Many Ca(2+)-regulated intracellular processes are involved in the development of neuroinflammation. However, the changes of Ca(2+) signaling in the brain under inflammatory conditions were hardly studied. ATP-induced Ca(2+) signaling is a central event of signal transmission in astrocytic networks. We investigated primary astrocytes after proinflammatory stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 ng/ml) for 6-24 h. We reveal that Ca(2+) responses to purinergic ATP stimulation are significantly increased in amplitude and duration after stimulation with LPS. We detected that increased amplitudes of Ca(2+) responses to ATP in LPS-treated astrocytes can be explained by substantial increase of Ca(2+) load in stores in endoplasmic reticulum. The mechanism implies enhanced Ca(2+) store refilling due to the amplification of capacitative Ca(2+) entry. The reason for the increased duration of Ca(2+) responses in LPS-treated cells is also the amplified capacitative Ca(2+) entry. Next, we established that the molecular mechanism for the LPS-induced amplification of Ca(2+) responses in astrocytes is increased expression and activity of VIA phospholipase A(2) (VIA iPLA(2)). Indeed, both gene silencing with specific small interfering RNA and pharmacological inhibition of VIA iPLA(2) with S-bromoenol lactone reduced the load of the Ca(2+) stores and caused a decrease in the amplitudes of Ca(2+) responses in LPS-treated astrocytes to values, which were comparable with those in untreated cells. Our findings highlight a novel regulatory role of VIA iPLA(2) in development of inflammation in brain. We suggest that this enzyme might be a possible target for treatment of pathologies related to brain inflammation.