We aimed to identify disease-related biomarkers in CIDP. Using the two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2-D-DIGE), we compared CSF from patients with CIDP (n = 11) and controls (n = 11). Protein spots that showed a significant difference were further analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We identified 10 proteins that were upregulated in CIDP (two transferrin isoforms, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein 1 precursor, apolipoprotein A IV, two haptoglobin isoforms, transthyretin (TTR), retinol binding protein and two isoforms of proapolipoprotein) and 1 protein that was downregulated (integrin beta 8). The pathophysiological role of these proteins remains to be clarified by further studies.