The diagnosis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is challenging due to its low frequency and the overlap with other acquired childhood demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. To identify potential protein biomarkers which could facilitate the diagnosis, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) in combination with mass spectrometry to identify proteins associated with pediatric MS. Plasma samples from nine children with MS and nine healthy subjects, matched in aggregate by age and gender, were analyzed for differences in their patterns of protein expression. We found 12 proteins that were significantly up regulated in the pediatric MS group: alpha-1-acid-glycoprotein 1, alpha-1-B-glycoprotein, transthyretin, apoliprotein-C-III, serum amyloid P component, complement factor-I, clusterin, gelsolin, hemopexin, kininogen-1, hCG1993037-isoform, and vitamin D-binding protein. These results show that 2-DE in combination with mass spectrometry is a highly sensitive technique for the identification of blood-based biomarkers. This proteomic approach could lead to a new panel of diagnostic and prognostic markers in pediatric MS.