OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the human central nervous system. In the present study, we aimed to determine adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12p70, and IL-13 levels in the sera of patients with MS and to investigate the effects of interferon (IFN), glatiramer acetate (GA), and immunosuppressive treatment regimens on these parameters. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with MS and 34 healthy controls were enrolled into the study. Serum cytokine levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: Significantly elevated levels of IL-12p70 and IL-13 were found in the sera of patients with MS, but decreased adiponectin levels were found in patients' sera compared to healthy controls. The levels of IL-12p70 and IL-13 in the IFN therapy group were higher than those of the healthy controls. However, the IL-12p70 and IL-13 levels in the GA therapy group were not different from those of the healthy controls. There were no differences with regard to adiponectin levels among the subgroups of patients with MS according to therapy regimen and the healthy controls. At the end of a 2-year follow-up period, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) values were found to be increased in the IFN therapy group but unchanged in the GA therapy group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that adiponectin, IL-12p70, and IL-13 may play a role in the pathogenesis of MS. Additionally, GA therapy regimens in MS are more effective than IFN therapy with respect to decreasing the levels of IL-12p70 and IL-13 and stabilizing the EDSS value.