The liver isoform of fatty-acid-binding protein (L-FABP) facilitates the cellular uptake, transport and metabolism of fatty acids and is also involved in the regulation of gene expressions and cell differentiation. Consistent with these functions, L-FABP is predominantly present in the cytoplasm and to a lesser extent in the nucleus; however, a significant portion of this protein has also been detected in fractions containing different organelles. More recent observations, notably on L-FABP-deficient mice, indicated a possible direct involvement of L-FABP in the peroxisomal oxidation of long-chain fatty acids. In order to clarify the links between L-FABP and peroxisomal lipid metabolism, we reinvestigated the subcellular distribution of the protein. Analytical subcellular fractionation by a method preserving the intactness of isolated peroxisomes, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with MS analysis, and immunoelectron microscopy of liver sections demonstrate the presence of L-FABP in the matrix of peroxisomes as a soluble protein. Peroxisomal L-FABP was highly inducible by clofibrate. The induction of L-FABP was accompanied by a marked increase in the binding capacity of peroxisomal matrix proteins for oleic acid and cis-parinaric acid. The peroxisomal beta-oxidation of palmitoyl-CoA and acyl-CoA thioesterase activity were stimulated by L-FABP, indicating that the protein modulates the function of peroxisomal lipid-metabolizing enzymes. The possible role of intraperoxisomal L-FABP in lipid metabolism is discussed.