with Dietary Fats co-treated with Dietary Sucrose] results in increased expression of ACACA mRNA CTD PMID:22648174 NCBI chr10:71,519,392...71,719,910
Ensembl chr10:71,536,533...71,719,910
JBrowse link
G Adss adenylosuccinate synthase decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of ADSS mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr13:95,913,426...95,943,761
Ensembl chr13:95,913,426...95,943,761
JBrowse link
G Ahcy adenosylhomocysteinase decreases expression ISO
EXP
Betaine results in decreased expression of AHCY mRNA CTD PMID:22945834 PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:150,587,833...150,603,057
Ensembl chr 3:150,587,833...150,603,082
JBrowse link
G Akip1 A-kinase interacting protein 1 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of AKIP1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:174,330,628...174,339,494
Ensembl chr 1:174,330,695...174,339,494
JBrowse link
G Akr1b1 aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of AKR1B1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 4:61,706,866...61,720,959
Ensembl chr 4:61,706,864...61,720,956
JBrowse link
G Aldh2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member multiple interactions ISO [Betaine co-treated with Choline co-treated with Folic Acid co-treated with Methionine co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Zinc Sulfate co-treated with Ethanol] results in increased expression of ALDH2 protein CTD PMID:20118189 NCBI chr12:40,466,418...40,498,813
Ensembl chr12:40,466,495...40,498,752
JBrowse link
G Apex1 apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of APEX1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr15:27,849,943...27,852,083
Ensembl chr15:27,849,979...27,852,082
JBrowse link
G App amyloid beta precursor protein multiple interactions ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [Azacitidine results in decreased methylation of APP promoter]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [Azacitidine results in increased expression of and results in increased cleavage of APP protein]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [S-Adenosylhomocysteine results in decreased methylation of APP promoter]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [S-Adenosylhomocysteine results in increased expression of and results in increased cleavage of APP protein] CTD PMID:19635394 NCBI chr11:24,425,013...24,641,872
Ensembl chr11:24,425,005...24,641,858
JBrowse link
G Atp7b ATPase copper transporting beta multiple interactions ISO ATP7B protein mutant form promotes the reaction [Betaine results in increased abundance of S-Adenosylmethionine]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [ATP7B protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Copper]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [ATP7B protein mutant form results in increased expression of TNF mRNA] CTD PMID:22945834 NCBI chr16:74,865,516...74,944,935
Ensembl chr16:74,865,516...74,945,286
JBrowse link
G Axin1 axin 1 multiple interactions ISO [Folic Acid co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Betaine co-treated with Choline] results in increased methylation of AXIN1 gene CTD PMID:16868943
G Bax BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of BAX protein CTD PMID:25080425 NCBI chr 1:101,451,801...101,457,207
Ensembl chr 1:101,451,802...101,457,207
JBrowse link
G Bcl2 BCL2, apoptosis regulator affects binding
increases expression
ISO
EXP
Betaine analog binds to BCL2 protein
Betaine results in increased expression of BCL2 protein
CTD PMID:25080425 PMID:25765238 NCBI chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
Ensembl chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
JBrowse link
G Bhlhe40 basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of BHLHE40 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 4:140,703,619...140,709,319
Ensembl chr 4:140,703,619...140,709,319
JBrowse link
G Bhmt betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase increases metabolic processing ISO BHMT protein results in increased metabolism of Betaine CTD PMID:18230605 NCBI chr 2:23,236,573...23,256,158
Ensembl chr 2:23,236,575...23,256,158
JBrowse link
G Brf1 BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor subunit multiple interactions ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [Ethanol results in increased expression of BRF1 mRNA]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [Ethanol results in increased expression of BRF1 protein] CTD PMID:32418914 NCBI chr 6:137,762,230...137,808,573
Ensembl chr 6:137,765,122...137,808,303
JBrowse link
G Cab39l calcium binding protein 39-like decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of CAB39L mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr15:39,745,124...39,849,022
Ensembl chr15:39,759,257...39,870,208
JBrowse link
G Casp1 caspase 1 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of CASP1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 8:2,605,743...2,614,637
Ensembl chr 8:2,604,962...2,614,631
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions EXP Betaine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium Chloride results in increased activity of CASP3 protein] CTD PMID:24632105 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Cat catalase multiple interactions ISO
EXP
[Betaine co-treated with Choline co-treated with Folic Acid co-treated with Methionine co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Zinc Sulfate co-treated with Ethanol] results in increased activity of CAT protein
