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CHEBI ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

The Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology is downloaded weekly from EMBL-EBI at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. The data is made available under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). For more information see: Degtyarenko et al. (2008) ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest. Nucleic Acids Res. 36, D344–D350.

Term:carnitine
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Accession:CHEBI:17126 term browser browse the term
Definition:An amino-acid betaine that is butanoate substituted with a hydroxy group at position C-3 and a trimethylammonium group at C-4.
Synonyms:exact_synonym: 3-hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate
 related_synonym: D,L-carnitine;   Formula=C7H15NO3;   InChI=1S/C7H15NO3/c1-8(2,3)5-6(9)4-7(10)11/h6,9H,4-5H2,1-3H3;   InChIKey=PHIQHXFUZVPYII-UHFFFAOYSA-N;   SMILES=C[N+](C)(C)CC(O)CC([O-])=O
 alt_id: CHEBI:11817;   CHEBI:13947;   CHEBI:20047;   CHEBI:23038
 xref: Beilstein:1866665;   CAS:461-06-3;   DrugBank:DB02648;   KEGG:C00487;   MetaCyc:DL-CARNITINE;   PMID:22770225;   PMID:23868375;   Patent:US4255449;   Patent:US4315944;   Reaxys:1866665;   Wikipedia:Carnitine
 cyclic_relationship: is_conjugate_base_of CHEBI:3424


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(R)-carnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Adipoq adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing increases expression EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of ADIPOQ protein CTD PMID:30256492 NCBI chr11:81,330,845...81,344,488
Ensembl chr11:81,330,293...81,344,488
JBrowse link
G Akt1 AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 multiple interactions
increases phosphorylation
EXP 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one inhibits the reaction [Carnitine results in increased phosphorylation of AKT1 protein] CTD PMID:29186614 NCBI chr 6:137,218,398...137,239,970
Ensembl chr 6:137,218,376...137,236,258
JBrowse link
G Bax BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator decreases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in decreased expression of BAX protein
2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one inhibits the reaction [Carnitine results in decreased expression of BAX protein]
CTD PMID:29186614 NCBI chr 1:101,451,801...101,457,207
Ensembl chr 1:101,451,802...101,457,207
JBrowse link
G Bbox1 gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase 1 multiple interactions
increases chemical synthesis
ISO Aluminum inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]; Hydrogen Peroxide inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]; Ketoglutaric Acids inhibits the reaction [Aluminum inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]]; Ketoglutaric Acids inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide inhibits the reaction [BBOX1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Carnitine]] CTD PMID:21439360 NCBI chr 3:101,425,684...101,474,848
Ensembl chr 3:101,427,055...101,474,890
JBrowse link
G Bcl2 BCL2, apoptosis regulator multiple interactions
increases phosphorylation
EXP 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one inhibits the reaction [Carnitine results in increased phosphorylation of BCL2 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in decreased expression of BCL2 mRNA] CTD PMID:23213347, PMID:29186614 NCBI chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
Ensembl chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
JBrowse link
G Bcl2l1 Bcl2-like 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in decreased expression of BCL2L1 protein] CTD PMID:19491382 NCBI chr 3:148,259,594...148,314,191
Ensembl chr 3:148,259,596...148,313,810
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in increased cleavage of CASP3 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in increased expression of CASP3 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of CASP3 mRNA]] CTD PMID:19491382, PMID:23213347, PMID:26562095 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Casp9 caspase 9 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in increased expression of CASP9 mRNA] CTD PMID:23213347 NCBI chr 5:160,356,211...160,373,774
Ensembl chr 5:160,355,833...160,373,778
JBrowse link
G Cat catalase multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Diethylnitrosamine results in decreased activity of CAT protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in decreased activity of CAT protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in decreased expression of CAT mRNA] CTD PMID:16889571, PMID:19294768, PMID:23213347 NCBI chr 3:93,379,872...93,412,058
Ensembl chr 3:93,379,874...93,412,058
JBrowse link
