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CHEBI ONTOLOGY - ANNOTATIONS

The Chemical Entities of Biological Interest (ChEBI) ontology is downloaded weekly from EMBL-EBI at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/. The data is made available under the Creative Commons License (CC BY 3.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). For more information see: Degtyarenko et al. (2008) ChEBI: a database and ontology for chemical entities of biological interest. Nucleic Acids Res. 36, D344–D350.

Term:NAD(+)
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Accession:CHEBI:15846 term browser browse the term
Definition:The oxidised form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide found in all living cells. In metabolism, NAD(+) is involved in redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another.
Synonyms:exact_synonym: adenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoylpyridinio)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] dihydrogen diphosphate}
 related_synonym: DPN;   Diphosphopyridine nucleotide;   Formula=C21H28N7O14P2;   InChI=1S/C21H27N7O14P2/c22-17-12-19(25-7-24-17)28(8-26-12)21-16(32)14(30)11(41-21)6-39-44(36,37)42-43(34,35)38-5-10-13(29)15(31)20(40-10)27-3-1-2-9(4-27)18(23)33/h1-4,7-8,10-11,13-16,20-21,29-32H,5-6H2,(H5-,22,23,24,25,33,34,35,36,37)/p+1/t10-,11-,13-,14-,15-,16-,20-,21-/m1/s1;   InChIKey=BAWFJGJZGIEFAR-NNYOXOHSSA-O;   Nadide;   Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide;   SMILES=NC(=O)c1ccc[n+](c1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]2O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]2O)n2cnc3c(N)ncnc23)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O;   beta-NAD
 alt_id: CHEBI:13394;   CHEBI:21901;   CHEBI:7422
 xref: Beilstein:4120619;   CAS:53-84-9;   COMe:MOL000026;   DrugBank:DB01907;   ECMDB:ECMDB00902;   Gmelin:544242;   HMDB:HMDB0000902;   KEGG:C00003;   KEGG:D00002;   KNApSAcK:C00007256;   LINCS:LSM-4965
 xref_mesh: MESH:D009243
 xref: PDBeChem:NAJ;   Reaxys:3584133;   YMDB:YMDB00110
 cyclic_relationship: is_conjugate_acid_of CHEBI:44215;   is_conjugate_acid_of CHEBI:57540


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NAD(+) term browser
Symbol Object Name Qualifiers Evidence Notes Source PubMed Reference(s) RGD Reference(s) Position
G Acmsd aminocarboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase increases abundance EXP ACMSD protein results in increased abundance of NAD CTD PMID:17896587 NCBI chr13:44,424,689...44,468,734
Ensembl chr13:44,424,689...44,468,734
JBrowse link
G Akr1a1 aldo-keto reductase family 1 member A1 multiple interactions ISO NAD promotes the reaction [AKR1A1 protein affects the chemical synthesis of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dione]; NAD promotes the reaction [AKR1A1 protein affects the metabolism of and results in increased activity of benzo(a)pyrene 7,8-dihydrodiol] CTD PMID:15720144 NCBI chr 5:135,482,068...135,498,693
Ensembl chr 5:135,482,068...135,498,822
JBrowse link
G Akr1c2 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C2 multiple interactions ISO [AKR1C2 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol; dichloro(4-cymene)ruthenium(II) analog inhibits the reaction [[AKR1C2 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol]; dichloro(4-cymene)ruthenium(II) inhibits the reaction [[AKR1C2 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol]; Ruthenium Compounds analog inhibits the reaction [[AKR1C2 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol] CTD PMID:25446855 NCBI chr17:69,388,337...69,435,160
Ensembl chr17:69,388,335...69,404,341
JBrowse link
G Akr1c3 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3 multiple interactions ISO [AKR1C3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol; dichloro(4-cymene)ruthenium(II) analog inhibits the reaction [[AKR1C3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol]; dichloro(4-cymene)ruthenium(II) inhibits the reaction [[AKR1C3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol]; Ruthenium Compounds analog inhibits the reaction [[AKR1C3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of acenaphthene-1-ol] CTD PMID:25446855 NCBI chr17:69,761,126...69,778,021
Ensembl chr17:69,761,118...69,778,021
JBrowse link
G Akt1 AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 multiple interactions ISO 6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of AKT1 protein]]; [N-(oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride co-treated with NAD] inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of AKT1 protein]; NAD inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of AKT1 protein] CTD PMID:25536389 NCBI chr 6:137,218,398...137,239,970
Ensembl chr 6:137,218,376...137,236,258
JBrowse link
G Aldh1a1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 multiple interactions
increases activity
ISO [ALDH1A1 protein binds to NAD] which results in increased oxidation of propionaldehyde; [ALDH1A1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of aldophosphamide; [ALDH1A1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of propionaldehyde; [ALDH1A1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of Retinaldehyde; [NAD co-treated with propionaldehyde] inhibits the reaction [Acrolein results in decreased activity of ALDH1A1 protein]; ALDH1A1 protein binds to and results in increased reduction of NAD; NAD binds to and results in increased activity of ALDH1A1 protein; NAD inhibits the reaction [Acrolein binds to and results in decreased activity of ALDH1A1 protein]