Betaine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium Chloride results in decreased activity of CAT protein]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [Carbon Tetrachloride results in increased activity of CAT protein]
CTD PMID:12893363 PMID:20118189 PMID:24632105 NCBI chr 3:93,379,872...93,412,058
Ensembl chr 3:93,379,874...93,412,058
JBrowse link
G Ccdc113 coiled-coil domain containing 113 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of CCDC113 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr19:9,912,124...9,932,183
Ensembl chr19:9,912,183...9,931,930
JBrowse link
G Ccl2 C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 multiple interactions EXP [Choline co-treated with Betaine co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Folic Acid co-treated with Dietary Fats co-treated with Dietary Sucrose] results in decreased expression of CCL2 mRNA CTD PMID:22648174 NCBI chr10:69,412,065...69,413,863
Ensembl chr10:69,412,017...69,413,870
JBrowse link
G Ccl5 C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of CCL5 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:70,739,764...70,744,303
Ensembl chr10:70,739,800...70,744,315
JBrowse link
G Ccl6 C-C motif chemokine ligand 6 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of CCL6 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:70,798,118...70,802,750
Ensembl chr10:70,797,124...70,802,782
JBrowse link
G Ccnb2 cyclin B2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of CCNB2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 8:76,847,972...76,861,165 JBrowse link
G Cd44 CD44 molecule (Indian blood group) decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of CD44 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:92,695,083...92,783,820
Ensembl chr 3:92,696,313...92,783,658
JBrowse link
G Cdc42ep2 CDC42 effector protein 2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of CDC42EP2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:221,272,349...221,281,252
Ensembl chr 1:221,272,353...221,281,180
JBrowse link
G Cdh13 cadherin 13 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of CDH13 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr19:50,848,793...51,971,618
Ensembl chr19:50,848,736...51,972,103
JBrowse link
G Cdkn2a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A multiple interactions EXP Betaine promotes the reaction [Diethylnitrosamine results in decreased expression of CDKN2A mRNA] CTD PMID:19642983 NCBI chr 5:107,823,323...107,832,405
Ensembl chr 5:107,823,330...107,841,175
JBrowse link
G Ces3a carboxylesterase 3a increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of CES3 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr19:37,070,705...37,079,411 JBrowse link
G Ckb creatine kinase B increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of CKB mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 6:136,142,956...136,145,838
Ensembl chr 6:136,142,956...136,145,837
JBrowse link
G Cks1b CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of CKS1B mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 2:188,740,564...188,745,144
Ensembl chr 2:188,740,573...188,745,144
JBrowse link
G Cotl1 coactosin-like F-actin binding protein 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of COTL1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr19:52,465,074...52,499,433
Ensembl chr19:52,465,087...52,499,433
JBrowse link
G Cpt1a carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A multiple interactions
decreases expression
ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [CPT1A protein mutant form results in decreased expression of DNMT1 mRNA]
Betaine results in decreased expression of CPT1A mRNA
CTD PMID:22945834 NCBI chr 1:218,568,157...218,629,679
Ensembl chr 1:218,569,510...218,629,678
JBrowse link
G Cxcl16 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 16 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of CXCL16 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:57,060,005...57,064,600
Ensembl chr10:57,060,007...57,064,600
JBrowse link
G Cyp2e1 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily e, polypeptide 1 multiple interactions ISO [Betaine co-treated with Choline co-treated with Folic Acid co-treated with Methionine co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Zinc Sulfate] inhibits the reaction [Ethanol results in increased expression of CYP2E1 protein]
Betaine promotes the reaction [Ethanol results in increased expression of CYP2E1]
CTD PMID:20118189 PMID:21352821 NCBI chr 1:213,511,892...213,522,195
Ensembl chr 1:213,511,874...213,535,542
JBrowse link
G Cysltr1 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of CYSLTR1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr  X:77,671,028...77,700,491
Ensembl chr  X:77,674,150...77,700,269
JBrowse link
G Dapk1 death associated protein kinase 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of DAPK1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr17:4,297,038...4,454,941
Ensembl chr17:4,297,224...4,454,778
JBrowse link
G Dlx2 distal-less homeobox 2 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of DLX2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:58,180,088...58,181,971
Ensembl chr 3:58,180,088...58,181,971
JBrowse link
G Dnmt1 DNA methyltransferase 1 multiple interactions
increases expression
ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [CPT1A protein mutant form results in decreased expression of DNMT1 mRNA]
Betaine results in increased expression of DNMT1 mRNA
CTD PMID:22945834 NCBI chr 8:21,922,515...21,968,495
Ensembl chr 8:21,922,515...21,968,495
JBrowse link
G Dnmt3b DNA methyltransferase 3 beta decreases expression ISO Betaine results in decreased expression of DNMT3B mRNA CTD PMID:22945834 NCBI chr 3:149,131,541...149,170,061
Ensembl chr 3:149,131,785...149,208,786
JBrowse link
G Ect2 epithelial cell transforming 2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of ECT2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 2:112,769,385...112,831,476
Ensembl chr 2:112,769,385...112,831,476
JBrowse link
G Eef2k eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of EEF2K mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:190,780,211...190,839,926
Ensembl chr 1:190,780,236...190,842,324
JBrowse link
G Egr1 early growth response 1 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of EGR1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr18:27,657,903...27,660,101
Ensembl chr18:27,657,628...27,661,429
JBrowse link
G Elf3 E74 like ETS transcription factor 3 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of ELF3 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr13:52,083,873...52,088,798
Ensembl chr13:52,083,859...52,088,780
JBrowse link
G Emc9 ER membrane protein complex subunit 9 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of EMC9 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr15:34,258,940...34,263,156
Ensembl chr15:34,256,374...34,263,224
JBrowse link
G Ephb6 Eph receptor B6 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of EPHB6 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 4:70,903,253...70,918,514
Ensembl chr 4:70,903,253...70,918,514
JBrowse link
G F8 coagulation factor VIII multiple interactions
increases secretion
ISO Betaine affects the localization of and results in increased secretion of F8 protein; Betaine affects the localization of and results in increased secretion of F8 protein mutant form
Betaine results in increased secretion of F8 protein; Betaine results in increased secretion of F8 protein mutant form
CTD PMID:22973456 NCBI chr18:367,862...399,242
Ensembl chr18:367,862...399,242
JBrowse link
G F9 coagulation factor IX increases secretion ISO Betaine results in increased secretion of F9 protein CTD PMID:22973456 NCBI chr  X:143,097,507...143,141,791
Ensembl chr  X:143,097,525...143,141,794
JBrowse link
G Fasn fatty acid synthase multiple interactions EXP [Choline co-treated with Betaine co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Folic Acid] affects the reaction [[Dietary Fats co-treated with Dietary Sucrose] affects the methylation of FASN promoter] CTD PMID:22648174 NCBI chr10:109,987,735...110,005,901
Ensembl chr10:109,987,735...110,005,901
JBrowse link
G Flrt3 fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 3 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of FLRT3 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:134,684,446...134,696,586
Ensembl chr 3:134,683,065...134,696,654
JBrowse link
G Fxyd2 FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of FXYD2 mRNA; Betaine results in decreased expression of FXYD2 mRNA alternative form CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 8:49,710,334...49,717,492
Ensembl chr 8:49,710,477...49,716,955
JBrowse link
G Gal galanin and GMAP prepropeptide multiple interactions EXP Betaine inhibits the reaction [Isoproterenol results in decreased activity of GAL protein]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [Isoproterenol results in increased activity of GAL protein] CTD PMID:19294532 NCBI chr 1:218,653,059...218,657,922
Ensembl chr 1:218,652,917...218,657,925
JBrowse link
G Gpcpd1 glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase 1 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of GPCPD1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:125,169,131...125,213,598
Ensembl chr 3:125,169,135...125,213,607
JBrowse link
G Gusb glucuronidase, beta multiple interactions EXP Betaine inhibits the reaction [Isoproterenol results in decreased activity of GUSB protein]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [Isoproterenol results in increased activity of GUSB protein] CTD PMID:19294532 NCBI chr12:30,202,066...30,215,583
Ensembl chr12:30,198,822...30,227,771
JBrowse link
G H2az1 H2A.Z variant histone 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of H2AZ1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 2:243,105,224...243,107,333
Ensembl chr 2:243,105,674...243,106,956
JBrowse link
G Hip1 huntingtin interacting protein 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of HIP1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr12:24,180,795...24,315,373
Ensembl chr12:24,180,937...24,315,373
JBrowse link
G Hmgb2 high mobility group box 2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of HMGB2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr16:36,077,615...36,080,191
Ensembl chr16:36,077,617...36,080,191
Ensembl chr11:36,077,617...36,080,191
JBrowse link
G Hspa5 heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5 decreases expression ISO Betaine results in decreased expression of HSPA5 mRNA CTD PMID:22945834 NCBI chr 3:13,838,304...13,842,763
Ensembl chr 3:13,838,304...13,842,762
JBrowse link