G Ccn2 cellular communication network factor 2 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in increased expression of CCN2 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr 1:21,851,657...21,854,773
Ensembl chr 1:21,851,660...21,854,773
JBrowse link
G Cdh1 cadherin 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in decreased expression of CDH1 protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr19:38,768,467...38,838,395
Ensembl chr19:38,768,467...38,838,395
JBrowse link
G Col1a1 collagen type I alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of COL1A1 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Sunitinib results in increased expression of COL1A1 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635, PMID:28973641 NCBI chr10:82,745,801...82,762,790
Ensembl chr10:82,745,801...82,762,789
JBrowse link
G Col2a1 collagen type II alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP [COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] affects the abundance of Carnitine; [geniposide co-treated with phellodendrine co-treated with magnoflorine co-treated with Chlorogenic Acid co-treated with crocin co-treated with Flavonoids co-treated with Berberine Alkaloids] inhibits the reaction [[COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in increased abundance of Carnitine]; Dexamethasone inhibits the reaction [[COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in increased abundance of Carnitine]; huang-lien-chieh-tu-tang inhibits the reaction [[COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in increased abundance of Carnitine] CTD PMID:24709313 NCBI chr 7:139,454,945...139,484,403
Ensembl chr 7:139,455,242...139,483,997
JBrowse link
G Cpt1a carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A multiple interactions EXP
ISO
valproyl-coenzyme A inhibits the reaction [CPT1A protein results in increased metabolism of Carnitine]
[Doxorubicin co-treated with Carnitine] results in increased expression of CPT1A mRNA; [Genistein co-treated with Carnitine] results in increased expression of CPT1A protein
CTD PMID:16283381, PMID:16362726, PMID:19854160 NCBI chr 1:218,568,157...218,629,679
Ensembl chr 1:218,569,510...218,629,678
JBrowse link
G Cpt2 carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 multiple interactions ISO Carnitine promotes the reaction [[Bezafibrate results in increased activity of CPT2 protein] which results in increased abundance of Adenosine Triphosphate] CTD PMID:21816645 NCBI chr 5:127,505,646...127,523,016
Ensembl chr 5:127,505,614...127,523,089
JBrowse link
G Cybb cytochrome b-245 beta chain multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of NOX2 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of NOX2 protein] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr  X:14,578,330...14,610,049
Ensembl chr  X:14,578,264...14,612,547
JBrowse link
G Cyp17a1 cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Atrazine results in decreased expression of CYP17A1 mRNA] CTD PMID:29710542 NCBI chr 1:266,422,127...266,429,947
Ensembl chr 1:266,422,132...266,428,239
JBrowse link
G Cyp2e1 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily e, polypeptide 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine promotes the reaction [Ethanol results in increased expression of CYP2E1 protein] CTD PMID:8130774 NCBI chr 1:213,511,892...213,522,195
Ensembl chr 1:213,511,874...213,535,542
JBrowse link
G Fabp3 fatty acid binding protein 3 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in decreased expression of FABP3 mRNA] CTD PMID:20470772 NCBI chr 5:148,528,854...148,535,597
Ensembl chr 5:148,528,725...148,535,565
JBrowse link
G Gpx1 glutathione peroxidase 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in decreased expression of GPX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:23213347 NCBI chr 8:117,117,430...117,118,528
Ensembl chr 8:117,117,430...117,118,522
JBrowse link
G Hrk harakiri, BCL2 interacting protein multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in increased expression of HRK mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Gentamicins results in increased expression of HRK protein] CTD PMID:16239342 NCBI chr12:44,008,879...44,029,211 JBrowse link
G Hspa2 heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 2 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium Chloride results in increased expression of HSPA2 protein] CTD PMID:22359436 NCBI chr 6:99,433,575...99,436,288
Ensembl chr 6:99,433,550...99,436,289
JBrowse link
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 multiple interactions
increases abundance
ISO Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Carnitine] CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:141,874,354...141,893,674
Ensembl chr 1:141,866,283...141,893,705
JBrowse link
G Il10 interleukin 10 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in decreased expression of IL10 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr13:47,738,933...47,743,392