NAD results in increased activity of ALDH1A1 protein
CTD PMID:10559215, PMID:10856427, PMID:21256123, PMID:22339434, PMID:25450233 NCBI chr 1:238,222,689...238,264,381
Ensembl chr 1:238,222,521...238,264,330
JBrowse link
G Aldh1b1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member B1 multiple interactions ISO [ALDH1B1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased metabolism of Acetaldehyde; [ALDH1B1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased metabolism of propionaldehyde CTD PMID:7779080 NCBI chr 5:61,382,351...61,387,359
Ensembl chr 5:61,382,351...61,387,358
JBrowse link
G Aldh2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family member multiple interactions
affects binding
affects abundance
ISO
EXP
[ALDH2 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of Retinaldehyde; NAD inhibits the reaction [Acrolein binds to and results in decreased activity of ALDH2 protein]
ALDH2 protein binds to NAD
NAD binds to ALDH2 protein
Magnesium affects the reaction [NAD binds to ALDH2 protein]
ALDH2 gene polymorphism affects the abundance of NAD; ALDH2 protein affects the abundance of NAD
CTD PMID:10559215, PMID:15629893, PMID:15900217, PMID:21276780, PMID:22339434, PMID:23295226 NCBI chr12:40,466,418...40,498,813
Ensembl chr12:40,466,495...40,498,752
JBrowse link
G Aldh3a1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1 multiple interactions
increases activity
ISO [ALDH3A1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of aldophosphamide; [ALDH3A1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased oxidation of benzaldehyde
NAD results in increased activity of ALDH3A1 protein
CTD PMID:10856427, PMID:21256123 NCBI chr10:47,490,168...47,499,855
Ensembl chr10:47,490,153...47,499,876
JBrowse link
G Aldh5a1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family, member A1 multiple interactions EXP NAD binds to and affects the activity of ALDH5A1 protein CTD PMID:18926807 NCBI chr17:42,133,076...42,159,413
Ensembl chr17:42,133,076...42,159,413
JBrowse link
G Arntl aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like decreases oxidation ISO ARNTL gene mutant form results in decreased oxidation of NAD CTD PMID:27056296 NCBI chr 1:178,039,002...178,137,469
Ensembl chr 1:178,039,063...178,137,465
JBrowse link
G Bax BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator decreases expression ISO NAD results in decreased expression of BAX protein CTD PMID:12390773 NCBI chr 1:101,451,801...101,457,207
Ensembl chr 1:101,451,802...101,457,207
JBrowse link
G Bcl2 BCL2, apoptosis regulator increases expression ISO NAD results in increased expression of BCL2 protein CTD PMID:12390773 NCBI chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
Ensembl chr13:26,605,426...26,769,374
JBrowse link
G Bcl2l1 Bcl2-like 1 multiple interactions ISO NAD inhibits the reaction [Acetaminophen results in decreased expression of BCL2L1 protein] CTD PMID:11461765 NCBI chr 3:148,259,594...148,314,191
Ensembl chr 3:148,259,596...148,313,810
JBrowse link
G Bdh1 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of BDH1 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr11:72,577,547...72,619,435
Ensembl chr11:72,578,533...72,614,176
JBrowse link
G Bdh2 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 2 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of BDH2 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 2:240,461,505...240,482,149
Ensembl chr 2:240,461,505...240,482,145
JBrowse link
G Casp3 caspase 3 multiple interactions ISO NAD inhibits the reaction [Antimycin A results in increased cleavage of CASP3 protein]; NAD inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in increased activity of CASP3 protein]; NAD inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide results in increased cleavage of CASP3 protein] CTD PMID:24040102, PMID:24491677 NCBI chr16:48,845,011...48,863,249
Ensembl chr16:48,845,012...48,863,204
JBrowse link
G Cat catalase multiple interactions ISO CAT protein inhibits the reaction [[2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of HRAS gene]; CAT protein inhibits the reaction [[2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of TP53 gene] CTD PMID:10334203 NCBI chr 3:93,379,872...93,412,058
Ensembl chr 3:93,379,874...93,412,058
JBrowse link
G Cbr4 carbonyl reductase 4 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of CBR4 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr16:31,944,328...31,972,553
Ensembl chr16:31,956,753...31,972,507
JBrowse link
G Cdkn1a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A multiple interactions EXP NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of CDKN1A protein]; SIRT1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of CDKN1A protein]] CTD PMID:22561310 NCBI chr20:6,348,422...6,358,864
Ensembl chr20:6,351,458...6,358,864
JBrowse link
G Cdkn1b cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B multiple interactions EXP NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of CDKN1B protein]; SIRT1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of CDKN1B protein]] CTD PMID:22561310 NCBI chr 4:168,689,043...168,694,159
Ensembl chr 4:168,689,163...168,693,964
JBrowse link
G Chrna9 cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 9 subunit multiple interactions ISO CHRNA9 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]] CTD PMID:29642561 NCBI chr14:43,883,450...43,890,171