G Id2 inhibitor of DNA binding 2 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of ID2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 6:44,360,077...44,361,908
Ensembl chr 6:44,348,501...44,363,915
JBrowse link
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 increases abundance
multiple interactions
ISO IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Betaine
Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Betaine]
CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:141,874,354...141,893,674
Ensembl chr 1:141,866,283...141,893,705
JBrowse link
G Irx4 iroquois homeobox 4 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of IRX4 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:32,634,774...32,645,151
Ensembl chr 1:32,634,796...32,643,771
JBrowse link
G Jun Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of JUN mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 5:114,011,184...114,014,277
Ensembl chr 5:114,011,189...114,014,277
JBrowse link
G Khdrbs3 KH RNA binding domain containing, signal transduction associated 3 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of KHDRBS3 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 7:110,031,819...110,179,475
Ensembl chr 7:110,031,696...110,179,468
JBrowse link
G Kif1b kinesin family member 1B increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of KIF1B mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 5:165,994,803...166,133,497
Ensembl chr 5:165,938,576...166,133,491
JBrowse link
G Kif22 kinesin family member 22 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of KIF22 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:198,461,406...198,476,430
Ensembl chr 1:198,461,169...198,476,476
JBrowse link
G Klf10 Kruppel-like factor 10 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of KLF10 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 7:77,156,010...77,162,096
Ensembl chr 7:77,156,006...77,162,148
JBrowse link
G Krt2 keratin 2 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of KRT2 mRNA; Betaine results in increased expression of KRT2 protein CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 7:143,412,858...143,420,463
Ensembl chr 7:143,412,858...143,420,027
JBrowse link
G Lars1 leucyl-tRNA synthetase 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of LARS mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr18:36,524,013...36,579,471
Ensembl chr18:36,524,007...36,579,403
JBrowse link
G Lin9 lin-9 DREAM MuvB core complex component decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of LIN9 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr13:98,924,728...98,969,051
Ensembl chr13:98,924,962...98,967,735
JBrowse link
G Marchf6 membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 6 multiple interactions
decreases stability
ISO Cholesterol inhibits the reaction [Betaine results in decreased stability of MARCHF6 protein] CTD PMID:30545937 NCBI chr 2:84,533,546...84,608,743
Ensembl chr 2:84,536,669...84,608,712
JBrowse link
G Mcm3 minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of MCM3 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 9:26,914,057...26,932,201
Ensembl chr 9:26,914,057...26,932,201
JBrowse link
G Mcm4 minichromosome maintenance complex component 4 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of MCM4 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr11:89,511,191...89,524,892
Ensembl chr11:89,511,191...89,524,892
JBrowse link
G Mcm7 minichromosome maintenance complex component 7 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of MCM7 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr12:19,306,615...19,313,877
Ensembl chr12:19,306,607...19,314,016
JBrowse link
G Mthfd1l methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of MTHFD1L mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:40,529,092...40,719,232
Ensembl chr 1:40,529,045...40,719,391
JBrowse link
G Mthfd2 methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of MTHFD2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 4:115,004,433...115,015,965
Ensembl chr 4:115,004,448...115,015,965
JBrowse link
G Myc MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor multiple interactions EXP Betaine inhibits the reaction [Diethylnitrosamine results in increased expression of MYC mRNA] CTD PMID:19642983 NCBI chr 7:102,586,313...102,591,240
Ensembl chr 7:102,586,313...102,591,240
JBrowse link
G Nbl1 NBL1, DAN family BMP antagonist increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of NBL1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 5:157,524,569...157,535,701
Ensembl chr 5:157,524,513...157,535,664
JBrowse link
G Nckipsd NCK interacting protein with SH3 domain decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of NCKIPSD mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 8:117,601,035...117,612,302
Ensembl chr 8:117,600,749...117,611,922
JBrowse link
G Ndrg4 NDRG family member 4 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of NDRG4 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr19:9,766,439...9,802,396
Ensembl chr19:9,766,439...9,801,942
JBrowse link
G Nupr1 nuclear protein 1, transcriptional regulator decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of NUPR1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:194,767,484...194,769,519
Ensembl chr 1:194,767,474...194,769,524
JBrowse link