Ensembl chr13:47,739,526...47,743,392
JBrowse link
G Il1b interleukin 1 beta multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of IL1B mRNA]]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of IL1B mRNA] CTD PMID:26562095, PMID:26581635 NCBI chr 3:121,876,256...121,882,637
Ensembl chr 3:121,876,263...121,882,726
JBrowse link
G Il6 interleukin 6 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of IL6 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
Ensembl chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
JBrowse link
G Lepr leptin receptor affects abundance ISO LEPR affects the abundance of Carnitine CTD PMID:20567778 NCBI chr 5:120,503,475...120,682,281
Ensembl chr 5:120,564,645...120,682,221
JBrowse link
G Mmp9 matrix metallopeptidase 9 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in decreased expression of MMP9 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr 3:161,413,410...161,421,473
Ensembl chr 3:161,413,298...161,421,520
JBrowse link
G Mpo myeloperoxidase multiple interactions
increases activity
EXP [Carboplatin co-treated with Carnitine deficiency] results in increased expression of MPO protein; Acetaminophen promotes the reaction [Carnitine deficiency results in increased activity of MPO protein] CTD PMID:18597074, PMID:18852009 NCBI chr10:75,087,892...75,098,260
Ensembl chr10:75,087,892...75,098,260
JBrowse link
G Mt-co1 mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [nickel chloride results in decreased expression of COX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21419151 NCBI chr MT:5,323...6,867
Ensembl chr MT:5,323...6,867
JBrowse link
G Mt-nd6 mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 6 multiple interactions ISO Carnitine inhibits the reaction [nickel chloride results in decreased expression of ND6 mRNA] CTD PMID:21419151 NCBI chr MT:13,543...14,061
Ensembl chr MT:13,543...14,061
JBrowse link
G Mttp microsomal triglyceride transfer protein multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Stavudine results in decreased expression of MTTP mRNA] CTD PMID:18299183 NCBI chr 2:243,366,181...243,407,608
Ensembl chr 2:243,366,181...243,407,608
JBrowse link
G Nos2 nitric oxide synthase 2 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Ifosfamide results in increased expression of NOS2 mRNA] CTD PMID:23213347 NCBI chr10:66,188,290...66,221,621
Ensembl chr10:66,189,786...66,313,190
JBrowse link
G Nos3 nitric oxide synthase 3 increases expression EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of NOS3 CTD PMID:20123095 NCBI chr 4:7,321,908...7,342,404
Ensembl chr 4:7,320,668...7,342,410
JBrowse link
G Ppara peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha multiple interactions
increases activity
EXP [pirinixic acid results in increased activity of PPARA protein] promotes the reaction [SLC22A21 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; PPARA protein promotes the reaction [Carnitine results in decreased susceptibility to Gentamicins]
Carnitine results in increased activity of PPARA protein
CTD PMID:19491382, PMID:19735737 NCBI chr 7:126,618,872...126,687,282
Ensembl chr 7:126,619,196...126,681,752
JBrowse link
G Pparg peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma increases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of PPARG protein
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [[Dietary Fats co-treated with Fructose] results in decreased expression of PPARG protein]
CTD PMID:30256492 NCBI chr 4:147,274,055...147,399,383
Ensembl chr 4:147,274,107...147,399,380
JBrowse link
G Ptgis prostaglandin I2 synthase increases expression
increases response to substance
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of PTGIS mRNA
PTGIS protein results in increased susceptibility to Carnitine
[Carnitine results in increased expression of PTGIS mRNA] which results in increased chemical synthesis of 6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha
CTD PMID:19491382 NCBI chr 3:163,950,746...163,986,129 JBrowse link
G Slc22a4 solute carrier family 22 member 4 increases uptake ISO SLC22A4 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine CTD PMID:21256917 NCBI chr10:39,334,972...39,373,508 JBrowse link
G Slc22a5 solute carrier family 22 member 5 multiple interactions
decreases expression
increases transport
increases uptake
increases expression
affects uptake
affects binding
ISO
EXP