Ensembl chr14:43,883,458...43,890,171
JBrowse link
G Csf2 colony stimulating factor 2 multiple interactions ISO [NAD results in increased abundance of Reactive Oxygen Species] which results in increased expression of CSF2 protein CTD PMID:11752025 NCBI chr10:39,602,089...39,604,070
Ensembl chr10:39,602,089...39,604,070
JBrowse link
G Cyb5b cytochrome b5 type B multiple interactions ISO [MTARC1 protein co-treated with CYB5B protein co-treated with CYB5R3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine; [MTARC2 protein co-treated with CYB5B protein co-treated with CYB5R3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine CTD PMID:25170804 NCBI chr19:39,357,814...39,391,680
Ensembl chr19:39,357,791...39,393,189
JBrowse link
G Cyb5r3 cytochrome b5 reductase 3 affects binding
multiple interactions
ISO CYB5R3 protein binds to NAD
[MTARC1 protein co-treated with CYB5B protein co-treated with CYB5R3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine; [MTARC2 protein co-treated with CYB5B protein co-treated with CYB5R3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine
CTD PMID:16469290, PMID:25170804 NCBI chr 7:124,024,003...124,041,564
Ensembl chr 7:124,023,995...124,041,594
JBrowse link
G Dcxr dicarbonyl and L-xylulose reductase multiple interactions ISO 1,2-naphthoquinone inhibits the reaction [[[DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of Diacetyl] which results in increased chemical synthesis of Acetoin]; 1,4-naphthoquinone inhibits the reaction [[[DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of Diacetyl] which results in increased chemical synthesis of Acetoin]; 9,10-phenanthrenequinone inhibits the reaction [[[DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of Diacetyl] which results in increased chemical synthesis of Acetoin]; [[DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of Diacetyl] which results in increased chemical synthesis of Acetoin; [DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased chemical synthesis of Acetoin; [DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of Diacetyl; [DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of Xylulose; Vitamin K 3 inhibits the reaction [[[DCXR protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of Diacetyl] which results in increased chemical synthesis of Acetoin] CTD PMID:28595002 NCBI chr10:109,906,119...109,909,696
Ensembl chr10:109,906,815...109,909,715
JBrowse link
G Dek DEK proto-oncogene increases oxidation ISO DEK protein results in increased oxidation of NAD CTD PMID:28558019 NCBI chr17:17,965,872...17,987,836
Ensembl chr17:17,965,881...17,987,834
JBrowse link
G Dhrs9 dehydrogenase/reductase 9 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of DHRS9 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 3:55,623,671...55,645,883
Ensembl chr 3:55,623,634...55,648,325
JBrowse link
G Enox2 ecto-NOX disulfide-thiol exchanger 2 multiple interactions ISO [epigallocatechin gallate results in decreased activity of ENOX2 protein] which results in increased abundance of NAD; [phenoxodiol results in decreased activity of ENOX2 protein] which results in increased abundance of NAD CTD PMID:20518072 NCBI chr  X:135,918,938...136,303,267
Ensembl chr  X:135,918,929...136,303,249
JBrowse link
G Ercc6 ERCC excision repair 6, chromatin remodeling factor multiple interactions
decreases abundance
increases ADP-ribosylation
increases metabolic processing
ISO ERCC6 gene mutant form promotes the reaction [N-(oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride results in increased abundance of NAD]; ERCC6 inhibits the reaction [NAD results in increased activity of PARP1 protein]
nicotinamide-beta-riboside inhibits the reaction [ERCC6 gene mutant form results in decreased abundance of NAD]
NAD results in increased ADP-ribosylation of ERCC6 protein
ERCC6 gene mutant form results in increased metabolism of NAD
CTD PMID:25440059 NCBI chr16:8,734,028...8,804,610
Ensembl chr16:8,734,035...8,804,610
JBrowse link
G Gale UDP-galactose-4-epimerase multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of GALE protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 5:154,310,453...154,314,959
Ensembl chr 5:154,310,453...154,314,955
JBrowse link
G Galnt1 polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 increases expression ISO NAD results in increased expression of GALNT1 mRNA CTD PMID:29935245 NCBI chr18:16,141,062...16,187,271
Ensembl chr18:16,146,447...16,185,496
JBrowse link
G Gapdh glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase multiple interactions ISO
EXP
[GAPDH protein co-treated with NAD co-treated with Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate co-treated with Glutathione] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenite analog; Adenosine Diphosphate inhibits the reaction [[GAPDH protein co-treated with NAD co-treated with Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate co-treated with Glutathione] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenite analog]; Adenosine Triphosphate inhibits the reaction [[GAPDH protein co-treated with NAD co-treated with Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate co-treated with Glutathione] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenite analog]; NAD analog inhibits the reaction [[GAPDH protein co-treated with NAD co-treated with Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate co-treated with Glutathione] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenite analog]; NADP inhibits the reaction [[GAPDH protein co-treated with NAD co-treated with Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate co-treated with Glutathione] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenite analog]