G Ogg1 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase multiple interactions ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [S-Adenosylhomocysteine results in decreased expression of OGG1 protein]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [S-Adenosylhomocysteine results in decreased methylation of OGG1 promoter] CTD PMID:22064374 NCBI chr 4:145,282,828...145,289,367
Ensembl chr 4:145,282,797...145,289,326
JBrowse link
G Pcp4 Purkinje cell protein 4 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of PCP4 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr11:36,851,035...36,912,272
Ensembl chr11:36,851,038...36,912,229
JBrowse link
G Pctp phosphatidylcholine transfer protein decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of PCTP mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:77,491,445...77,537,268
Ensembl chr10:77,491,454...77,512,032
JBrowse link
G Pola2 DNA polymerase alpha 2, accessory subunit decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of POLA2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:221,297,417...221,321,601
Ensembl chr 1:221,273,538...221,321,570
JBrowse link
G Pole2 DNA polymerase epsilon 2, accessory subunit decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of POLE2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 6:91,494,348...91,532,355
Ensembl chr 6:91,494,393...91,518,996
JBrowse link
G Ppara peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha multiple interactions
decreases expression
ISO [Betaine co-treated with Choline co-treated with Folic Acid co-treated with Methionine co-treated with Vitamin B 12 co-treated with Zinc Sulfate co-treated with Ethanol] results in increased expression of PPARA protein
Betaine results in decreased expression of PPARA mRNA
CTD PMID:20118189 PMID:22945834 NCBI chr 7:126,618,872...126,687,282
Ensembl chr 7:126,619,196...126,681,752
JBrowse link
G Prss23 serine protease 23 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of PRSS23 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:153,732,528...153,742,111
Ensembl chr 1:153,732,532...153,752,541
JBrowse link
G Psen1 presenilin 1 multiple interactions ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [Azacitidine results in decreased methylation of PSEN1 promoter]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [S-Adenosylhomocysteine results in decreased methylation of PSEN1 promoter] CTD PMID:19635394 NCBI chr 6:107,169,514...107,221,000
Ensembl chr 6:107,169,528...107,216,798
JBrowse link
G Ptgs1 prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of PTGS1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:15,560,685...15,582,339
Ensembl chr 3:15,560,712...15,582,344
JBrowse link
G Ranbp3l RAN binding protein 3-like decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of RANBP3L mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 2:58,221,773...58,458,072
Ensembl chr 2:58,448,917...58,458,517
JBrowse link
G Rela RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit multiple interactions EXP Betaine inhibits the reaction [Fructose results in decreased activity of RELA protein] CTD PMID:25559852 NCBI chr 1:220,992,770...221,003,249
Ensembl chr 1:220,992,770...221,003,249
JBrowse link
G RGD1564040 similar to methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NAD) (EC 1.5.1.15)/methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.9) precursor decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of RGD1564040 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 5:120,869,141...120,870,270 JBrowse link
G Rgs2 regulator of G-protein signaling 2 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of RGS2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr13:60,846,458...60,849,061
Ensembl chr13:60,846,308...60,849,094
JBrowse link
G Rrm2 ribonucleotide reductase regulatory subunit M2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of RRM2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 6:43,884,627...43,890,818
Ensembl chr 6:43,884,678...43,889,515
JBrowse link
G Scd stearoyl-CoA desaturase decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of SCD1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 1:264,159,966...264,173,061
Ensembl chr 1:264,160,129...264,172,729
JBrowse link
G Sectm1b secreted and transmembrane 1B increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of SECTM1A mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:110,251,363...110,260,577
Ensembl chr10:110,251,363...110,259,985
JBrowse link
G Serinc2 serine incorporator 2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of SERINC2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 5:148,470,060...148,492,232
Ensembl chr 5:148,470,061...148,492,232
JBrowse link
G Serpina3n serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 3N decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of SERPINA3N mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 6:128,073,344...128,080,878
Ensembl chr 6:127,941,526...128,080,889
JBrowse link
G Slc16a6 solute carrier family 16, member 6 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of SLC16A6 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:97,733,701...97,758,723
Ensembl chr10:97,735,548...97,756,521
JBrowse link
G Slc22a5 solute carrier family 22 member 5 multiple interactions ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine] CTD PMID:16928358 NCBI chr10:39,201,101...39,228,090
Ensembl chr10:39,201,107...39,323,853
JBrowse link
G Slc36a1 solute carrier family 36 member 1 increases uptake ISO SLC36A1 protein results in increased uptake of Betaine CTD PMID:18845132 NCBI chr10:40,538,013...40,573,304
