Native supramolecular assemblies containing collagen VI microfibrils and associated extracellular matrix proteins were isolated from Swarm rat chondrosarcoma tissue. Their composition and spatial organization were characterized by electron microscopy and immunological detection of molecular constituents. The small leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteoglycans biglycan and decorin were bound to the N-terminal region of collagen VI. Chondroadherin, another member of the LRR family, was identified both at the N and C termini of collagen VI. Matrilin-1, -3, and -4 were found in complexes with biglycan or decorin at the N terminus. The interactions between collagen VI, biglycan, decorin, and matrilin-1 were studied in detail and revealed a biglycan/matrilin-1 or decorin/matrilin-1 complex acting as a linkage between collagen VI microfibrils and aggrecan or alternatively collagen II. The complexes between matrilin-1 and biglycan or decorin were also reconstituted in vitro. Colocalization of collagen VI and the different ligands in the pericellular matrix of cultured chondrosarcoma cells supported the physiological relevance of the observed interactions in matrix assembly.