[GAPDH protein co-treated with 3-phosphoglycerate co-treated with NAD] results in increased chemical synthesis of sodium arsenite; [GAPDH protein co-treated with 3-phosphoglycerate co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenate analog; [GAPDH protein co-treated with fructose-1,6-diphosphate co-treated with NAD] results in increased chemical synthesis of sodium arsenite; [GAPDH protein co-treated with fructose-1,6-diphosphate co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenate analog; heptelidic acid inhibits the reaction [[GAPDH protein co-treated with 3-phosphoglycerate co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenate analog]; heptelidic acid inhibits the reaction [[GAPDH protein co-treated with fructose-1,6-diphosphate co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sodium arsenate analog]
CTD PMID:15788719 NCBI chr 4:157,676,336...157,680,322
Ensembl chr 4:157,676,595...157,679,962
JBrowse link
G Glb1 galactosidase, beta 1 multiple interactions EXP NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of GLB1 protein]; SIRT1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of GLB1 protein]] CTD PMID:22561310 NCBI chr 8:122,439,328...122,511,939
Ensembl chr 8:122,439,328...122,511,939
JBrowse link
G Gsk3b glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta increases abundance
multiple interactions
ISO GSK3B protein mutant form results in increased abundance of NAD metabolite
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of GSK3B protein]]; [N-(oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride co-treated with NAD] inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of GSK3B protein]; NAD inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of GSK3B protein]
CTD PMID:25246272, PMID:25536389 NCBI chr11:65,060,884...65,208,842
Ensembl chr11:65,066,235...65,209,268
JBrowse link
G Gsr glutathione-disulfide reductase multiple interactions ISO NAD inhibits the reaction [Doxorubicin results in decreased activity of GSR protein] CTD PMID:24491677 NCBI chr16:62,197,617...62,239,987
Ensembl chr16:62,197,617...62,241,361
JBrowse link
G Hadh hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase increases metabolic processing ISO HADH protein results in increased metabolism of NAD CTD PMID:10600649 NCBI chr 2:236,353,445...236,395,067
Ensembl chr 2:236,353,445...236,395,067
JBrowse link
G Hpgd 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase multiple interactions ISO [Celecoxib co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [Diclofenac co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [Dinoprostone co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [Fenoprofen co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [Indomethacin co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [Ketoprofen co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [Niflumic Acid co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [pioglitazone co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; [rosiglitazone co-treated with NAD] binds to HPGD protein; NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HPGD protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr16:37,457,134...37,495,758
Ensembl chr16:37,457,135...37,495,758
JBrowse link
G Hpse heparanase increases expression EXP NAD results in increased expression of HPSE mRNA; NAD results in increased expression of HPSE protein CTD PMID:19429930 NCBI chr14:10,534,358...10,576,686
Ensembl chr14:10,534,423...10,575,224
JBrowse link
G Hras HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase multiple interactions ISO [2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of HRAS gene; bathocuproine inhibits the reaction [[2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of HRAS gene]; CAT protein inhibits the reaction [[2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of HRAS gene] CTD PMID:10334203 NCBI chr 1:214,178,404...214,181,841
Ensembl chr 1:214,178,407...214,181,686
JBrowse link
G Hsd11b1 hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 1 multiple interactions ISO [Androstane-3,17-diol co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD11B1 protein; [Disulfiram co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD11B1 protein; [Estradiol co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD11B1 protein; [Quercetin co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD11B1 protein; [Testosterone co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD11B1 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr13:111,946,626...111,996,536
Ensembl chr13:111,926,442...111,972,603
JBrowse link
G Hsd11b2 hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 2 increases reduction
multiple interactions
EXP
ISO
HSD11B2 protein results in increased reduction of NAD
Ziram inhibits the reaction [HSD11B2 protein results in increased reduction of NAD]
CTD PMID:26859423 NCBI chr19:37,476,083...37,481,326
Ensembl chr19:37,476,095...37,481,307
