To evaluate preventive and therapeutic effects of soy protein on collagen-induced arthritis rats. Sprague-Dawley rats immunized with bovine type II collagen emulsified in adjuvant and treated with soy protein (7 g/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), and casein (in control groups) by daily gavages feedings for 30 days. Score of arthritis recorded every day for each paws of animal. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin6, leptin, and adiponectin were measured in serums. Treatment with soy protein resulted in significant delay in time to onset of arthritis as well as significantly decreased arthritis incidence, clinical arthritis severity score, histopathological arthritis severity score, and in vivo cell-mediated immunity to collagen (P < 0.05). Administration of soy protein significantly suppressed the progression of collagen II-induced arthritis and inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin6, leptin, and adiponectin. Soy protein appeared to be a potent immunomodulatory inhibitor of collagen II-induced arthritis in rats. It could delay onset of RA and reduced cartilage erosion and synovitis inflammation. Therefore, it may be a useful protein in the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis patient.