In the central nervous system, excitatory synaptic transmission is mediated by the neurotransmitter glutamate and its receptors. Interestingly, stimulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) can either enhance or depress synaptic transmission at CA1 hippocampal synapses. Here we report that co-activation of mGluR5, a member of the group I mGluR family, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) potentiates NMDAR currents and induces a long lasting enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Unexpectedly, activation of mGluR5 alone fails to enhance evoked NMDAR currents and synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) AMPAR currents. The observed potentiation requires an mGluR5-induced, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, which acts in concert with a protein kinase C, calcium-activated tyrosine kinase cascade to induce a long lasting enhancement of NMDAR and AMPAR currents.