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b10 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 10 multiple interactions ISO [20-hydroxycholesterol co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD17B10 protein; [Androstane-3,17-diol co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD17B10 protein; [cholest-5-en-3 beta,7 alpha-diol co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD17B10 protein; [Cholestanol co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD17B10 protein; [Pregnanolone co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD17B10 protein; [Progesterone co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD17B10 protein; NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD17B10 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr  X:21,696,796...21,699,241
Ensembl chr  X:21,696,772...21,699,241
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b11 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 11 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD17B11 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr14:7,054,724...7,104,567
Ensembl chr14:7,073,445...7,104,566
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b13 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 13 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD17B13 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr14:7,113,544...7,128,218
Ensembl chr14:7,113,544...7,128,218
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b14 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 14 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD17B14 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 1:101,541,266...101,551,059
Ensembl chr 1:101,541,266...101,551,059
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b2 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 2 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD17B2 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr19:50,246,404...50,317,892
Ensembl chr19:50,246,402...50,317,891
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b4 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD17B4 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr18:44,810,462...44,897,677
Ensembl chr18:44,810,388...44,897,640
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b6 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 6 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD17B6 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 7:2,412,370...2,431,249
Ensembl chr 7:2,412,363...2,431,197
Ensembl chr13:2,412,363...2,431,197
JBrowse link
G Hsd17b8 hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 8 multiple interactions ISO [Gossypol co-treated with NAD] binds to HSD17B8 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr20:3,817,212...3,819,316
Ensembl chr20:3,817,179...3,819,235
JBrowse link
G Hsd3b1 hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD3B1 protein CTD PMID:25526675
G Hsd3b2 hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 2 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD3B2 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 2:200,712,895...200,722,429
Ensembl chr 2:202,341,422...202,350,929
JBrowse link
G Hsd3b7 hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 7 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of HSD3B7 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 1:199,248,084...199,251,745
Ensembl chr 1:199,248,470...199,251,740
JBrowse link
G Idh2 isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP(+)) 2 increases abundance
multiple interactions
ISO IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of NAD; IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of NAD metabolite
Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of NAD metabolite]; Triazines inhibits the reaction [IDH2 protein mutant form results in increased abundance of NAD]
CTD PMID:27469509 NCBI chr 1:141,874,354...141,893,674
Ensembl chr 1:141,866,283...141,893,705
JBrowse link
G Il1b interleukin 1 beta multiple interactions ISO 2-chloro-N6-methyl-(N)-methanocarba-2'-deoxyadenosine-3',5'-bisphosphate inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; 6-(bromomethylene)tetrahydro-3-(1-naphthaleneyl)-2H-pyran-2-one inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; [NAD results in increased secretion of Biological Factors] inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]; arachidonyltrifluoromethane inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; Bungarotoxins inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; CHRNA9 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; conotoxin alpha-RgIA, Conus regius analog inhibits the reaction [[NAD results in increased secretion of Biological Factors] inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; conotoxin alpha-RgIA, Conus regius analog inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; Mecamylamine inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]; P2RY1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; P2RY11 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; PLA2G6 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]]; Strychnine inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]] CTD PMID:29642561 NCBI chr 3:121,876,256...121,882,637
Ensembl chr 3:121,876,263...121,882,726
JBrowse link
G Insr insulin receptor multiple interactions ISO 6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide inhibits the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of INSR protein]]; [N-(oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride co-treated with NAD] inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of INSR protein]; NAD inhibits the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased phosphorylation of INSR protein] CTD PMID:25536389 NCBI chr12:1,682,527...1,816,414