[Doxorubicin co-treated with Carnitine] results in increased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA; Amiodarone inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Atorvastatin inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Betaine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of pivaloylcarnitine]; Choline inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Clozapine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; grepafloxacin affects the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Ipratropium inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Lidocaine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Nifedipine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Ofloxacin inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Olanzapine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine analog]; pivaloylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Propranolol inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Quetiapine Fumarate inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Spironolactone inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; talinolol inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; ziprasidone inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]
Carnitine results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA; Carnitine results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 protein
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Cyclophosphamide results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Cyclophosphamide results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 protein]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in decreased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Tetraethylammonium]; Dithioerythritol inhibits the reaction [Omeprazole inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]]; Ofloxacin inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]; Omeprazole inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Tetraethylammonium inhibits the reaction [SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine]
Carnitine deficiency results in increased expression of SLC22A5 mRNA
SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine; SLC22A5 protein results in increased uptake of Carnitine analog
SLC22A5 protein affects the uptake of Carnitine
Carnitine binds to SLC22A5 protein
CTD PMID:12644265, PMID:15486076, PMID:16283381, PMID:16928358, PMID:18762717, PMID:18981167, PMID:19041296, PMID:19539806, PMID:19735737, PMID:20303936, PMID:20470772, PMID:21256917, PMID:21641380, PMID:22701146, PMID:30465787, PMID:31437515 NCBI chr10:39,201,101...39,228,090
Ensembl chr10:39,201,107...39,323,853
JBrowse link
G Slc22a8 solute carrier family 22 member 8 increases transport ISO SLC22A8 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine CTD PMID:15100168 NCBI chr 1:224,799,444...224,818,482
Ensembl chr 1:224,800,252...224,818,482
JBrowse link
G Slc25a20 solute carrier family 25 member 20 multiple interactions
increases transport
EXP Ampicillin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide results in decreased activity of SLC25A20 protein]; Cefazolin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Cefonicid inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Cephalothin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine]; Piperacillin inhibits the reaction [SLC25A20 protein results in increased transport of Carnitine] CTD PMID:18452908, PMID:23402788 NCBI chr 8:117,455,308...117,476,762
Ensembl chr 8:117,455,262...117,476,734
JBrowse link
G Slc2a4 solute carrier family 2 member 4 increases expression
multiple interactions
EXP Carnitine results in increased expression of SLC2A4 protein
Carnitine inhibits the reaction [[Dietary Fats co-treated with Fructose] results in decreased expression of SLC2A4 protein]
CTD PMID:30256492 NCBI chr10:56,552,921...56,558,562
Ensembl chr10:56,552,983...56,558,487
JBrowse link
G Snai1 snail family transcriptional repressor 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of SNAI1 protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr 3:164,274,710...164,279,199
Ensembl chr 3:164,274,710...164,279,378
JBrowse link
G Srebf1 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Stavudine results in increased expression of SREBF1 mRNA] CTD PMID:18299183 NCBI chr10:46,570,996...46,593,021
Ensembl chr10:46,570,996...46,593,009
JBrowse link
G Tgfb1 transforming growth factor, beta 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of TGFB1 mRNA]]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of TGFB1 mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of TGFB1 mRNA] CTD PMID:26562095, PMID:26581635, PMID:28973641 NCBI chr 1:82,480,875...82,497,196
Ensembl chr 1:82,480,195...82,497,199
JBrowse link
G Timp1 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [sunitinib results in increased expression of TIMP1 mRNA] CTD PMID:26581635 NCBI chr  X:1,364,771...1,369,451
Ensembl chr  X:1,364,786...1,369,384
JBrowse link
G Tjp1 tight junction protein 1 multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in decreased expression of TJP1 protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr 1:126,146,489...126,515,359
Ensembl chr 1:126,146,489...126,227,469
JBrowse link
