Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
The main characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are mucus hypersecretion, airway inflammation and obstruction.
Sulfur Dioxide induced bronchitis: Sulphur dioxide causes dose dependent changes in breathing parameters. A change in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and neutrophilic inflammation was noticed. (REF RGD ID: 5132898).
Porcine pancreatic elastase induced inflammation: PPE induces acute airway inflammation that is followed by emphysema like changes in the lung functions. An increase in the lung neutrophils, lymphomononuclear cells, mucus production and inflammatory cytokines in observed. As the inflammation is temporarily associated with nuclear factor-kappa B pathway activation the treatment with glucocorticoid was ineffective. (REF RGD ID: 5133259).
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cigarette smoking (CS) induced COPD: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cigarette smoking (CS) can induce airflow limitations that are poorly reversible. Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor Zl-n-91 is able to decrease inflammation and helps in lung functioning. (REF RGD ID: 5133411).
Smoke from solid combustibles induces COPD: This results in emphysematous parenchyma lesions that limit the chronic airflow.(REF RGD ID: 5133421).