Pulmonary surfactant protein A augments the phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages through a casein kinase 2-dependent increase of cell surface localization of scavenger receptor A.
Kuronuma, K Sano, H Kato, K Kudo, K Hyakushima, N Yokota, S Takahashi, H Fujii, N Suzuki, H Kodama, T Abe, S Kuroki, Y
Kuronuma K, etal., J Biol Chem. 2004 May 14;279(20):21421-30. Epub 2004 Mar 1.
Pulmonary surfactant proteins A (SP-A) and D (SP-D), members of the collectin family, play important roles in the innate immune system of the lung. Here, we show that SP-A but not SP-D augmented phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages, independent of its binding to the bacteria. Analysis of the SP-A/SP-D chimeras, in which progressively longer carboxyl-terminal regions of SP-A were replaced with the corresponding SP-D regions, has revealed that the SP-D region Gly(346)-Phe(355) can be substituted for the SP-A region Leu(219)-Phe(228) without altering the SP-A activity of enhancing the phagocytosis and that the SP-A region Cys(204)-Cys(218) is required for the SP-A-mediated phagocytosis. Acetylated low density lipoprotein significantly reduced the SP-A-stimulated uptake of the bacteria. SP-A failed to enhance the phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages derived from scavenger receptor A (SR-A)-deficient mice, demonstrating that SP-A augments SRA-mediated phagocytosis. Preincubation of macrophages with SP-A at 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C stimulated the phagocytosis. The SP-A-mediated enhanced phagocytosis was not inhibited by the presence of cycloheximide. SP-A increased cell surface localization of SR-A that was inhibitable by apigenin, a casein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor. SP-A-treated macrophages exhibited significantly greater binding of acetylated low density lipoprotein than nontreated cells. The SP-A-stimulated phagocytosis was also abolished by apigenin. In addition, SP-A stimulated CK2 activity. These results demonstrate that SP-A enhances the phagocytosis of S. pneumoniae by alveolar macrophages through a CK2-dependent increase of cell surface SR-A localization. This study reveals a novel mechanism of bacterial clearance by alveolar macrophages.