G Tnf tumor necrosis factor increases expression
multiple interactions
decreases expression
EXP Carnitine deficiency results in increased expression of TNF mRNA
[Carboplatin co-treated with Carnitine deficiency] results in increased expression of TNF protein; Acetaminophen promotes the reaction [Carnitine deficiency results in increased expression of TNF mRNA]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of TNF mRNA]]; Carnitine inhibits the reaction [Iohexol promotes the reaction [Glycerol results in increased expression of TNF protein]]
Carnitine results in decreased expression of TNF protein
CTD PMID:18597074, PMID:18629605, PMID:18852009, PMID:26562095 NCBI chr20:5,189,382...5,192,000
Ensembl chr20:5,189,390...5,192,000
JBrowse link
G Vim vimentin multiple interactions EXP Carnitine inhibits the reaction [perfluorooctane sulfonic acid results in increased expression of VIM protein] CTD PMID:28973641 NCBI chr17:80,882,715...80,891,200
Ensembl chr17:80,882,666...80,891,212
JBrowse link
O-acetyl-L-carnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Ache acetylcholinesterase multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Dexamethasone results in decreased activity of ACHE protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased activity of ACHE protein] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr12:22,472,358...22,477,052
Ensembl chr12:22,472,358...22,478,753
JBrowse link
G Apex1 apurinic/apyrimidinic endodeoxyribonuclease 1 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of APEX1 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr15:27,849,943...27,852,083
Ensembl chr15:27,849,979...27,852,082
JBrowse link
G Atp6v1f ATPase H+ transporting V1 subunit F increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of ATP6V1F mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 4:56,744,563...56,747,657
Ensembl chr 4:56,744,561...56,747,656
JBrowse link
G C1qa complement C1q A chain decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of C1QA mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 5:155,261,254...155,264,101
Ensembl chr 5:155,261,250...155,264,143
JBrowse link
G C4b complement C4B (Chido blood group) decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of C4B mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr20:4,302,344...4,316,752
Ensembl chr20:4,302,344...4,316,715
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased activity of CASP3 protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in increased expression of CASP3 mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779, PMID:29278859 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Casp9 caspase 9 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased activity of CASP9 protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 5:160,356,211...160,373,774
Ensembl chr 5:160,355,833...160,373,778
JBrowse link
G Cat catalase multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in decreased activity of CAT protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in decreased expression of CAT mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779, PMID:26349760, PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 3:93,379,872...93,412,058
Ensembl chr 3:93,379,874...93,412,058
JBrowse link
G Col2a1 collagen type II alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP [COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in decreased abundance of Acetylcarnitine CTD PMID:24709313 NCBI chr 7:139,454,945...139,484,403
Ensembl chr 7:139,455,242...139,483,997
JBrowse link
G Ctss cathepsin S decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of CTSS mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 2:197,655,780...197,679,768
Ensembl chr 2:197,655,786...197,679,458
JBrowse link
G Cxcl14 C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 14 decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of CXCL14 mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr17:9,109,731...9,117,754
Ensembl chr17:9,109,731...9,117,750
JBrowse link
G Egr1 early growth response 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in increased expression of EGR1 mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779 NCBI chr18:27,657,903...27,660,101
Ensembl chr18:27,657,628...27,661,429
JBrowse link
G Gfap glial fibrillary acidic protein decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of GFAP mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr10:90,990,762...90,999,435
Ensembl chr10:90,990,762...90,999,506
JBrowse link
G Gsr glutathione-disulfide reductase multiple interactions ISO Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Acetaminophen results in decreased expression of GSR protein] CTD PMID:26265018 NCBI chr16:62,197,617...62,239,987
Ensembl chr16:62,197,617...62,241,361
JBrowse link
