Many studies have shown the implication of CD14 and toll-like receptors (TLRs) 2, 4 and 9 in the pathogenesis of asthma or atopy. To evaluate the association of CD14 and TLRs gene polymorphisms with asthma or atopy, 210 asthmatic children, 224 controls and 80 families were enrolled in this study. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms TLR2 (+2408 G-->A), TLR4 (+1196 C-->T), TLR4 (+896 A-->G), TLR9 (-1237 T-->C), TLR9 (-1486 T-->C) and CD14 (-159 C-->T) were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in the case-control and family study. The -1237C allele in TLR9 gene polymorphisms was associated with increased risk of asthma [odds ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval (1.03-2.27)], although no statistically significant differences in allele or genotype frequencies of four other TLRs polymorphisms were evident between the asthmatic and control groups. The CD14 -159 C allele was found to be significantly higher in the asthmatic group when compared with controls (P=0.0006<0.05). Transmission disequilibrium test of 80 asthmatic families showed significant transmission of the -159 C allele in the CD14 gene to asthma-affected offspring. It was concluded that TLR9 and CD14 gene polymorphisms may contribute to an inherited predisposition to asthma in Tunisian children.