Ensembl chr10:40,543,288...40,574,444
JBrowse link
G Slc6a12 solute carrier family 6 member 12 multiple interactions ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [Lipopolysaccharides results in increased expression of SLC6A12 mRNA] CTD PMID:22053950 NCBI chr 4:153,921,199...153,941,333
Ensembl chr 4:153,921,115...153,941,391
JBrowse link
G Slc6a9 solute carrier family 6 member 9 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of SLC6A9 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 5:136,669,674...136,703,702
Ensembl chr 5:136,669,674...136,703,697
JBrowse link
G Snx10 sorting nexin 10 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of SNX10 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 4:81,311,490...81,375,248
Ensembl chr 4:81,311,490...81,374,158
JBrowse link
G Sostdc1 sclerostin domain containing 1 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of SOSTDC1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 6:55,812,820...55,816,994
Ensembl chr 6:55,812,747...55,817,066
JBrowse link
G Spc25 SPC25 component of NDC80 kinetochore complex decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of SPC25 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:55,438,534...55,451,961
Ensembl chr 3:55,438,536...55,451,798
JBrowse link
G Ssr4 signal sequence receptor subunit 4 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of SSR4 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr  X:156,995,763...156,999,702
Ensembl chr  X:156,995,779...156,999,650
JBrowse link
G Stat3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 multiple interactions EXP Betaine promotes the reaction [Isoproterenol results in increased phosphorylation of STAT3 protein] CTD PMID:25080425 NCBI chr10:88,790,401...88,842,263
Ensembl chr10:88,790,408...88,842,233
JBrowse link
G Stmn1 stathmin 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of STMN1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 5:152,680,412...152,686,807
Ensembl chr 5:152,680,407...152,686,806
JBrowse link
G Stxbp1 syntaxin binding protein 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of STXBP1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 3:11,823,779...11,885,479
Ensembl chr 3:11,823,785...11,885,417
JBrowse link
G Tgfb2 transforming growth factor, beta 2 increases expression EXP Betaine results in increased expression of TGFB2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr13:105,039,639...105,142,010
Ensembl chr13:105,039,853...105,141,030
JBrowse link
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor multiple interactions ISO Betaine inhibits the reaction [ATP7B protein mutant form results in increased expression of TNF mRNA] CTD PMID:22945834 NCBI chr20:5,189,382...5,192,000
Ensembl chr20:5,189,390...5,192,000
Ensembl chr20:5,189,390...5,192,000
JBrowse link
G Trib2 tribbles pseudokinase 2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of TRIB2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr 6:41,016,722...41,040,972
Ensembl chr 6:41,016,730...41,039,437
JBrowse link
G Upk3bl1 uroplakin 3B like 1 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of UPK3BL1 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr12:23,654,996...23,661,009
Ensembl chr12:23,654,996...23,661,009
JBrowse link
G Wnk4 WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 4 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of WNK4 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:89,181,139...89,198,213
Ensembl chr10:89,181,165...89,198,213
JBrowse link
G Ybx2 Y box binding protein 2 decreases expression EXP Betaine results in decreased expression of YBX2 mRNA CTD PMID:26391144 NCBI chr10:56,546,689...56,552,339
Ensembl chr10:56,546,710...56,551,863
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19817
    role 19767
      biological role 19767
        biochemical role 19315
          metabolite 19296
            fundamental metabolite 12659
              glycine betaine 117
                N,N,N-trimethylglycyl-CoA 0
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19817
    subatomic particle 19815
      composite particle 19815
        hadron 19815
          baryon 19815
            nucleon 19815
              atomic nucleus 19815
                atom 19815
                  main group element atom 19705
                    p-block element atom 19705
                      carbon group element atom 19614
                        carbon atom 19603
                          organic molecular entity 19603
                            organic group 18537
                              organic divalent group 18528
                                organodiyl group 18528
                                  carbonyl group 18435
                                    carbonyl compound 18435
                                      carboxylic acid 18113
                                        amino acid 14113
                                          alpha-amino acid 11599
                                            L-alpha-amino acid 11435
                                              serine family amino acid 2058
                                                glycine 1212
                                                  glycine derivative 1201
                                                    glycine betaine 117
                                                      N,N,N-trimethylglycyl-CoA 0
paths to the root