G Gstp1 glutathione S-transferase pi 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in decreased expression of GSTP1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr 1:219,291,679...219,294,147
Ensembl chr 1:219,291,679...219,294,147
JBrowse link
G Hmox1 heme oxygenase 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of HMOX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr19:14,508,634...14,515,455
Ensembl chr19:14,508,616...14,515,456
JBrowse link
G Hmox2 heme oxygenase 2 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of HMOX2 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr10:10,990,034...11,035,493
Ensembl chr10:10,990,034...11,035,484
JBrowse link
G Hspb1 heat shock protein family B (small) member 1 decreases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of HSPB1 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr12:23,839,390...23,841,051
Ensembl chr12:23,839,399...23,841,049
JBrowse link
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 increases abundance
multiple interactions
ISO IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Acetylcarnitine
Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of Acetylcarnitine]
CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:141,874,354...141,893,674
Ensembl chr 1:141,866,283...141,893,705
JBrowse link
G Il1b interleukin 1 beta multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased expression of IL1B protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 3:121,876,256...121,882,637
Ensembl chr 3:121,876,263...121,882,726
JBrowse link
G Il6 interleukin 6 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased expression of IL6 protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
Ensembl chr 4:3,043,231...3,047,807
JBrowse link
G Mgst1 microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of MGST1 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 4:172,119,382...172,134,609
Ensembl chr 4:172,119,331...172,134,607
JBrowse link
G Mt-co1 mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Sodium Selenite results in decreased expression of COX1 mRNA] CTD PMID:20067779 NCBI chr MT:5,323...6,867
Ensembl chr MT:5,323...6,867
JBrowse link
G Ngf nerve growth factor multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cisplatin results in decreased expression of NGF protein] CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 2:204,886,158...204,939,523
Ensembl chr 2:204,886,202...204,940,453
JBrowse link
G Nos1 nitric oxide synthase 1 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of NOS1 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr12:44,214,949...44,405,530
Ensembl chr12:44,213,943...44,520,341
JBrowse link
G Nos2 nitric oxide synthase 2 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine affects the reaction [Dexamethasone results in increased expression of NOS2 mRNA] CTD PMID:21986892 NCBI chr10:66,188,290...66,221,621
Ensembl chr10:66,189,786...66,313,190
JBrowse link
G Pah phenylalanine hydroxylase decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of PAH mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 7:28,066,639...28,129,772
Ensembl chr 7:28,066,635...28,129,769
JBrowse link
G Pink1 PTEN induced kinase 1 multiple interactions ISO Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium results in increased expression of PINK1] CTD PMID:25464205 NCBI chr 5:156,677,146...156,689,258
Ensembl chr 5:156,677,146...156,689,415
JBrowse link
G Ppargc1a PPARG coactivator 1 alpha increases expression
multiple interactions
ISO Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of PPARGC1A protein
[Acetylcarnitine co-treated with Thioctic Acid] results in increased expression of PPARGC1A protein
CTD PMID:20414966 NCBI chr14:63,095,291...63,190,688
Ensembl chr14:63,095,720...63,187,009
JBrowse link
G Prkn parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase multiple interactions ISO Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cadmium results in increased expression of PRKN] CTD PMID:25464205 NCBI chr 1:48,880,015...50,069,998 JBrowse link
G Psmb6 proteasome 20S subunit beta 6 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of PSMB6 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr10:57,131,339...57,133,685
Ensembl chr10:57,131,386...57,133,637
JBrowse link
G Ptma prothymosin alpha increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of PTMA mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 9:93,545,396...93,549,436
Ensembl chr 9:93,545,396...93,549,436
JBrowse link
G Rela RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [sodium arsenite results in increased expression of RELA protein] CTD PMID:29278859 NCBI chr 1:220,992,770...221,003,249
Ensembl chr 1:220,992,770...221,003,249
JBrowse link
G Rps17 ribosomal protein S17 increases expression EXP Acetylcarnitine results in increased expression of RPS17 mRNA CTD PMID:14654561 NCBI chr 1:143,167,329...143,169,915
Ensembl chr 1:143,167,362...143,169,657
JBrowse link
