09/26/2016 - RGD publishes a new diagram page for the nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (NFe2l2, known as Nrf2) signaling pathway, an mTOR signaling pathway comprehensive update and an updated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT signaling pathway

Nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 signaling pathway


The nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 (Nfe2l2, known as Nrf2) signaling pathway is one of the most important regulators of antioxidant and electrophilic stress responses. Under unstressed conditions, Nfe2l2 is sequestered in the cytoplasm by the ubiquitin E3 ligase adaptor for Cullin 3, Keap1. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and electrophiles inhibit the activity of cysteine-rich Keap1, leading to the nuclear accumulation of Nfe2l2. While the redox sensor Keap1 is a major regulator of Nfe2l2, beta-transducin repeat containing protein (Btrc) - the ubiquitin E3 ligase adaptor for Cullin 1, provides another regulatory axis. Click here to examine the details of this complex and important stress response system.
Comprehensive Update
mTOR signaling pathway


Updated
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway


The mTOR signaling pathway responds to and integrates a range of environmental cues and is known for its role in the control of protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, autophagy, cytoskeleton, and metabolism. The highly conserved Ser/Thr mTOR kinase is found in two distinct complexes: the rapamycin-sensitive mTORC1 and the largely rapamycin-insensitive mTORC2. Click here to explore this complex system. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway plays a crucial role in many cellular processes. The PI3K generally referenced is the class IA lipid kinase largely responding to activated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and employing the AKT (PKB) kinases as downstream mediators. Click here to learn about this important intracellular signaling system.