Chromosomal mapping of genes controlling development, histological grade, depth of invasion, and size of rat stomach carcinomas.

Authors: Ushijima, T  Yamamoto, M  Suzui, M  Kuramoto, T  Yoshida, Y  Nomoto, T  Tatematsu, M  Sugimura, T  Nagao, M 
Citation: Ushijima T, etal., Cancer Res 2000 Feb 15;60(4):1092-6.
Pubmed: (View Article at PubMed) PMID:10706129

Rat stomach cancers induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) are widely used as a model of differentiated-type human stomach cancers. ACI/N (ACT) rats are susceptible and BUF/Nac (BUF) rats are resistant to MNNG-induced stomach carcinogenesis, and the presence of an autosomal gene with a dominant BUF allele has been suggested. In this study, we performed a carcinogenicity test by giving MNNG in drinking water to 117 male ACI x (ACIxBUF)F1 backcross rats. Each of 100 effective rats was diagnosed for its "carcinoma development" and when it was bearing stomach carcinoma(s), for histological grade, depth of invasion, and size and number of tumors. Carcinoma development was diagnosed based both on the age of the rat and on the presence of stomach carcinoma(s). Linkage analysis was performed with the genotypes of 161 loci, covering 1637 cM of the rat genome. Contrary to our original expectations, the most influential gene was the one on chromosome (chr.) 15, Gastric cancer susceptibility gene 1 (Gcs1), which confers susceptibility to stomach carcinogenesis (LOD, 3.8) with a dominant BUF allele by promoting conversion from adenomas to carcinomas. Two resistance genes on chr. 4 and chr. 3, Gastric cancer resistance gene 1 (Gcr1) and Gcr2, were shown to confer dominant resistance (LOD, 2.7 and 2.6, respectively). Gcs1, Gcr1, and Gcr2 exerted additive effects on the development of stomach carcinomas. A gene on chr. 16, Gcr3, was indicated to reduce the depth of invasion (LOD, 2.2) and sizes of tumors (LOD, 1.9). No linkage was obtained using the number of tumors. These findings show that the coordinate effect of a susceptibility gene, Gcs1, and two resistance genes, Gcr1 and Gcr2, is responsible for the development of MNNG-induced stomach carcinomas and that Gcr3 is responsible for the growth of a stomach carcinoma, reflected in the depth of invasion and in the tumor size.

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Created: 2001-12-20
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