G Skap2 src kinase associated phosphoprotein 2 decreases expression ISO Acetylcarnitine results in decreased expression of SKAP2 mRNA CTD PMID:19555370 NCBI chr 4:81,816,778...81,968,832
Ensembl chr 4:81,818,569...81,968,832
JBrowse link
G Slc25a20 solute carrier family 25 member 20 multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide results in decreased activity of SLC25A20 protein] CTD PMID:23402788 NCBI chr 8:117,455,308...117,476,762
Ensembl chr 8:117,455,262...117,476,734
JBrowse link
G Snca synuclein alpha multiple interactions ISO [Acetylcarnitine co-treated with Thioctic Acid] inhibits the reaction [Rotenone results in increased expression of SNCA protein]; Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Rotenone results in increased expression of SNCA protein] CTD PMID:20414966 NCBI chr 4:90,782,412...90,883,236
Ensembl chr 4:90,782,374...90,882,285
JBrowse link
G Tnni3 troponin I3, cardiac type multiple interactions EXP Acetylcarnitine inhibits the reaction [Cisplatin results in increased expression of TNNI3 protein] CTD PMID:21034734 NCBI chr 1:72,882,806...72,886,490
Ensembl chr 1:72,882,806...72,886,488
JBrowse link
O-butanoyl-L-carnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 multiple interactions
increases abundance
ISO Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of butyrylcarnitine] CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:141,874,354...141,893,674
Ensembl chr 1:141,866,283...141,893,705
JBrowse link
O-octanoylcarnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Crot carnitine O-octanoyltransferase increases chemical synthesis ISO CROT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of octanoylcarnitine CTD PMID:6838215 NCBI chr 4:22,079,837...22,116,265
Ensembl chr 4:22,081,604...22,116,265
JBrowse link
O-palmitoylcarnitine term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Col2a1 collagen type II alpha 1 chain multiple interactions EXP [COL2A1 protein co-treated with Freund's Adjuvant] results in decreased abundance of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:24709313 NCBI chr 7:139,454,945...139,484,403
Ensembl chr 7:139,455,242...139,483,997
JBrowse link
G Gls glutaminase increases chemical synthesis ISO GLS protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:31040181 NCBI chr 9:54,212,622...54,284,879
Ensembl chr 9:54,212,767...54,284,872
JBrowse link
G Ppp3r1 protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha decreases metabolic processing ISO PPP3R1 gene mutant form results in decreased metabolism of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:19700627 NCBI chr14:100,311,224...100,360,879
Ensembl chr14:100,311,173...100,360,879
JBrowse link
G Prkaa1 protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 1 increases chemical synthesis ISO PRKAA1 protein results in increased chemical synthesis of Palmitoylcarnitine CTD PMID:31040181 NCBI chr 2:54,857,688...54,893,404
Ensembl chr 2:54,857,688...54,893,404
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19816
    role 19764
      biological role 19764
        biochemical role 19313
          metabolite 19294
            butyrate 81
              carnitine 81
                (11Z)-eicoseneoylcarnitine 0
                (11Z,14Z)-eicosadienoylcarnitine 0
                (13Z,16Z)-docosadienoylcarnitine 0
                (2E)-7-carboxyhept-2-enoylcarnitine 0
                (2E)-octenoylcarnitine 0
                (2E,4Z)-decadienoylcarnitine 0
                (2E,5Z,7E)-decatrienoylcarnitine 0
                (5Z)-13-carboxytridec-5-enoylcarnitine 0
                (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosatetraenoylcarnitine 0
                (9Z)-3-hydroxydodecenoylcarnitine 0
                (9Z)-3-hydroxyoctadecenoylcarnitine 0
                (9Z,12Z,15Z)-3-hydroxyoctadecatrienoylcarnitine 0
                (R)-carnitine + 77
                (S)-carnitine + 0
                2-ethylacryloylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxy-cis-5-octenoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxyarachidonoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxydecanoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxydodecanoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxyeicosanoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxylinoleoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxyoctadecanoylcarnitine 0
                3-hydroxytetradecanoylcarnitine 0
                O-(11-carboxyundecanoyl)carnitine 0
                O-(13-carboxytridecanoyl)carnitine 0
                O-(17-carboxyheptadecanoyl)carnitine 0
                O-(4,8-dimethylnonanoyl)carnitine 0
                O-[(2E)-hexenedioyl]carnitine 0
                O-[(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosapentaenoyl]carnitine 0
                O-[(9Z)-17-carboxyheptadec-9-enoyl]carnitine 0
                O-acetyl-L-carnitine 38