Ensembl chr12:1,680,957...1,816,414
JBrowse link
G Ldha lactate dehydrogenase A increases oxidation EXP LDHA protein results in increased oxidation of NAD CTD PMID:8632003 NCBI chr 1:102,900,288...102,909,713
Ensembl chr 1:102,900,286...102,909,707
JBrowse link
G LOC102552569 P2Y purinoceptor 11-like multiple interactions ISO P2RY11 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]] CTD PMID:29642561 NCBI chr 8:21,910,636...21,911,499 JBrowse link
G Mir34a microRNA 34a multiple interactions
decreases abundance
ISO [[MIR34A mRNA binds to NAMPT 3' UTR] which results in decreased expression of NAMPT mRNA] which results in decreased abundance of NAD; [MIR34A mRNA results in decreased abundance of NAD] which results in decreased activity of SIRT1 protein; MIR34A mRNA inhibits the reaction [NAMPT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD]; NAMPT protein affects the reaction [MIR34A mRNA results in decreased abundance of NAD]; Nicotinamide Mononucleotide inhibits the reaction [MIR34A mRNA inhibits the reaction [NAMPT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD]]; Nicotinamide Mononucleotide inhibits the reaction [MIR34A mRNA results in decreased abundance of NAD]; Resveratrol inhibits the reaction [MIR34A mRNA inhibits the reaction [NAMPT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD]]; Resveratrol inhibits the reaction [MIR34A mRNA results in decreased abundance of NAD] CTD PMID:23834033 NCBI chr 5:167,092,491...167,092,592
Ensembl chr 5:167,092,491...167,092,592
JBrowse link
G Mtarc1 mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 multiple interactions ISO [MTARC1 protein co-treated with CYB5B protein co-treated with CYB5R3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine; NAD affects the reaction [MTARC1 protein results in increased reduction of trimethyloxamine] CTD PMID:25170804, PMID:29856598 NCBI chr13:102,693,679...102,724,120
Ensembl chr13:102,698,546...102,721,218
JBrowse link
G Mtarc2 mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 2 multiple interactions ISO [MTARC2 protein co-treated with CYB5B protein co-treated with CYB5R3 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine CTD PMID:25170804 NCBI chr13:102,724,266...102,755,511
Ensembl chr13:102,724,348...102,756,174
JBrowse link
G Muc2 mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming increases expression ISO NAD results in increased expression of MUC2 mRNA CTD PMID:29935245 NCBI chr 1:214,663,929...214,693,197 JBrowse link
G Nadk NAD kinase increases phosphorylation ISO NADK protein results in increased phosphorylation of NAD CTD PMID:22954684 NCBI chr 5:172,984,930...173,015,505
Ensembl chr 5:172,986,291...173,015,494
JBrowse link
G Nadsyn1 NAD synthetase 1 multiple interactions ISO [NADSYN1 protein co-treated with Ammonium Chloride co-treated with nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide co-treated with Adenosine Triphosphate] results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD CTD PMID:12547821 NCBI chr 1:216,985,710...217,013,743
Ensembl chr 1:216,985,714...217,013,702
JBrowse link
G Nampt nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase increases chemical synthesis
multiple interactions
ISO NAMPT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD
[[MIR34A mRNA binds to NAMPT 3' UTR] which results in decreased expression of NAMPT mRNA] which results in decreased abundance of NAD; [N-(4-(1-benzoylpiperidin-4-yl)butyl)-3-(pyridin-3-yl)acrylamide results in decreased activity of NAMPT protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD; MIR34A mRNA inhibits the reaction [NAMPT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD]; NAMPT protein affects the reaction [MIR34A mRNA results in decreased abundance of NAD]; Nicotinamide Mononucleotide inhibits the reaction [MIR34A mRNA inhibits the reaction [NAMPT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD]]; resveratrol inhibits the reaction [MIR34A mRNA inhibits the reaction [NAMPT protein results in increased chemical synthesis of NAD]]
CTD PMID:23834033, PMID:25505128 NCBI chr 6:52,122,085...52,156,473
Ensembl chr 6:52,122,085...52,156,472
JBrowse link
G Ndufs4 NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit S4 affects abundance ISO NDUFS4 protein affects the abundance of NAD CTD PMID:21383081 NCBI chr 2:46,372,488...46,476,162
Ensembl chr 2:46,372,518...46,476,203
JBrowse link
G Nqo1 NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 increases oxidation
multiple interactions
EXP NQO1 protein results in increased oxidation of NAD
NAD promotes the reaction [NQO1 protein results in increased reduction of Vitamin K 3]
CTD PMID:27558805 NCBI chr19:38,422,210...38,437,103
Ensembl chr19:38,422,164...38,437,180
JBrowse link
G Nr1h3 nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 3 multiple interactions ISO [PARP1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased ADP-ribosylation of NR1H3 protein CTD PMID:27026705 NCBI chr 3:80,004,130...80,014,197
Ensembl chr 3:80,004,130...80,012,750
JBrowse link
G P2ry1 purinergic receptor P2Y1 multiple interactions ISO P2RY1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]] CTD PMID:29642561 NCBI chr 2:151,314,818...151,320,312
Ensembl chr 2:151,314,818...151,320,319
JBrowse link
G Parp1 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 multiple interactions
decreases abundance
affects abundance
ISO
EXP