                O-acylcarnitine + 42
                O-arachidonoylcarnitine 0
                O-behenoylcarnitine 0
                O-icosanoylcarnitine 0
                O-linoleoylcarnitine 0
                O-methylmalonylcarnitine 0
                O-palmitoleoylcarnitine 0
                O-pimeloylcarnitine 0
                O-sebacoylcarnitine 0
                O-succinylcarnitine 0
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19816
    subatomic particle 19814
      composite particle 19814
        hadron 19814
          baryon 19814
            nucleon 19814
              atomic nucleus 19814
                atom 19814
                  main group element atom 19702
                    main group molecular entity 19702
                      s-block molecular entity 19461
                        hydrogen molecular entity 19452
                          hydrides 18707
                            inorganic hydride 17430
                              pnictogen hydride 17402
                                nitrogen hydride 17243
                                  ammonium 8224
                                    ammonium ion derivative 8220
                                      quaternary ammonium ion 5086
                                        quaternary nitrogen compound 570
                                          ammonium betaine 285
                                            amino-acid betaine 191
                                              carnitine 81
                                                (11Z)-eicoseneoylcarnitine 0
                                                (11Z,14Z)-eicosadienoylcarnitine 0
                                                (13Z,16Z)-docosadienoylcarnitine 0
                                                (2E)-7-carboxyhept-2-enoylcarnitine 0
                                                (2E)-octenoylcarnitine 0
                                                (2E,4Z)-decadienoylcarnitine 0
                                                (2E,5Z,7E)-decatrienoylcarnitine 0
                                                (5Z)-13-carboxytridec-5-enoylcarnitine 0
                                                (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosatetraenoylcarnitine 0
                                                (9Z)-3-hydroxydodecenoylcarnitine 0
                                                (9Z)-3-hydroxyoctadecenoylcarnitine 0
                                                (9Z,12Z,15Z)-3-hydroxyoctadecatrienoylcarnitine 0
                                                (R)-carnitine + 77
                                                (S)-carnitine + 0
                                                2-ethylacryloylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxy-cis-5-octenoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxyarachidonoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxydecanoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxydodecanoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxyeicosanoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxyhexadecanoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxylinoleoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxyoctadecanoylcarnitine 0
                                                3-hydroxytetradecanoylcarnitine 0
                                                O-(11-carboxyundecanoyl)carnitine 0
                                                O-(13-carboxytridecanoyl)carnitine 0
                                                O-(17-carboxyheptadecanoyl)carnitine 0
                                                O-(4,8-dimethylnonanoyl)carnitine 0
                                                O-[(2E)-hexenedioyl]carnitine 0
                                                O-[(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosapentaenoyl]carnitine 0
                                                O-[(9Z)-17-carboxyheptadec-9-enoyl]carnitine 0
                                                O-acetyl-L-carnitine 38
                                                O-acylcarnitine + 42
                                                O-arachidonoylcarnitine 0
                                                O-behenoylcarnitine 0
                                                O-icosanoylcarnitine 0
                                                O-linoleoylcarnitine 0
                                                O-methylmalonylcarnitine 0
                                                O-palmitoleoylcarnitine 0
                                                O-pimeloylcarnitine 0
                                                O-sebacoylcarnitine 0
                                                O-succinylcarnitine 0
paths to the root

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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.