[Hydrogen Peroxide results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD; [Methylnitronitrosoguanidine results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD; benzamide inhibits the reaction [[Hydrogen Peroxide results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD]; benzamide inhibits the reaction [[Methylnitronitrosoguanidine results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD]; Hydrolyzable Tannins inhibits the reaction [[Hydrogen Peroxide results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD]; Hydrolyzable Tannins inhibits the reaction [[Methylnitronitrosoguanidine results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD]
PARP1 protein results in decreased abundance of NAD
5-chloro-2-(3-(4-phenyl-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)propyl)-4(3H)-quinazolinone inhibits the reaction [PARP1 protein results in decreased abundance of NAD]
PARP1 protein mutant form affects the abundance of NAD
[2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD; [3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl results in increased activity of PARP1 protein] which results in decreased abundance of NAD; [3-aminobenzamide results in decreased activity of PARP1 protein] inhibits the reaction [Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin results in decreased abundance of NAD]; [benzamide results in decreased activity of PARP1 protein] inhibits the reaction [Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin results in decreased abundance of NAD]; [coumarin results in decreased activity of PARP1 protein] inhibits the reaction [Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin results in decreased abundance of NAD]; [NAD co-treated with Oleic Acid] results in increased activity of PARP1 protein; [PARP1 protein co-treated with NAD] results in increased ADP-ribosylation of NR1H3 protein; ERCC6 inhibits the reaction [NAD results in increased activity of PARP1 protein]; Hydrogen Peroxide affects the reaction [PARP1 protein mutant form affects the abundance of NAD]; N-(oxo-5,6-dihydrophenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylacetamide hydrochloride inhibits the reaction [[NAD co-treated with Oleic Acid] results in increased activity of PARP1 protein]; PARP1 protein promotes the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide results in decreased abundance of NAD]; veliparib inhibits the reaction [Hydrogen Peroxide affects the reaction [PARP1 protein mutant form affects the abundance of NAD]]; veliparib inhibits the reaction [PARP1 protein mutant form affects the abundance of NAD]
PARP1 protein affects the abundance of NAD
CTD PMID:11593040, PMID:15075382, PMID:15147502, PMID:17669606, PMID:19433264, PMID:25440059, PMID:25536389, PMID:27026705, PMID:27694308 NCBI chr13:98,857,255...98,889,444
Ensembl chr13:98,857,177...98,889,716
JBrowse link
G Pla2g6 phospholipase A2 group VI multiple interactions ISO PLA2G6 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyladenosine 5'-triphosphate results in increased secretion of IL1B protein]] CTD PMID:29642561 NCBI chr 7:120,519,479...120,559,716
Ensembl chr 7:120,519,467...120,559,347
JBrowse link
G Pparg peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma decreases activity
multiple interactions
EXP NAD results in decreased activity of PPARG protein
3-aminobenzamide inhibits the reaction [NAD results in decreased activity of PPARG protein]
CTD PMID:18815186 NCBI chr 4:147,274,055...147,399,383
Ensembl chr 4:147,274,107...147,399,380
JBrowse link
G Ppt1 palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 affects abundance ISO PPT1 gene mutant form affects the abundance of NAD CTD PMID:21224254 NCBI chr 5:140,538,260...140,558,163
Ensembl chr 5:140,538,260...140,558,162
JBrowse link
G Rdh10 retinol dehydrogenase 10 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of RDH10 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 5:2,605,265...2,631,905
Ensembl chr 5:2,603,505...2,632,030
JBrowse link
G Rdh16 retinol dehydrogenase 16 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of RDH16 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 7:71,058,150...71,072,685
Ensembl chr 7:70,980,422...71,072,689
JBrowse link
G Rdh5 retinol dehydrogenase 5 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of RDH5 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 7:3,335,681...3,342,573
Ensembl chr 7:3,335,742...3,342,491
JBrowse link
G Sdr16c5 short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C, member 5 affects activity
multiple interactions
ISO NAD affects the activity of SDR16C5 protein
NAD binds to and results in increased activity of SDR16C5 protein
CTD PMID:18926804, PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 5:16,904,926...16,930,111
Ensembl chr 5:16,904,926...16,930,075
JBrowse link
G Sdr9c7 short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 9C, member 7 multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of SDR9C7 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 7:71,152,366...71,169,510
Ensembl chr 7:71,157,664...71,170,511
JBrowse link
G Sirt1 sirtuin 1 multiple interactions
increases response to substance
increases activity
decreases abundance
ISO
EXP
6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide inhibits the reaction [NAD promotes the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased activity of SIRT1 protein]]; [Resveratrol results in increased abundance of NAD] which results in increased expression of SIRT1 protein; NAD promotes the reaction [Oleic Acid results in decreased activity of SIRT1 protein]
SIRT1 protein results in increased susceptibility to NAD
NAD results in increased activity of SIRT1 protein
[MIR34A mRNA results in decreased abundance of NAD] which results in decreased activity of SIRT1 protein
NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in decreased expression of SIRT1 protein]; Niacinamide inhibits the reaction [SIRT1 protein results in decreased abundance of NAD]; SIRT1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of CDKN1A protein]]; SIRT1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of CDKN1B protein]]; SIRT1 protein promotes the reaction [NAD inhibits the reaction [Glucose results in increased expression of GLB1 protein]]
CTD PMID:19288225, PMID:19928762, PMID:22561310, PMID:23834033, PMID:25536389 NCBI chr20:26,831,971...26,851,587
Ensembl chr20:26,833,357...26,852,199
JBrowse link
G Smpd2 sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 2 affects activity ISO NAD affects the activity of SMPD2 protein CTD PMID:20518072 NCBI chr20:46,212,070...46,215,183
Ensembl chr20:46,211,892...46,215,120
JBrowse link
G Sphk1 sphingosine kinase 1 decreases activity ISO NAD results in decreased activity of SPHK1 protein CTD PMID:20518072 NCBI chr10:105,498,728...105,504,401
Ensembl chr10:105,498,728...105,504,393
JBrowse link
G Taldo1 transaldolase 1 decreases abundance ISO TALDO1 gene mutant form results in decreased abundance of NAD CTD PMID:19436114 NCBI chr 1:214,375,555...214,385,886
Ensembl chr 1:214,375,515...214,385,885
JBrowse link
G Tgds TDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase multiple interactions ISO NAD binds to and results in increased activity of TGDS protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr15:103,319,268...103,340,239
Ensembl chr15:103,319,268...103,340,240
JBrowse link
G Tp53 tumor protein p53 multiple interactions
decreases expression
ISO [2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of TP53 gene; bathocuproine inhibits the reaction [[2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of TP53 gene]; CAT protein inhibits the reaction [[2-phenylphenol metabolite co-treated with NAD co-treated with Copper] results in increased mutagenesis of TP53 gene]
NAD promotes the reaction [Acetaminophen results in decreased expression of TRP53 protein]
NAD results in decreased expression of TP53 protein
CTD PMID:10334203, PMID:11461765, PMID:12390773 NCBI chr10:56,186,299...56,198,449
Ensembl chr10:56,187,020...56,198,449
JBrowse link
G Tyr tyrosinase multiple interactions
increases oxidation
ISO ethylenediamine inhibits the reaction [[TYR protein results in increased oxidation of caffeic acid phenethyl ester] which results in increased oxidation of NAD]; Glutathione inhibits the reaction [[TYR protein results in increased oxidation of caffeic acid phenethyl ester] which results in increased oxidation of NAD] CTD PMID:20685355 NCBI chr 1:151,012,598...151,106,802
Ensembl chr 1:151,012,598...151,106,802
JBrowse link
G Uxs1 UDP-glucuronate decarboxylase 1 multiple interactions ISO [thymidine 5'-diphosphate co-treated with NAD] binds to UXS1 protein; [Uridine Diphosphate Galactose co-treated with NAD] binds to UXS1 protein; [Uridine Diphosphate Glucose co-treated with NAD] binds to UXS1 protein; [Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronic Acid co-treated with NAD] binds to UXS1 protein CTD PMID:25526675 NCBI chr 9:11,165,006...11,240,329
Ensembl chr 9:11,164,715...11,339,790
JBrowse link

Term paths to the root
Path 1
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19816
    role 19764
      biological role 19764
        biochemical role 19313
          cofactor 15548
            NAD(+) 86
Path 2
Term Annotations click to browse term
  CHEBI ontology 19816
    subatomic particle 19814
      composite particle 19814
        hadron 19814
          baryon 19814
            nucleon 19814
              atomic nucleus 19814
                atom 19814
                  main group element atom 19702
                    p-block element atom 19702
                      chalcogen 19399
                        oxygen atom 19361
                          oxygen molecular entity 19361
                            hydroxides 19107
                              oxoacid 18241
                                pnictogen oxoacid 10179
                                  phosphorus oxoacid 9071
                                    phosphoric acids 7830
                                      phosphoric acid 7830
                                        phosphoric acid derivative 7511
                                          phosphate 7511
                                            organic phosphate 7510
                                              nucleoside phosphate 1532
                                                nucleotide 1529
                                                  pyridine nucleotide 197
                                                    nicotinamide nucleotide 197
                                                      nicotinamide dinucleotide 184
                                                        NAD(P) 184
                                                          NAD 86
                                                            NAD(+) 86
paths to the root

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RGD is funded by grant HL64541 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute on behalf of the NIH.